John Wiley & Sons Handbook of Assisted and Amendment-Enhanced Sustainable Remediation Technology Cover Learn more about phytoremediation technology with this state-of-the-art resource from an internation.. Product #: 978-1-119-67036-0 Regular price: $238.32 $238.32 In Stock

Handbook of Assisted and Amendment-Enhanced Sustainable Remediation Technology

Prasad, Majeti N. V. (Editor)

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1. Edition June 2021
656 Pages, Hardcover
Handbook/Reference Book

ISBN: 978-1-119-67036-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Learn more about phytoremediation technology with this state-of-the-art resource from an internationally recognized editor and leader in his field

The Handbook of Assisted and Amendment-Enhanced Sustainable Remediation Technology discusses sustainable approaches to the removal of contaminants from the environment or the reduction of their toxicity. The distinguished editor has included resources from an internationally recognized group of academics who discuss strategies to increase the effectiveness of phytoremediation.

Special attention is paid to the use of organic amendments to facilitate soil cleanup and the growth of phytoremediation plants. The book includes discussions of new remediation technologies, global trends in the environmental remediation industry, and the future challenges and opportunities likely to arise in the short and long term.

The Handbook of Assisted and Amendment-Enhanced Sustainable Remediation Technology provides a compelling case for the cost-effectiveness, aesthetics, and minimal environmental disturbance of phytoremediation. Topics covered include:
* A discussion of activated carbon from lignin, particularly its use as a sorbent for in situ remediation of contaminated sediments
* An exploration of fresh and mature organic amendments for phytoremediation of technosols contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements
* An examination of the revitalization of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost, and biochar
* A treatment of wheat straw biochar amendments on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil

Perfect for environmental engineers, environmental scientists, geologists, chemical engineers, and landscape engineers, Handbook of Assisted and Amendment-Enhanced Sustainable Remediation Technology is also an indispensable reference for scientists working in the green chemistry and technology industries, biochemical engineers, environmental regulators, and policy makers.

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxv

Part I Global Scenario of Remediation and Combined Clean Biofuel Production 1

1 Global Remediation Industry and Trends 3
Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad, Lander de Jesus Alves and Fabio Carvalho Nunes

1.1 Introduction 3

1.1.1 Rise of Phytoremediation 4

1.1.2 The Phytoremediation Industry 5

1.1.3 The Key Players in Global Remediation and Phytoremediation 10

1.1.3.1 Markets by Sector 11

1.1.3.2 Markets by Application 11

1.1.3.3 Sizes of Market Sectors Potentially Available to Phytoremediation 11

1.2 Global 12

1.3 Mining in Latin America and Phytoremediation Possibilities 16

Acknowledgements 23

References 23

2 Sustainable Valorization of Biomass: From Assisted Phytoremediation to Green Energy Production 29
Martina Grifoni, Francesca Pedron, Meri Barbafieri, Irene Rosellini, Gianniantonio Petruzzelli and Elisabetta Franchi

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Bioenergy: The Role of Biomass 30

2.3 Assisted Phytoremediation: Valorization of Biomass 33

2.4 Assisted Phytoremediation-Bioenergy: An Integrated Approach 37

2.5 Conclusions 43

References 44

Part II Biochar-Based Soil and Water Remediation 53

3 Biochar - Production, Properties, and Service to Environmental Protection against Toxic Metals 55
Monika GaBwa-Widera

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 How to Produce Biochar 55

3.3 Biochar Properties 57

3.4 Biochar in the Service of Environmental Protection 59

3.5 Soil Characteristics 59

3.6 Environmental Hazards Caused by Heavy Metals 60

3.7 Characteristics of Selected Heavy Metals 62

3.8 Zinc 64

3.9 Copper 64

3.10 Lead 65

3.11 Cadmium 66

3.12 Soil Pollution 67

3.13 What is Remediation and What is it for? 68

3.14 Improving Soil Properties 69

3.15 Removal of Impurities 69

3.16 The Addition of Biochar to Contaminated Soils may be Such a Solution 70

3.17 Summary 72

References 73

4 Biochar-based Water Treatment Systems for Clean Water Provision 77
Dwiwahju Sasongko, David Gunawan and Antonius Indarto

