John Wiley & Sons Bird Strike in Aviation Cover Groundbreaking Handbook Offers Detailed Research and Valuable Methodology to Address Dangerous and C.. Product #: 978-1-119-52973-6 Regular price: $132.71 $132.71 In Stock

Bird Strike in Aviation

Statistics, Analysis and Management

El-Sayed, Ahmed F.

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1. Edition July 2019
360 Pages, Hardcover
Practical Approach Book

ISBN: 978-1-119-52973-6
John Wiley & Sons

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Groundbreaking Handbook Offers Detailed Research and Valuable Methodology to Address Dangerous and Costly Aviation Hazard

Though annual damages from bird and bat collisions with aircraft have been estimated at $400 million in the United States and up to $1.2 billion in commercial aviation worldwide and despite numerous conferences and councils dedicated to the issue, very little has been published on this expensive and sometimes-lethal flying risk. Bird Strike in Aviation seeks to fill this gap, providing a comprehensive guide to preventing and minimizing damage caused by bird strike on aircraft.

Based on a thorough and comprehensive examination of the subject, Dr. El-Sayed offers different approaches to reducing bird strikes, including detailed coverage of the three categories necessary for such reduction, namely, awareness/education, bird management (active and passive control), and aircraft design. In addition, the text discusses the importance of cooperation between airplanes, airports and air traffic authorities as well as testing methods necessary for certification of both aircraft frame and engine. Other notable features include:
* Statistics and analyses for bird strikes with both civil and military helicopters as well as military fixed wing aircrafts, including annual costs, critical flight altitudes, critical parts of aircraft, distance from air base and specifics of date and timing
* Thorough review and analysis all fatal bird strike accidents and most non-fatal accidents since 1905, the first book to provide such a reference
* The use of numerical methods in analyzing historic data (ex. probability functions, finite element methods for analyzing impact on aircraft structure, experimental measurement technique for displacement, vibration, component distortion, etc.)
* Instruction on identification of bird species (using visual, microscopic, and DNA evidence) and details of bird migration to aid air traffic control in avoiding scenarios likely to result in collision

With its wealth of statistical data, innovative research, and practical suggestions, Bird Strike in Aviation will prove a vital resource for researchers, engineers and graduate students in aerospace engineering/manufacturing or ornithology, as well as for military and civilian pilots and flight crew or professionals in aviation authorities and air traffic control.

Preface xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Bird Strike: Foreign Object Damage (FOD) 2

