John Wiley & Sons Hydrogeology Cover HYDROGEOLOGY Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the stu.. Product #: 978-1-119-56953-4 Regular price: $80.28 $80.28 In Stock


Principles and Practice

Hiscock, Kevin M. / Bense, Victor F.


3. Edition December 2021
768 Pages, Softcover
Professional Book

ISBN: 978-1-119-56953-4
John Wiley & Sons

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Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader to appreciate the significance of groundwater in meeting current and future environmental and sustainable water resource challenges. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect advances in the field since 2014 and includes over 350 new references.

The book presents a systematic approach to understanding groundwater starting with new insights into the distribution of groundwater in the Earth's upper continental crust and the role of groundwater as an agent of global material and elemental fluxes. Following chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater field investigation techniques in the context of catchment processes, as well as chapters on groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology, including a section on emerging contamination from microplastic pollution.

Unique features of the book are chapters on the application of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution, and a discussion of regional characteristics such as topography, compaction and variable fluid density on geological processes affecting past, present and future groundwater flow regimes. The last chapter discusses future challenges for groundwater governance and management for the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources, including the role of managed aquifer recharge, and examines the linkages between groundwater and climate change, including impacts on cold-region hydrogeology. Given the drive to net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, the interaction of groundwater in the exploitation of energy resources, including renewable resources and shale gas, is reviewed.

Throughout the text, boxes and a set of colour plates drawn from the authors' teaching and research experience are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies ranging from transboundary aquifers and submarine groundwater discharge to the hydrogeochemical factors that have influenced the history of malting and brewing in Europe. The appendices provide conversion tables and useful reference material, and include review questions and exercises, with answers, to help develop the reader's knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology.

This highly informative and accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students primarily in earth sciences, environmental sciences and physical geography with an interest in hydrogeology or groundwater topics. The book will also find use among practitioners in hydrogeology, soil science, civil engineering and landscape planning who are involved in environmental and resource protection issues requiring an understanding of groundwater.

List of colour plates xi

List of boxes xiv

Preface to the third edition xvi

Preface to the second edition xvi

Preface to the first edition xvii

Acknowledgements xviii

Symbols and abbreviations xix

About the companion website xxiii

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Scope of this book

1.2 What is hydrogeology?

1.3 Early examples of groundwater exploitation

1.4 History of hydrogeology

1.5 The water cycle

1.5.1 Groundwater occurrence in the upper continental crust

1.5.2 Groundwater-related tipping points

1.5.3 Groundwater discharge to the oceans

1.5.4 Global groundwater material and elemental fluxes

1.5.5 Human influence on the water cycle

1.6 Global groundwater resources

1.6.1 Global groundwater abstraction

1.6.2 Global groundwater depletion and sea level rise

1.7 Groundwater resources in developed countries

1.7.1 Groundwater abstraction in the United Kingdom Management and protection of groundwater resources in the United Kingdom

1.7.2 Groundwater abstraction in Europe European Union Water Framework Directive

1.7.3 Groundwater abstraction in North America Management and protection of groundwater resources in the United States

1.7.4 Groundwater abstraction in China

1.8 Groundwater resources in developing countries

Further reading


2. Physical hydrogeology

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Porosity

2.3 Hydraulic conductivity

2.4 Isotropy and homogeneity

2.5 Aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes

2.6 Darcy's Law

2.6.1 Hydraulic properties of fractured rocks

2.6.2 Karst aquifer properties

2.6.3 Sinkholes and land subsidence

2.7 Groundwater potential and hydraulic head

2.8 Interpretation of hydraulic head and groundwater conditions

2.8.1 Groundwater flow direction

2.8.2 Water table and potentiometric surface maps

2.8.3 Types of groundwater conditions

2.9 Transmissivity and storativity of confined aquifers

2.9.1 Release of water from confined aquifers

2.10 Transmissivity and specific yield of unconfined aquifers

2.11 Equations of groundwater flow

2.11.1 Steady-state saturated flow

2.11.2 Transient saturated flow

2.11.3 Transient unsaturated flow

2.12 Analytical solution of one-dimensional groundwater flow problems

2.13 Groundwater flow patterns

2.14 Classification of springs and intermittent streams

2.15 Transboundary aquifer systems

2.16 Submarine groundwater discharge

2.17 Groundwater resources of the world

2.18 Hydrogeological environments of the United Kingdom

2.18.1 Sedimentary rocks

2.18.2 Metamorphic rocks

2.18.3 Igneous rocks

Further reading


3. Groundwater and geological processes

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Geological processes driving fluid flow