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Synthesis of Biochar 77

4.2.1 Pyrolysis Process 77

4.2.2 Pyrolysis Technology 78

4.3 Biochar Properties 80

4.3.1 Biochar Surface Chemistry 80

4.3.2 Pyrolysis Effect on Chemical Properties of Biochar 81

4.3.3 Pyrolysis Effect on Physical Properties of Biochar 81

4.4 Mechanism of Adsorption 82

4.4.1 Heavy Metal Removal Mechanism 82

4.4.2 Organic Contaminants Removal Mechanism 82

4.4.3 Pathogenic Organism Removal Mechanism 83

4.5 Factors Affecting Adsorption of Contaminants on Biochar 84

4.5.1 Biochar Properties 84

4.5.2 Post Treatment or Modification 85

4.5.3 Solution pH 87

4.5.4 Co-existed Ions 87

4.5.5 Dosage of Adsorbents 87

4.5.6 Temperature 87

4.5.7 Contact Time 87

4.5.8 Initial Concentration of Pollutants 88

4.6 Biochar-Based Water Treatment Systems 88

4.6.1 Biochar Supply 88

4.6.2 Biochar Use 89

4.6.3 Regeneration 90

4.6.3.1 Thermal Regeneration 90

4.6.3.2 Solvent Regeneration 93

4.6.3.3 Microwave Irradiation Regeneration 94

4.6.4 Supercritical Fluid Regeneration 94

4.6.5 Sustainability of Biochar Utilization 95

References 95

5 Biochar for Wastewater Treatment 103
Anna Kwarciak-KozBowska and Renata WBodarczyk

5.1 Biochar Production and Its Characteristics 103

5.2 Modification of Biochar 105

5.3 Comparison of Biochar with Activated Carbon 105

5.4 Biochar Adsorption Mechanism 106

5.5 Adsorption Kinetics of Aqueous-Phase Organic Compounds 108

5.6 Influence of pH, Temperature, and Biochar Dose on the Adsorption Process 108

5.7 Biochar Technology in Wastewater Treatment 110

5.8 Summary 112

Acknowledgment 112

References 112

6 Biochar for Bioremediation of Toxic Metals 119
Renata WBodarczyk and Anna Kwarciak-KozBowska

6.1 The Idea of Using Biochar with the Assumption of Closed Circulation 119

6.2 The Role of Biochar in Soil - General Information 120

6.3 Biochar as a Sorbent - Physical and Structural Composition 121

6.4 The Role of Biochar in Removing Heavy Metals from Soil 123

6.5 Utilization of Selected Heavy Metals from Soil 123

6.6 Mechanism of Heavy Metals-Biochar 124

6.7 Summary 126

Acknowledgment 126

References 127

7 Biochar Assisted Remediation of Toxic Metals and Metalloids 131
Shalini Dhiman, Mohd Ibrahim, Kamini Devi, Neerja Sharma, Nitika Kapoor, Ravinderjit Kaur, Nandni Sharma, Raman Tikoria, Puja Ohri, Bilal Ahmad Mir and Renu Bhardwaj

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Biochar and its Remarkable Physical Chemical and Biological Properties 132

