John Wiley & Sons RF/Microwave Engineering and Applications in Energy Systems Cover RF/MICROWAVE ENGINEERING AND APPLICATIONS IN ENERGY SYSTEMS An essential text with a unique focus o.. Product #: 978-1-119-26879-6 Regular price: $114.02 $114.02 In Stock

RF/Microwave Engineering and Applications in Energy Systems

Eroglu, Abdullah

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1. Edition April 2022
640 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-26879-6
John Wiley & Sons

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RF/MICROWAVE ENGINEERING AND APPLICATIONS IN ENERGY SYSTEMS

An essential text with a unique focus on RF and microwave engineering theory and its applications

In RF/Microwave Engineering and Applications in Energy Systems, accomplished researcher Abdullah Eroglu delivers a detailed treatment of key theoretical aspects of radio-frequency and microwave engineering concepts along with parallel presentations of their practical applications. The text includes coverage of recent advances in the subject, including energy harvesting methods, RFID antenna designs, HVAC system controls, and smart grids.

The distinguished author provides step-by-step solutions to common engineering problems by way of numerous examples and offers end-of-chapter problems and solutions on each topic. These practical applications of theoretical subjects aid the reader with retention and recall and demonstrate a solid connection between theory and practice.

The author also applies common simulation tools in several chapters, illustrating the use and implementation of time domain circuit simulators in conjunction with electromagnetic simulators, as well as Matlab for design, simulation, and implementation at the component and system levels.

Readers will also benefit from:
* A thorough introduction to the foundations of electromagnetics, including line, surface, and volume integrals, vector operation and theorems, and Maxwell's equations
* Comprehensive explorations of passive and active components in RF and microwave engineering, including resistors, capacitors, inductors, and semiconductor materials and active devices
* Practical discussions of transmission lines, including transmission line analysis, Smith charts, microstrip lines, and striplines
* In-depth examinations of network parameters, including impedance parameters, ABCD parameters, h-Hybrid parameters, and network connections

Perfect for senior-level undergraduates and graduate students studying RF or Microwave engineering, RF/Microwave Engineering and Applications in Energy Systems is also an indispensable resource for professionals whose work touches on radio-frequency and microwave technologies.

Preface xiii

Biography xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Companion Website xix