3.3 Topography-driven flow in the context of geological processes

3.4 Compaction-driven fluid flow

3.5 Variable-density driven fluid flow

3.5.1 Salinity gradients leading to variable-density flow

3.5.2 Hydrothermal systems driven by variable-density flow

3.6 Regional groundwater flow systems driven predominantly by variable-density flow

3.6.1 Fluctuating sea-level and its impact on the distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal areas

3.6.2 Brines in continental aquifers

3.7 Regional groundwater flow systems driven predominantly by shifting topography and stress changes

3.7.1 Mountain building and erosion

3.7.2 Impact of glaciations on regional hydrogeology

3.8 Coupling and relative importance of processes driving fluid flow

Further reading


4. Chemical hydrogeology

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Properties of water

4.3 Chemical composition of groundwater

4.4 Sequence of hydrochemical evolution of groundwater

4.5 Groundwater sampling and graphical presentation of hydrochemical data

4.6 Concept of chemical equilibrium

4.6.1 Kinetic approach to chemical equilibrium

4.6.2 Energetic approach to chemical equilibrium

4.7 Carbonate chemistry of groundwater

4.8 Adsorption and ion exchange

4.9 Redox chemistry, 172

4.10 Groundwater in crystalline rocks

4.11 Geochemical modelling

Further reading


5. Environmental isotope hydrogeology

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Stable isotope chemistry and nomenclature

5.3 Stable isotopes of water

5.4 Stable isotopes of nitrogen and sulfur

5.4.1 Nitrogen stable isotopes

5.4.2 Sulphur stable isotopes

5.5 Age dating of groundwater

5.5.1 Law of radioactive decay

5.5.2 14C dating

5.5.3 36Cl dating

5.5.4 Tritium dating

5.5.5 3H/3He dating

5.6 Noble gases

Further reading


6. Groundwater and catchment processes

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Water balance equation

6.3 Precipitation and evapotranspiration

6.3.1 Precipitation measurement

6.3.2 Evapotranspiration measurement and estimation

6.4 Soil water and infiltration

6.4.1 Soil moisture content and soil water potential

6.4.2 Calculation of drainage and evaporation losses

6.4.3 Infiltration theory and measurement

6.5 Recharge estimation

6.5.1 Borehole hydrograph method

6.5.2 Soil moisture budget method

6.5.3 Chloride budget method

6.5.4 Temperature profile methods

6.6 Stream gauging techniques

6.6.1 Velocity area methods Surface floats Current metering Acoustic Doppler current profiler

6.6.2 Dilution gauging

6.6.3 Ultrasonic, electromagnetic and integrating float methods

6.6.4 Slope-area method

6.6.5 Weirs and flumes

6.7 Hydrograph analysis

6.7.1 Quickflow and baseflow separation

6.7.2 Unit hydrograph theory

6.8 Surface water - groundwater interaction

6.8.1 Temperature-based methods of detection

6.8.2 Simulating river flow depletion Analytical solutions Catchment resource modelling Global-scale surface water-groundwater modelling

Further reading


7. Groundwater investigation techniques

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Measurement and interpretation of groundwater level data

7.2.1 Water level measurement

7.2.2 Well and borehole design and construction methods

7.2.3 Borehole hydrographs and barometric efficiency Groundwater level fluctuations in the Bengal Basin Aquifer

7.2.4 Construction of groundwater level contour maps

7.3 Field estimation of aquifer properties

7.3.1 Piezometer tests

7.3.2 Pumping tests Thiem equilibrium method Theis non-equilibrium method Cooper-Jacob straight-line method Recovery test method Principle of superposition of drawdown Leaky, unconfined and bounded aquifer systems