7.2.1 Physical Properties of Biochar 132

7.2.1.1 Density and Porosity 132

7.2.1.2 Surface Area of Biochar 132

7.2.1.3 Pore Volume and Pore Size Distribution 132

7.2.1.4 Water Holding Capacity and Hydrophobicity 132

7.2.1.5 Mechanical Stability 133

7.2.2 Chemical Properties 133

7.2.2.1 Atomic Ratios 133

7.2.2.2 Elemental Composition 133

7.2.2.3 Energy Content 133

7.2.2.4 Fixed Carbon and Volatile Matter 134

7.2.2.5 Presence of Functional Groups 134

7.2.2.6 pH of Biochar 134

7.2.2.7 Cation Exchange Capacity 134

7.2.3 Biological Properties of Biochar 134

7.2.3.1 Biochar as a Habitat for Soil Microorganisms 134

7.2.3.2 Biochar as a Substrate for the Soil Biota 135

7.3 Heavy Metal Pollutants 135

7.4 Interactions between Biochar and Heavy Metal 136

7.4.1 Types of Interactions Occurs between Biochar and Heavy Metals 136

7.4.1.1 Direct Interaction 136

7.4.1.2 Electrostatic Attractions 136

7.4.1.3 Ion Exchange 137

7.4.1.4 Complexation 137

7.4.1.5 Precipitation 137

7.4.1.6 Sorption 137

7.4.1.7 Indirect Interactions 137

7.4.1.8 Biochar Metal Interactions 138

7.5 Biochar as a Bioremediator 138

7.5.1 Bioremediation of Heavy Metals Pollutant by the Use of Microorganism and Biochar 139

7.5.2 Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Pollutants by the Use of Plants and Biochar 140

7.5.3 Bioremediation of Heavy Metals Pollutant through the Combination of Biochar, Plant, and Microorganism 143

7.6 Application of Biochar in Bioremediation of Mining Area 143

7.6.1 Application of Biochar in Bioremediation of Acid Mine Wastes 146

7.6.2 Alkaline Tailing Soils 148

7.7 Limitation of Biochar Amended Bioremediation 148

7.7.1 Phytoextraction of Arsenic 149

7.7.2 Phytoremediation of Sewage Sludge 150

7.8 Conclusion 150

References 150

8 Use of Biochar as an Amendment for Remediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils 163
Subodh Kumar Maiti and Dipita Ghosh

8.1 Introduction 163

8.2 Biochar Production Conditions 164

8.3 Modification to Improve Remediation Potential of Biochar 165

8.4 Mechanism of Metal Immobilization by Biochar 169

8.4.1 Direct Biochar-Heavy Metal Interaction 170

8.4.1.1 Electrostatic Attraction 170

8.4.1.2 Ion Exchange 170

8.4.1.3 Complexation 170

8.4.1.4 Precipitation 170

8.4.2 Indirect Biochar-Heavy Metals-Soils Interactions 171

8.4.2.1 Impact on Soil pH, CEC, and Organic Carbon Content, thus Metal Mobility 171

8.4.2.2 Impacts on Soil Mineral Composition and Metal Mobility by Biochar Application 171

8.5 Immobilization of Heavy Metals by Biochar 171

8.6 Application of Biochar for Immobilization of Heavy Metals and Enhancement of Plant Growth 172

8.7 Conclusions 173

References 173

9 Biochars for Remediation of Recalcitrant Soils to Enhance Agronomic Performance 179
Anna Grobelak and Marta Jaskulak

9.1 Introduction 179

9.2 Biochar Properties 179

9.2.1 Production 179

9.2.2 Properties 180

9.3 Application and Impact of Biochar on Soils 183

9.3.1 Biochar in Soil Carbon Sequestration 184

9.3.2 Influence on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties 184

9.3.3 Influence on Microbial Activity and Soil Biota 186

9.4 Conclusions 186

Acknowledgment 186

References 187

10 Biochar Amendment Improves Crop Production in Problematic Soils 189
Bhupinder Dhir

10.1 Introduction 189

10.2 Roles of Biochar in Soil Improvement 189

10.2.1 Physical Characteristics 190

10.2.2 Chemical Properties 190

10.2.3 Biological Indices 191

10.3 Other Roles of Biochar 192

10.4 Agricultural Productivity in Biochar Amended Soil 192

10.4.1 Advantages of Using Biochar as a Soil Supplement 195

10.5 Reclamation of Degraded Soils Using Biochar 196

10.6 Conclusions 197

References 198

Part III Organic Amendments Use in Remediation 205

11 Use of Organic Amendments in Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils: Prospects and Challenges 207
Galina Koptsik, Graeme Spiers, Sergey Koptsik and Peter Beckett

