Chemistry in Motion
Reaction-Diffusion Systems for Micro- and Nanotechnology
302 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd
Change and motion define and constantly reshape the world aroundus, on scales from the molecular to the global. In particular, thesubtle interplay between chemical reactions and molecular transportgives rise to an astounding richness of natural phenomena, andoften manifests itself in the emergence of intricate spatial ortemporal patterns. The underlying theme of this book is that by"setting chemistry in motion" in a proper way, it isnot only possible to discover a variety of new phenomena, in whichchemical reactions are coupled with diffusion, but also to buildmicro-/nanoarchitectures and systems of practical importance.Although reaction and diffusion (RD) processes are essential forthe functioning of biological systems, there have been only a fewexamples of their application in modern micro- and nanotechnology.Part of the problem has been that RD phenomena are hard to bringunder experimental control, especially when the system'sdimensions are small. Ultimately this book will guide the readerthrough all the aspects of these systems - from understandingthe basics to practical hints and then to applications andinterpretation of results.
Topics covered include:
* An overview and outlook of both biological and man-madereaction-diffusion systems.
* The fundamentals and mathematics of diffusion and chemicalreactions.
* Reaction-diffusion equations and the methods of solvingthem.
* Spatial control of reaction-diffusion at small scales.
* Micro- and nanofabrication by reaction-diffusion.
* Chemical clocks and periodic precipitation structures.
* Reaction-diffusion in soft materials and at solidinterfaces.
* Microstructuring of solids using RD.
* Reaction-diffusion for chemical amplification and sensing.
* RD in three dimensions and at the nanoscale, includingnanosynthesis.
This book is aimed at all those who are interested in chemicalprocesses at small scales, especially physical chemists, chemicalengineers, and material scientists. The book can also be used forone-semester, graduate elective courses in chemical engineering,materials science, or chemistry classes.
1. Panta Rei - Everything Flows.
1.1. Historical Perspective.
1.2. What lies ahead?
1.3. How nature uses RD.
1.4. RD in Science and Technology.
2. Basic Ingredients: Diffusion.
2.1. Diffusion Equation.
2.2. Solving Diffusion Equations.
2.3. The Use of Symmetry and Superposition.
2.4. Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates.
2.5. Diffusion in Nonhomogeneous Media.
3. Chemical Reactions.
3.1. Reactions and Rates.
3.2. Chemical Equilibrium and Irreversible Reactions.
3.3. Ionic Reactions and Solubility Products.
3.4. Autocatalysis, Cooperativity, and Feedback.
3.5. Oscillating Reactions.
3.6. Reactions in Gels.
4. Putting It All Together: Reaction-Diffusion Equations and the Methods of Solving Them.
4.1. General Form of RD Equations.
4.2. RD Equations That Can Be Solved Analytically.
4.3. Spatial Discretization.
4.4. Temporal Discretization and Integration.
4.5. Heuristic Rules for Selecting a Numerical Method.
4.6. Mesoscopic Models.
5. Spatial Control of Reaction-Diffusion at Small Scales -- Wet Stamping (WETS).
5.1. Choice of Gels.
Appendix A: Practical Guide to Making Agarose Stamps.
6. Fabrication by Reaction-Diffusion: Curvilinear Microstructures for Optics and Fluidics.
6.1. Microfabrication: The Simple and the Difficult.
6.2. Fabricating Arrays of Microlenses by RD and WETS.
6.3. Intermezzo - Some Thoughts on Rational Design.
6.4. Guiding Microlens Fabrication by Lattice-Gas Modeling.
6.5. Disjoint Features and Microfabrication of Multilevel Structures.
6.6. Microfabrication of Microfluidic Devices.
6.7. Short Summary.
7. Multitasking: Micro- and Nanofabrication with Periodic Precipitation.
7.1. Periodic Precipitation.
7.2. Phenomenology of Periodic Precipitation.
7.3. Governing Equations.
7.4. Microscopic PP Patterns in Two Dimensions.
7.5. Two-Dimensional Patterns for Diffractive Optics.
7.6. Buckling into the Third Dimension: Periodic "Nanowrinkles".
7.7. Toward the Applications of Buckled Surfaces.
7.8. Instead of Summary: Parallel Reactions and the Nanoscale.
8. Reaction-Diffusion at Interfaces: Structuring Solid Materials.
8.1. Deposition of Metal Foils at Gel Interfaces.
8.2. Cutting into Hard Solids with Soft Gels.
8.3. The Take-Home Message.
9. Micro-Chameleons: Reaction-Diffusion for Amplification and Sensing.
9.1. Amplification of Material Properties by RD Micronetworks.
9.2. Amplifying Macromolecular Changes using Low-Symmetry Networks.
9.3. Detecting Self-Assembled Monolayers.
9.4. Sensing Chemical "Food".
9.5. Extensions: New Chemistries, Applications and Measurement.
10. RD in Three Dimensions and at the Nanoscale.
10.1. Fabrication Inside Porous Particles.
10.2. Diffusion in Solids: The Kirkendall Effect and Fabrication of Core-Shell Nanoparticles.
10.3. Galvanic Replacement and De-Alloying Reactions at the Nanoscale: Synthesis of Nanocages.
Appendix 1: Nature's Art.
Appendix 2: Matlab code for the Minotaur Example 4.1.
Appendix 3: C++ Code for the Zebra Example 4.2.