John Wiley & Sons Electricity Production from Renewable Energies Cover Since the early 2000s, energy and environmental issues have led to a marked increase in electricity .. Product #: 978-1-78630-661-6 Regular price: $142.06 $142.06 Auf Lager

Electricity Production from Renewable Energies

Robyns, Benoît / Davigny, Arnaud / François, Bruno / Henneton, Antoine / Sprooten, Jonathan (Herausgeber)

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2. Auflage November 2021
384 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-78630-661-6
John Wiley & Sons

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Since the early 2000s, energy and environmental issues have led to a marked increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources. Sustainable development and concern for future generations constantly challenge us to develop new technologies for energy production, as well as new energy usage patterns. Their rapid emergence can make these new technologies difficult to understand and can thus affect perceptions.

Directed towards a broad audience, this book contributes to a better understanding of new electricity generation technologies. It presents the issues, sources and means of conversion using a general approach, while developing scientific concepts to understand their main technical characteristics.

This revised and extended second edition presents current data characterizing the development of these renewable energy sources, covering emerging photovoltaic and tidal technologies, offshore wind power, and recent developments on the integration of these sources into the electricity grid. The emergence of self-production and self-consumption is also addressed. In addition, several exercises provide the reader with an opportunity to evaluate their understanding.

Foreword xi
Bernard MULTON

Introduction xiii
Benoît ROBYNS

Chapter 1. Electricity Production from Renewable Energy 1
Benoît ROBYNS

1.1. Decentralized or centralized production? 1

1.1.1. Decentralized production 1

1.1.2. Centralized production 2

1.2. The issue of renewable energies 3

1.2.1. Observations 3

1.2.2. The sustainable development context 6

1.2.3. Commitments and perspectives 7

1.3. Renewable energy sources 10

1.3.1. Wind energy 10

1.3.2. Solar energy 11

1.3.3. Hydraulics 12

1.3.4. Geothermal energy 13

1.3.5. Biomass 13

1.3.6. Contribution of the various renewable energies 14

1.4. Production of electricity from renewable energies 15

1.4.1. Electricity supply chains 15

1.4.2. Efficiency factor 18

1.5. Self-production and self-consumption of energy 19

1.6. References 20

Chapter 2. Solar Photovoltaic Power 21
Arnaud DAVIGNY

2.1. Introduction 21

2.2. Characteristics of the primary resource 23

2.3. Photovoltaic conversion 29

2.3.1. Introduction 29

2.3.2. Photovoltaic effect 29

2.3.3. Photovoltaic cells 32

2.3.4. Cell association 56

2.4. Maximum electric power extraction 62

2.5. Power converters 66

2.5.1. Introduction 66

2.5.2. Structure of the photovoltaic conversion chains 67

2.5.3. Choppers 69

2.5.4. Inverters 73

2.6. Adjustment of the active and reactive power 78

2.7. Solar power stations 79

2.7.1. Introduction 79

2.7.2. Autonomous power stations 79

2.7.3. Power stations connected to the network 81

2.8. Exercises 84

2.8.1. Characteristics of a photovoltaic panel 84

2.8.2. Sizing an autonomous photovoltaic installation 86

2.9. References 89

Chapter 3. Wind Power 93
Bruno FRANÇOIS and Benoît ROBYNS

3.1. Characteristic of the primary resource 93

3.1.1. Variability 93

3.1.2. The Weibull distribution 94

3.1.3. The effect of relief 97

3.1.4. Loading rate 98

3.1.5. Compass card 99

3.2. Kinetic wind energy 100

3.3. Wind turbines 102

3.3.1. Horizontal axis wind turbines 102

3.3.2. Vertical axis wind turbines 109

3.3.3. Comparison of the various turbine types 113

3.4. Power limitation by varying the power coefficient 114

3.4.1. The "pitch" or variable pitch angle system 114

3.4.2. The "stall" or aerodynamic stall system 116

3.5. Mechanical couplings between the turbine and the electric generator 117

3.5.1. Connection between mechanical speed, synchronous speed and electrical network frequency 117

3.5.2. "Direct drive" wind turbines (without a multiplier) 119

3.5.3. Use of a speed multiplier 119

3.6. Generalities on induction and mechanical electric conversion 120