11.1 Agricultural Organic Waste 209

11.2 Forestry By-Products 209

11.3 Composts 212

11.4 Sewage Sludge/Biosolids 217

11.5 Humic Substances 220

11.6 Biochar 222

11.7 Constructed Organic-Derived Soils 223

11.8 Directions for Future Research 224

Acknowledgments 226

References 226

12 Rice Husk and Wood Derived Charcoal for Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil 235
Boda Ravi Kiran and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

12.1 Introduction 235

12.2 Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils 235

12.3 Rice Husk Ash (RHA) - Production, Characteristics, and Application 236

12.3.1 Utilization of Rice Husk Ash as Soil Amendment and Metal Removal 237

12.4 Charcoal - Production and Applications 239

12.4.1 Charcoal as Amendment and Metal Removal 245

12.5 Conclusion 256

References 256

13 Enhanced Composting Using Woody Biomass and Its Application in Wasteland Reclamation 267
Zeba Usmani, Tiit Lukk, Eve-Ly Ojangu, Hegne Pupart, Kairit Zovo and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

13.1 Introduction 267

13.2 Composting Process 270

13.3 Types of Composting 271

13.4 Woody Biomass Waste as Co-composting Material 271

13.4.1 Usage of Woody Biochar in Composting 272

13.4.2 Woody Biochar-Microbial Consortia 272

13.4.3 Usage of Wood Ash in Composting 274

13.4.4 Usage of Wood Derived Materials in Composting 274

13.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Composting Woody Biomass 275

13.6 Application of Woody Biomass Compost in Restoration of Wastelands 276

13.7 Conclusion 277

Acknowledgment 277

References 277

14 Sewage Sludge as Soil Conditioner and Fertilizer 283
Krzysztof FijaBkowski and Anna Kwarciak-KozBowska

14.1 Introduction 283

14.2 Sewage Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants 283

14.2.1 Soil Remediation Practices 284

14.2.2 Sewage Sludge in the Remediation of Degraded Soils 286

14.2.2.1 Sewage Sludge as a Source of NPK 286

14.2.3 Substrates Produced or Based on Sewage Sludge-Biosolids 287

14.2.4 Biosolids as Fertility Restorer and Conditioner 287

14.2.5 Impact of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids on Soil Microorganisms 290

14.2.6 Sewage Sludge Amendments in Relation to CO2 Sequestration 292

14.2.7 Conclusion 292

References 292

15 Sustainable Soil Remediation Using Organic Amendments 299
Marta Jaskulak and Anna Grobelak

15.1 Introduction 299

15.2 Organic Amendments for Soil Remediation 300

15.2.1 Composts 300

15.2.2 Animal Manures and Biosolids 300

15.3 Impact of Organic Amendments on Soils 303

15.3.1 Influence on Soil Physical Properties 303

15.3.2 Influence on Microbial Activities and Soil Biota 305

15.3.3 Influence of the Content of Nitrogen and Phosphorus 306

15.4 Potential Risks of the Use of Organic Amendments 307

15.5 Conclusions 308

References 309

Part IV Advanced Technologies for Remediation of Inorganics and Organics 313

16 Biosurfactant-Assisted Bioremediation of Crude Oil/Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil 315
Jeevanandam Vaishnavi, Punniyakotti Parthipan, Arumugam Arul Prakash, Kuppusamy Sathishkumar and Aruliah Rajasekar