1 Fundamentals of Electromagnetics 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals 1

1.2.1 Vector Analysis 1

1.2.1.1 Unit Vector Relationship 1

1.2.1.2 Vector Operations and Properties 2

1.2.2 Coordinate Systems 4

1.2.2.1 Cartesian Coordinate System 4

1.2.2.2 Cylindrical Coordinate System 5

1.2.2.3 Spherical Coordinate System 6

1.2.3 Differential Length (dl), Differential Area (ds), and Differential Volume (dv) 8

1.2.3.1 dl, ds, and dv in a Cartesian Coordinate System 8

1.2.3.2 dl, ds, and dv in a Cylindrical Coordinate System 8

1.2.3.3 dl, ds, and dv in a Spherical Coordinate System 9

1.2.4 Line Integral 10

1.2.5 Surface Integral 12

1.2.6 Volume Integral 12

1.3 Vector Operators and Theorems 13

1.3.1 Del Operator 13

1.3.2 Gradient 13

1.3.3 Divergence 15

1.3.4 Curl 16

1.3.5 Divergence Theorem 16

1.3.6 Stokes' Theorem 19

1.4 Maxwell's Equations 21

1.4.1 Differential Forms of Maxwell's Equations 21

1.4.2 Integral Forms of Maxwell's Equations 22

1.5 Time Harmonic Fields 23

References 25

Problems 25

2 Passive and Active Components 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Resistors 27

2.3 Capacitors 29

2.4 Inductors 32

2.4.1 Air Core Inductor Design 34

2.4.2 Magnetic Core Inductor Design 36

2.4.3 Planar Inductor Design 37

2.4.4 Transformers 38

2.5 Semiconductor Materials and Active Devices 39

2.5.1 Si 40

2.5.2 Wide-Bandgap Devices 40

2.5.2.1 GaAs 41

2.5.2.2 GaN 41

2.5.3 Active Devices 41

2.5.3.1 BJT and HBTs 41

2.5.3.2 FETs 43

2.5.3.3 MOSFETs 44

2.5.3.4 LDMOS 53

2.5.3.5 High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) 54

2.6 Engineering Application Examples 55

References 62

Problems 63

3 Transmission Lines 71

3.1 Introduction 71

3.2 Transmission Line Analysis 71

3.2.1 Limiting Cases for Transmission Lines 75

3.2.2 Transmission Line Parameters 76

3.2.2.1 Coaxial Line 76

3.2.2.2 Two-wire Transmission Line 80

3.2.2.3 Parallel Plate Transmission Line 80

3.2.3 Terminated Lossless Transmission Lines 81

3.2.4 Special Cases of Terminated Transmission Lines 85

3.2.4.1 Short-circuited Line 85

3.2.4.2 Open-circuited Line 85

3.3 Smith Chart 86

3.3.1 Input Impedance Determination with a Smith Chart 91

3.3.2 Smith Chart as an Admittance Chart 95

3.3.3 ZY Smith Chart and Its Applications 95

3.4 Microstrip Lines 97

3.5 Striplines 104

3.6 Engineering Application Examples 107

References 109

Problems 109

4 Network Parameters 113

4.1 Introduction 113

4.2 Impedance Parameters - Z Parameters 113

4.3 Y Admittance Parameters 116

4.4 ABCD Parameters 117

4.5 h Hybrid Parameters 117

4.6 Network Connections 123

4.7 MATLAB Implementation of Network Parameters 129

4.8 S-Scattering Parameters 141

4.8.1 One-port Network 141

4.8.2 N-port Network 143

4.8.3 Normalized Scattering Parameters 146

4.9 Measurement of S Parameters 154

4.9.1 Measurement of S Parameters for Two-port Network 154

4.9.2 Measurement of S Parameters for a Three-port Network 156

4.10 Chain Scattering Parameters 158

4.11 Engineering Application Examples 160

References 176

Problems 176

5 Impedance Matching 181

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 Impedance Matching Network with Lumped Elements 181