3.7. "Fixed speed" wind turbines based on induction machines 122

3.7.1. Physical principle 122

3.7.2. Constitution of induction machines 123

3.7.3. Modeling 124

3.7.4. Conversion system 128

3.7.5. Operational characteristics 130

3.8. Variable speed wind turbine 131

3.8.1. Issues 131

3.8.2. Classification of the structures according to machine technologies 132

3.8.3. Principle of element sizing 135

3.8.4. Adjustment of active and reactive powers 136

3.8.5. Aerogenerators based on a doubly-fed induction machine 141

3.8.6. Aerogenerators based on a synchronous machine 147

3.9. Offshore wind turbines 154

3.9.1. Advantages of offshore wind 154

3.9.2. Types of offshore wind turbines 156

3.10. Wind farms 158

3.10.1. Architecture 158

3.10.2. Abundance 160

3.11. Exercises 161

3.11.1. Fixed speed wind turbines 161

3.11.2. Characterization of a turbine and estimate of the generated power 163

3.11.3. High power variable speed wind turbines 168

3.12. References 170

Chapter 4. Terrestrial and Marine Hydroelectricity 173
Benoît ROBYNS and Antoine HENNETON

4.1. Run-of-the-river hydraulics 173

4.1.1. Hydroelectricity 173

4.1.2. Small hydraulics 176

4.1.3. Hydraulic turbines 178

4.1.4. Electromechanical conversion for small hydroelectricity 185

4.1.5. Exercise: small hydroelectric run-of-the-river power station 187

4.2. Hydraulic power of the sea 202

4.2.1. Wave power 202

4.2.2. Energy of the continuous ocean currents 207

4.2.3. Tidal energy 209

4.2.4. Wave production, wave-power generator 215

4.2.5. Production by sea currents 238

4.2.6. Tidal production 251

4.2.7. Exercise: estimation of the production of a simple effect tidal power 265

4.3. References 266

Chapter 5. Thermal Power Generation 273
Jonathan SPROOTEN

5.1. Introduction 273

5.2. Geothermal power 273

5.2.1. Introduction 273

5.2.2. The resource 274

5.2.3. Fluid characteristics 275

5.2.4. The principle of geothermal power plants 277

5.2.5. Thermodynamic conversion 279

5.2.6. Steam turbine 284

5.2.7. The alternator 286

5.3. Thermodynamic solar power generation 292

5.3.1. Introduction 292

5.3.2. The principle of concentration 292

5.3.3. Cylindro-parabolic design 297

5.3.4. The solar tower 300

5.3.5. Parabolic dish design 301

5.3.6. Comparison of solar thermodynamic generations 303

5.4. Cogeneration by biomass 304

5.4.1. Origin of biomass - energy interests 304

5.4.2. Cogeneration principle 305

5.5. References 307

Chapter 6. Integration of Decentralized Production into the Electrical Network 309
Benoît ROBYNS and Jonathan SPROOTEN

6.1. From a centralized network to a decentralized network 309

6.1.1. The transmission network 309

6.1.2. The distribution network 311

6.1.3. Services for the electric system 312

6.1.4. Actors of a liberalized system 317

6.1.5. Roles of decentralized production in network management 318

6.2. Connection constraints and usage checks 318

6.2.1. Voltage management 318

6.2.2. Frequency control 322

6.2.3. Quality of the electric wave 325

6.2.4. Protection and short-circuiting of the electrical system 327

6.2.5. Decoupling protection 327

6.2.6. Other limitations 327

6.3. The challenges of integrating decentralized power generation 328

6.3.1. Defense and infrastructure reconstruction plan for the electricity system 328

6.3.2. Production forecasting for extreme weather conditions 329

6.3.3. Network hosting capacity and protection 330

6.4. Perspectives for better integration into networks 332

6.4.1. Actions at the source level 332

6.4.2. Actions at the network level 334

6.4.3. Actions at the consumer level 341

6.5. References 343

List of Authors 347

Index 349
Benoit Robyns is Deputy Scientific Director at Junia Graduate School of Engineering, Vice President of Energy and Societal Transition at Lille Catholic University and Head of the Power Systems Team at L2EP.

Arnaud Davigny is a lecturer at Junia Graduate School of Engineering and a researcher at L2EP.

Bruno Francois is Professor in Electrical Engineering at Centrale Lille Institute and a researcher at L2EP.

Antoine Henneton is Head of the Project and Valorisation Hub at Junia Graduate School of Engineering.

Jonathan Sprooten is a Power System Planning team manager with the department of Grid Development of Elia, the Belgian transmission system operator.