16.1 Introduction 315

16.2 Surfactants and Biosurfactants 316

16.3 Microbial Surfactants 316

16.4 Types of Biosurfactants 318

16.4.1 Glycolipid Biosurfactants 318

16.4.1.1 Rhamnolipids 318

16.4.1.2 Trehalose 318

16.4.1.3 Sophorolipid 318

16.4.2 Phospholipids Biosurfactant 319

16.4.3 Lipopeptides and Lipoproteins 319

16.4.4 Fatty Acid 320

16.4.5 Polymeric and Particulate Biosurfactant 320

16.5 Optimization of Biosurfactants 320

16.6 Biosurfactant in Bioremediation 320

16.6.1 Glycolipids Mediated Crude Oil Remediation 321

16.6.2 Lipopeptide Mediated Crude Oil/Hydrocarbons Degradation 323

16.6.3 Bioemulsifiers Mediated Crude Oil/Hydrocarbons Degradation 323

16.7 Challenges and Future Prospectives 324

16.8 Conclusion 324

References 324

17 Advanced Technologies for the Remediation of Pesticide-Contaminated Soils 331
Palak Bakshi, Arun Dev Singh, Jaspreet Kour, Sadaf Jan, Mohd Ibrahim, Bilal Ahmad Mir and Renu Bhardwaj

17.1 Introduction 331

17.2 Consumption and Need for Removal 332

17.2.1 Worldwide Consumption of Pesticide 333

17.2.2 Production and Usage of Pesticide in India 333

17.2.3 Need for Removal 333

17.3 Remediation Technologies for Pesticidal Contamination 335

17.3.1 Physico-Chemical Remediation 335

17.3.1.1 Adsorption 335

17.3.1.2 Oxidation-Reduction 336

17.3.1.3 Catalytic Degradation 338

17.3.1.4 Nano Technology 338

17.3.2 Biological Remediation 340

17.3.2.1 Role of Plants 340

17.3.2.2 Role of Microflora 341

17.4 Conclusion 342

References 344

18 Enzymes Assistance in Remediation of Contaminants and Pollutants 355
Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

18.1 Introduction 355

18.2 Cyanide Degradation 356

18.3 Rhizosphere 360

18.3.1 Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons 360

18.3.2 Degradation of Pesticides 361

Acknowledgments 383

References 383

19 Thiol Assisted Metal Tolerance in Plants 389
Pooja Sharma, Palak Bakshi, Dhriti Kapoor, Priya Arora, Jaspreet Kour, Rupinder Kaur, Ashutosh Sharma, Bilal Ahmad Mir and Renu Bhardwaj

19.1 Introduction 389

19.2 Sulfur Metabolism in Plants 390

19.3 Thiols Induced Metal Tolerance in Plants 390

19.3.1 Role of Metal Transporters 391

19.3.2 Role of Thioredoxins and Glutaredoxins 392

19.3.3 Role of Metallothioneins 392

19.3.4 Role of Phytochelatins in Heavy Metal Stress Mitigation 392

19.3.4.1 Heavy Metal Detoxification Mechanism 393

19.3.5 Role of Glutathione in Heavy Metal Stress Mitigation 394

19.4 Conclusion 396

References 397

20 Biological Remediation of Selenium in Soil and Water 403
Siddhartha Narayan Borah, Suparna Sen, Hemen Sarma and Kannan Pakshirajan

20.1 Introduction 403

20.2 Sources of Selenium 403

20.2.1 Soil 404

20.2.2 Water 404

20.2.3 Air 404

20.3 Significance in Human Health 405

20.4 Biological Remediation Processes 407

20.4.1 Phytoremediation 407

20.4.1.1 Phytoextraction 407

20.4.1.2 Phytovolatilization 408

20.4.1.3 Rhizofiltration 408

20.4.2 Bioremediation 409

20.4.2.1 Planktonic Cells of Axenic Bacterial Culture 409

20.4.2.2 Biofilm of Axenic Bacterial Culture 410

20.4.2.3 Microbial Consortia 410

20.4.3 Bioamendment with Chelating Agents and Organic Matter 411

20.4.4 Biosorption 412

20.5 Conclusion 412

References 413

Part V Microbe and Plant Assisted Remediation of Inorganics and Organics 423

21 Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria for Soil Sustainability 425
Raffia Siddique, Alvina Gul, Munir Ozturk and Volkan Altay