7.3.3 Tracer tests

7.3.4 Downhole geophysical techniques Examples of downhole geophysical logging

7.3.5 Surface geophysical techniques Seismic refraction survey method Electrical resistivity survey method Electromagnetic survey method Gravity survey method Examples of surface geophysical surveying

7.4 Remote sensing methods

7.5 Groundwater modelling

Further reading


8. Groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Water quality standards

8.2.1 Water hardness

8.2.2 Irrigation water quality

8.3 Transport of contaminants in groundwater

8.3.1 Transport of non-reactive dissolved contaminants One-dimensional solute transport equation

8.3.2 Transport of reactive dissolved contaminants

8.3.3 Transport of non-aqueous phase liquids Hydrophobic sorption of non-polar organic compounds

8.3.4 Effects of density and heterogeneity

8.4 Sources of groundwater contamination

8.4.1 Urban and industrial contaminants

8.4.2 Municipal landfill wastes

8.4.3 Faecal, domestic and cemetery wastes

8.4.4 Microplastic contamination

8.4.5 Agricultural contaminants

8.4.6 Saline water intrusion in coastal aquifers

8.4.7 Saline water intrusion on small oceanic islands

Further reading


9. Groundwater pollution remediation and protection

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Groundwater pollution remediation techniques

9.2.1 Pump-and-treat

9.2.2 Permeable reactive barriers

9.2.3 Monitored natural attenuation

9.3 Groundwater pollution protection strategies in developed countries

9.3.1 Groundwater vulnerability mapping and aquifer resource protection

9.3.2 Source protection zones

9.3.3 Risk assessment methods

9.3.4 Groundwater vulnerability assessment and mapping for the protection of carbonate (karstic) aquifers

9.3.5 Spatial planning and groundwater protection

9.4 Groundwater protection strategies in developing countries

Further reading


10. Groundwater resources, governance and management

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Groundwater resources schemes

10.2.1 Large-scale groundwater development schemes

10.2.2 Regional-scale groundwater development schemes

10.2.3 Managed aquifer recharge Artificial storage and recovery schemes Riverbank filtration schemes

10.2.4 Horizontal well schemes

10.3 Wetland hydrogeology

10.3.1 Impacts of groundwater exploitation on wetlands

10.3.2 Hydrogeology of dune slacks

10.4 Climate change and groundwater resources

10.4.1 Groundwater response time to climate change

10.4.2 Groundwater pumping and greenhouse gas emissions

10.4.3 Impact of climate change on cold-region hydrogeology

10.4.4 Adaptation to climate change

10.5 Groundwater and energy resources

10.5.1 Geothermal energy

10.5.2 Groundwater source heat pumps

10.5.3 Groundwater and shale gas exploration

10.6 Future challenges for groundwater governance and management

Further reading



1. Conversion factors

2. Properties of water in the range 0-100°C

3. The geological timescale

4. Symbols, atomic numbers and atomic weights

5. Composition of seawater and rainwater


6. Values of W(u) for various values of u

7. Values of q/Q and v/Qt corresponding to selected values of t/F for use in computing the rate and volume of stream depletion by wells and boreholes

8. Complementary error function

9. Drinking water quality standards and Lists I and II Substances

10. Review questions and exercises


Kevin M. Hiscock is a Professor in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia, U.K. He has over 35 years' experience in teaching and research in hydrogeology, with interdisciplinary interests in hydrochemistry, environmental isotopes and the impacts of land use and climate change on groundwater resources and nutrient fluxes at regional and global scales.

Victor F. Bense is an Associate Professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands. He has over 20 years' experience in teaching and research in hydrogeology, with specialist interests in the impact of shallow fault zones in unconsolidated sediments on groundwater flow and the hydrogeology of cold regions under changing climate.

K. M. Hiscock, University of East Anglia; V. F. Bense, University of East Anglia, UK