5.3 Impedance Matching with a Smith Chart - Graphical Method 184

5.4 Impedance Matching Network with Transmission Lines 187

5.4.1 Quarter-wave Transformers 187

5.4.2 Single Stub Tuning 188

5.4.2.1 Shunt Single Stub Tuning 188

5.4.2.2 Series Single Stub Tuning 189

5.4.3 Double Stub Tuning 190

5.5 Impedance Transformation and Matching between Source and Load Impedances 193

5.6 Bandwidth of Matching Networks 195

5.7 Engineering Application Examples 197

References 219

Problems 220

6 Resonator Circuits 223

6.1 Introduction 223

6.2 Parallel and Series Resonant Networks 223

6.2.1 Parallel Resonance 223

6.2.2 Series Resonance 229

6.3 Practical Resonances with Loss, Loading, and Coupling Effects 232

6.3.1 Component Resonances 232

6.3.2 Parallel LC Networks 235

6.3.2.1 Parallel LC Networks with Ideal Components 235

6.3.2.2 Parallel LC Networks with Nonideal Components 236

6.3.2.3 Loading Effects on Parallel LC Networks 237

6.3.2.4 LC Network Transformations 240

6.3.2.5 LC Network with Series Loss 244

6.4 Coupling of Resonators 245

6.5 LC Resonators as Impedance Transformers 249

6.5.1 Inductive Load 249

6.5.2 Capacitive Load 250

6.6 Tapped Resonators as Impedance Transformers 252

6.6.1 Tapped-C Impedance Transformer 252

6.6.2 Tapped-L Impedance Transformer 256

6.7 Engineering Application Examples 256

References 265

Problems 265

7 Couplers, Combiners, and Dividers 271

7.1 Introduction 271

7.2 Directional Couplers 271

7.2.1 Microstrip Directional Couplers 272

7.2.1.1 Two-line Microstrip Directional Couplers 272

7.2.1.2 Three-line Microstrip Directional Couplers 276

7.2.2 Multilayer and Multiline Planar Directional Couplers 279

7.2.3 Transformer Coupled Directional Couplers 281

7.2.3.1 Four-port Directional Coupler Design and Implementation 282

7.2.3.2 Six-port Directional Coupler Design 284

7.3 Multistate Reflectometers 289

7.3.1 Multistate Reflectometer Based on Four-port Network and Variable Attenuator 289

7.4 Combiners and Dividers 292

7.4.1 Analysis of Combiners and Dividers 292

7.4.2 Analysis of Dividers with Different Source Impedance 300

7.4.3 Microstrip Implementation of Combiners/Dividers 313

7.5 Engineering Application Examples 318

References 347

Problems 348

8 Filters 351

8.1 Introduction 351

8.2 Filter Design Procedure 351

8.3 Filter Design by the Insertion Loss Method 360

8.3.1 Low Pass Filters 361

8.3.1.1 Binomial Filter Response 362

8.3.1.2 Chebyshev Filter Response 365

8.3.2 High Pass Filters 376

8.3.3 Bandpass Filters 378

8.3.4 Bandstop Filters 382

8.4 Stepped Impedance Low Pass Filters 383

8.5 Stepped Impedance Resonator Bandpass Filters 386

8.6 Edge/Parallel-coupled, Half-wavelength Resonator Bandpass Filters 388

8.7 End-Coupled, Capacitive Gap, Half-Wavelength Resonator Bandpass Filters 394

8.8 Tunable Tapped Combline Bandpass Filters 400

8.8.1 Network Parameter Representation of Tunable Tapped Filter 402

8.9 Dual Band Bandpass Filters using Composite Transmission Lines 405

8.10 Engineering Application Examples 406

References 422

Problems 422

9 Waveguides 425

9.1 Introduction 425

9.2 Rectangular Waveguides 425

9.2.1 Waveguide Design with Isotropic Media 426

9.2.1.1 TEmn Modes 427

9.2.2 Waveguide Design with Gyrotropic Media 429

9.2.2.1 TEm0 Modes 431

9.2.3 Waveguide Design with Anisotropic Media 432

9.3 Cylindrical Waveguides 442

9.3.1 TE Modes 442

9.3.2 TM Modes 444

9.4 Waveguide Phase Shifter Design 444

9.5 Engineering Application Examples 446

References 454

Problems 454

10 Power Amplifiers 457

10.1 Introduction 457

10.2 Amplifier Parameters 457

10.2.1 Gain 457

10.2.2 Efficiency 459

10.2.3 Power Output Capability 460

10.2.4 Linearity 460

10.2.5 1 dB Compression Point 461

10.2.6 Harmonic Distortion 462

10.2.7 Intermodulation 465

10.3 Small Signal Amplifier Design 470

10.3.1 DC Biasing Circuits 471

10.3.2 BJT Biasing Circuits 472

10.3.2.1 Fixed Bias 473

10.3.2.2 Stable Bias 474

10.3.2.3 Self-bias 475

10.3.2.4 Emitter Bias 476

10.3.2.5 Active Bias Circuit 477

10.3.2.6 Bias Circuit using Linear Regulator 477

10.3.3 FET Biasing Circuits 477

10.3.4 Small Signal Amplifier Design Method 478

10.3.4.1 Definitions Power Gains for Small Signal Amplifiers 478

10.3.4.2 Design Steps for Small Signal Amplifier 482

10.3.4.3 Small Signal Amplifier Stability 483

10.3.4.4 Constant Gain Circles 488

10.3.4.5 Unilateral Figure of Merit 493

10.4 Engineering Application Examples 494

References 508

Problems 509

11 Antennas 513

11.1 Introduction 513

11.2 Antenna Parameters 514

11.3 Wire Antennas 521

11.3.1 Infinitesimal (Hertzian) Dipole (l <= lambda/50) 521

11.3.2 Short Dipole ( lambda/50 <= l <= lambda/10) 524

11.3.3 Half-wave Dipole (l = lambda/2) 525

11.4 Microstrip Antennas 531

11.4.1 Type of Patch Antennas 533

11.4.2 Feeding Methods 533

11.4.2.1 Microstrip Line Feed 533

11.4.2.2 Proximity Coupling 536

11.4.3 Microstrip Antenna Analysis - Transmission Line Method 536

11.4.4 Impedance Matching 537

11.5 Engineering Application Examples 539

References 552

Problems 552

12 RF Wireless Communication Basics for Emerging Technologies 555

12.1 Introduction 555

12.2 Wireless Technology Basics 555

12.3 Standard Protocol vs Proprietary Protocol 556

12.3.1 Standard Protocols 556

12.3.2 Proprietary Protocols 556

12.3.2.1 Physical Layer Only Approach 557

12.4 Overview of Protocols 557

12.4.1 ZigBee 557

12.4.2 LowPAN 558

12.4.3 Wi-Fi 558

12.4.4 Bluetooth 560

12.5 RFIDs 560

12.5.1 Active RFID Tags 562

12.5.2 Passive RFID Tags 562

12.5.3 RFID Frequencies 562

12.5.3.1 Low Frequency ~124 kHz and High Frequency ~13.56 MHz 562

12.5.3.2 Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Tags ~423 MHz-2.45 GHz 563

12.6 RF Technology for Implantable Medical Devices 563

12.6.1 Challenges with IMDs 564

12.6.1.1 Biocompatibility 564

12.6.1.2 Frequency 564

12.6.1.3 Dimension Constraints 564

12.7 Engineering Application Examples 565

References 576

13 Energy Harvesting and HVAC Systems with RF Signals 577

13.1 Introduction 577

13.2 RF Energy Harvesting 577

13.3 RF Energy Harvesting System Design for Dual Band Operation 578

13.3.1 Matching Network for Energy Harvester 580

13.3.2 RF-DC Conversion for Energy Harvester 582

13.3.3 Clamper and Peak Detector Circuits 582

13.3.4 Cascaded Rectifier 584

13.3.5 Villard Voltage Multiplier 584

13.3.6 RF-DC Rectifier Stages 584

13.4 Diode Threshold Vth Cancellation 585

13.4.1 Internal Vth Cancellation 585

13.4.2 External Vth Cancellation 586

13.4.3 Self-Vth Cancellation 586

13.5 HVAC Systems 587

13.6 Engineering Application Examples 588

References 609

Index 611
Abdullah Eroglu is Chair and Professor of Electrical Engineering at North Carolina A&T State University, NC, USA and Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering at Purdue University Indiana, USA. His research focuses on antennas, RF/1/4W/THz circuit design, and wave propagation, metamaterials, RF Amplifier Topologies and Linearization Methods, and RF Control Systems. He has authored six books and edited one book and in excess of 140 journal and conference publications.