21.1 Introduction 425

21.2 Biofertilizer 426

21.2.1 PSM Requirement in Plants 426

21.2.2 Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM) 426

21.2.3 Application of PSB Inoculants 427

21.3 Mechanism of P Solubilization 427

21.3.1 Lowering of Soil pH 427

21.3.2 Chelation 428

21.3.3 Mineralization 429

21.4 PSB Help Plant Growth 429

21.5 Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) 430

21.5.1 Mechanism of Action of PSB 431

21.6 Soil Sustainability with PSB 431

References 432

22 Microbe and Plant-Assisted Remediation of Organic Xenobiotics 437
A.P. Pinto, M.E. Lopes, A. Dordio and J.E.F. Castanheiro

22.1 Introduction 437

22.2 Impact of PAHs on Environment 439

22.3 PAHs in Soil and Sediments 441

22.4 Molecular Weight and Aqueous Solubility 442

22.5 Plant Assisted Remediation of PAHs 443

22.5.1 Phytoremediation 445

22.5.1.1 Phytoextraction 447

22.5.1.2 Phytostabilization 448

22.5.1.3 Phytovolatilization 448

22.5.1.4 Phytodegradation 448

22.5.1.5 Rhizodegradation 449

22.6 Plant and Microbe Assisted Remediation - Synergistic Approaches 449

22.7 Plant-Endophyte Partnership in Phytoremediation 452

22.7.1 Endophyte Colonization and Survival 453

22.7.2 Beneficial Mutualistic Interactions Between Endophytes and Their Hosts 454

22.7.2.1 Nutrient Bioavailability 457

22.7.2.2 Modulation and Synthesis of Phytohormones 458

22.7.2.3 Defense Mechanisms against Phytopathogens 459

22.7.3 Biosurfactants and Their Roles in Phytoremediation 459

22.8 Conclusions 461

References 461

23 Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Assisted Phytoremediation of Inorganic and Organic Contaminants Including Amelioration of Perturbed Marginal Soils 477
Elisabetta Franchi and Danilo Fusini

23.1 Introduction 477

23.2 Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): Features and Mechanisms 478

23.2.1 Auxins, Cytokinins, Gibberellins 479

23.2.2 Siderophores 480

23.2.3 ACC Deaminase 480

23.2.4 Phosphate Solubilization 481

23.2.5 Nitrogen Fixation 482

23.2.6 Indirect Mechanisms 482

23.3 Influence of PGPR on Heavy Metals and Hydrocarbons Remediation 482

23.4 Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria to Face Salinity and Drought in Marginal Soils 486

23.4.1 Survival to Abiotic Stress 486

23.4.2 Affecting the Drought Pressure 487

23.4.3 Improving the Salinity Tolerance 488

23.4.4 Phytodepuration for Water Reclamation 489

23.5 Conclusions 491

References 491

24 Plant and Microbe Association for Degradation of Xenobiotics Focusing Transgenic Plants 501
Pooja Sharma, Palak Bakshi, Kanika Khanna, Jaspreet Kour, Dhriti Kapoor, Arun Dev Singh, Tamanna Bhardwaj, Rupinder Kaur, Ashutosh Sharma and Renu Bhardwaj

24.1 Introduction 501

24.2 Xenobiotics in the Environment 502

24.3 Mechanism of Degradation of Xenobiotics 502

24.4 Plant and Microbe Association for Degradation of Xenobiotics 504

24.5 Transgenic Plants and Microbes for the Remediation of Xenobiotics 506

24.6 Conclusion 509

References 509

25 Azolla Farming for Sustainable Environmental Remediation 517
Abin Sebastian, Palengara Deepa and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

25.1 Introduction 517

25.2 Diversity and Ecological Distribution 519

25.3 Growth Conditions for Optimal Biomass Productivity 521

25.4 Phytoremediation of Water Bodies 523

25.5 Prospects in Sustainable Remediation and Bioeconomy 525

25.6 Outlook 529

References 529

26 Mangrove Assisted Remediation and Ecosystem Services 535
Janaina dos Santos Garcia, Sershen and Marcel Giovanni Costa Franca

26.1 Mangrove Ecosystems 535

26.2 Mangrove Plants 535

26.3 Factors Responsible for Mangrove Degradation and Destruction 536

26.4 Ecosystem Services of Mangroves 537

26.4.1 Mangrove as a Sink of Pollutants 538

26.4.1.1 Heavy Metals 539

26.4.1.2 Heavy Metal Indices 540

26.4.1.3 Association with Other Elements 542

26.4.1.4 Organic Compounds 544

26.4.1.5 Waste Water 545

26.4.1.6 Microorganism Association and Isolation 547

26.5 Methodologies to Use Mangroves for Remediation 550

26.6 Final Comments 550

References 552

Part VI Nanoscience in Remediation 557

27 Nanotechnology Assisted Remediation of Polluted Soils 559
H.A.D.B. Amarasiri and Nadeesh M. Adassooriya

27.1 Soil as Soil of Life 559

27.2 Soil Pollution 561

27.3 Impact of Soil Pollution 561

27.4 Nanopollution 562

27.5 Soil Remediation 563

27.5.1 Conventional Soil Remediation Techniques and Methods 563

27.5.1.1 Bioremediation 563

27.5.1.2 Thermal Desorption 564

27.5.1.3 Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation 565

27.5.1.4 Pump and Treat 565

27.5.1.5 In-Situ Oxidation 566

27.5.2 Nanotechnology Based Soil Remediation Methods 566

27.5.2.1 Nanomaterials 566

27.5.2.2 Nano-Bioremediation 567

27.5.2.3 Bioremediation with Biogenic Uraninite NPs 567

27.5.2.4 Bioremediation with Engineered Polymeric NPs 567

27.5.2.5 Bioremediation with Single Enzyme NPs 568

27.5.2.6 Zeolites in Soil Remediation with Nanotechnology 568

27.5.2.7 Soil Remediation with Iron Oxide NPs 569

27.5.2.8 Soil Remediation with Nano Scale Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) 570

27.5.2.9 Remediation with Other Metal-based NPs 570

27.5.2.10 Remediation with Phosphate-based NPs 571

27.5.2.11 Soil Remediation with Iron Sulfide NPs 571

27.5.2.12 Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) in Soil Remediation 571

27.5.2.13 Nanoclay in Soil Remediation 572

27.6 Future Scope of Nanotechnology in Soil Remediation 573

References 573

28 Remediation of Wastewater Using Plant Based Nano Materials 583
Wangjam Kabita Devi, Maibam Dhanaraj Meitei and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

28.1 Introduction 583

28.2 Materials and Methods 586

28.2.1 Materials 586

28.2.2 Preparation of Extract 587

28.2.3 Synthesis of AgNPs 587

28.2.4 Characterization of Synthesized AgNPs 587

28.2.5 Catalytic Activity of Synthesized AgNPs 587

28.3 Results and Discussion 588

28.3.1 Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis 590

28.3.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy 591

28.3.3 Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy 591

28.3.4 Catalytic Property of AgNPs 593

28.4 Conclusion 595

Acknowledgments 596

References 596

Index 601
Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad, is Emeritus Professor in the School of Life Sciences at the University of Hyderabad in India. He has published over 216 papers in scholarly journals and edited 34 books. He received his doctorate in Botany from Lucknow University, India in 1979. Based on an independent study by Stanford University scientists in 2020, he figured in the top 2% of scientists from India, ranked number 1 in Environmental Sciences (116 in world).

M. N. V. Prasad, University of Hyderabad, India