1.3 A Brief History of Bird Strike 6

1.4 Brief Statistics of Bird Strike 8

1.5 Classification of Birds Based on Size 10

1.5.1 Small Birds (Less than 2 lb) 10

1.5.2 Small-Medium Birds (2-4 lb) 11

1.5.3 Medium-Large Birds (4-8 lb) 11

1.5.4 Large Birds (8-12 lb) 11

1.5.5 Massive Birds (12-30 lb) 13

1.6 Bird Strike Risk 14

1.6.1 Civilian Aircraft 14

1.6.2 Military Aircraft 15

1.6.3 Helicopters 17

1.7 Severity of Bird Strikes 17

1.8 Field Experience of Aircraft Industry and Airlines Regarding Bird Ingestion into Aero Engines 18

1.8.1 Pratt & Whitney (USA) 18

1.8.2 General Electric Aviation (USA) 18

1.8.3 Southwest Airlines (USA) 19

1.8.4 MTU (Germany) 19

1.8.5 FL Technics (Vilnius, Lithuania) 19

1.9 Bird Strike Committees 19

References 20

2 Aircraft Damage 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Accidents vs. Incidents 25

2.2.1 Accident 25

2.2.2 Serious Injury 25

2.2.3 Incident 26

2.3 Consequences of Bird Strike 26

2.4 Impact Force 28

2.5 Locations of Bird Strike Damage for Airliners 30

2.5.1 Nose and Radar Dome (Radome) 30

2.5.2 Windshield and Flight Cockpit 33

2.5.3 Landing Gear and Landing Gear Systems 37

2.5.4 Fuselage 39

2.5.5 Wings 40

2.5.6 Empennage 40

2.5.7 Power Plant 41

2.5.8 Propeller 53

2.5.9 V-22 Osprey as a Military Example 53

2.5.10 Other Strikes to Aircraft Instruments 54

2.6 Helicopters 56

2.7 Some Accident Data 59

2.7.1 Fixed-Wing Aircraft 59

2.7.2 Rotary-Wing Aircraft (Helicopters) 60

References 63

3 Statistics for Different Aspects of Bird Strikes 67

3.1 Introduction 68

3.2 Statistics for Bird Strike 69

3.3 Classifying Bird Strikes 70

3.3.1 Single or Multiple Large Bird(s) 70

3.3.2 Relatively Small Numbers of Medium-Sized Birds (2-10 Birds) 70

3.3.3 Large Flocks of Relatively Small Birds (Greater Than 10 Birds) 70

3.4 Classification of Birds Based on Critical Sites in the Aerodrome 70

3.4.1 Birds Flying or Soaring Over the Aerodrome or Approach Paths (100-4000 ft AGL) 71

3.4.2 Birds Flying, Sailing Low, or Hovering Over Active Runway and Shoulders (2200 ft AGL) 72

3.4.3 Birds Perching and Walking on Runway/Shoulders 72

3.4.4 Birds Squatting on the Runway to Rest 72

3.4.5 Birds Feeding on Live or Dead Insects or Animals on the Runway 73

3.4.6 Birds Perched on Runway Lights, Floodlight Towers, Electric Poles, and Other Perches 73

3.5 Bird Impact Resistance Regulation for Fixed-Wing Aircraft 74

3.5.1 Transport Aircraft (Airliners, Civilian, and Military Cargo) 74

3.5.1.1 Airframe 74

3.5.1.2 Engines 74

3.5.2 General Aviation Aircraft 75

3.5.3 Light Non-Commuter Aircraft 75

3.6 Bird Impact Resistance Regulation for Rotorcrafts 75

3.6.1 Large Rotorcraft 75

3.6.2 Small Rotorcraft 75

3.7 Statistics for Fixed-Wing Civilian Aircraft 75

3.7.1 Critical Parts of Turbofan/Turbojet Aircraft 76

3.7.2 Critical Modules of Turboprop/Piston Aircraft 81

3.7.3 Bird Strike Versus Altitude 83

3.7.4 Bird Strike by the Phase of Flight 87

3.7.5 Annual Bird Strike Statistics 89

3.7.6 Monthly Bird Strike Statistics 91

3.7.7 Bird Strike by the Time of Day 93

3.7.8 Bird Strike by Continent 95

3.7.9 Bird Strike by Weight of Birds 95

3.7.10 Bird Strike by Aircraft Category 96

3.7.11 Bird Strike by Bird Species 98

3.7.12 Populations of Some Dangerous Bird Species in North America 100

3.7.13 Dangerous Bird Species in Europe 102

3.8 Military Aviation 103

3.8.1 Introduction 103

3.8.2 Annual Bird Strike with Military Aircraft 104

3.8.3 Annual Costs of Bird Strike with Military Aircraft 106

3.8.4 Statistics of Bird Strike by Altitude 107

3.8.5 Bird Strike by Aircraft Type 108

3.8.6 Bird Strike by Flight Phase 109

3.8.7 Bird Strike by the Distance from the Base 109

3.8.8 Bird Strike by Month 110

3.8.9 Bird Strike by the Time of Day 110

3.8.10 Bird Strike by Part 110

3.8.11 Critical Bird Species 112

3.9 Bird Strikes on Helicopters (Rotating Wing Aircraft) 112

3.9.1 Bird Strike with Civilian Helicopters 112

3.9.2 Bird Strike with Military Helicopters 114

3.10 Birds Killed in Strikes with Aircraft 115

References 116

4 Fatal Bird Strike Accidents 119

4.1 Introduction 120

4.2 Civil Aircraft 120

4.2.1 Introduction 120

4.2.2 Statistics of Annual Fatal Accidents Due to Bird Strike 121

4.2.3 Statistics of Critical Flight Phases 124

4.3 Fatal Accidents of Civil Aircraft 125

4.4 Statistics for Civil Aircraft Accidents 146

4.4.1 Statistics for Critical Damaged Parts of Aircraft 146

4.4.2 Statistics for Strikes with Different Types of Engines 148

4.4.3 Effects of the Wildlife Strike on the Flight 148

4.4.4 Dangerous Birds 149

4.5 Statistics for Bird Strike Incidents/Accidents in the USA (1990-2015) 150

4.6 Statistics for Russian Accidents (1988-1990) 150

4.7 Military Aircraft 153

4.7.1 Introduction 153

4.7.2 Statistics for Military Aircraft Accidents 154

4.7.3 Statistics for Ex-Soviet Union Air Force in East Germany 157

4.7.4 Details of Some Accidents for Military Aircraft 159

4.7.5 Details of Accidents for Military Aircraft in Norway in 2016 163

4.7.6 Comparison between Bird Strikes with Civilian and Military Aircraft 166

4.8 Helicopters 166

4.8.1 Introduction 166

4.8.2 Statistics for Bird Strikes with Civil and Military Helicopters in the USA 168

4.8.3 Statistics for Bird Strikes with a Flight Phase 169

4.8.4 Statistics for Bird Strikes with Time of Day 170

4.8.5 Statistics for Parts of Helicopters Struck by Birds (January 2009 Through February 2016) 170

4.8.6 Statistics for Bird Species Striking and Damaging Helicopters 170

4.8.7 Fatal Accidents 170

4.9 Conclusions 173

References 174

5 Bird Migration 179

5.1 Introduction 179

5.2 Why Do Birds Migrate? 182

5.3 Some Migration Facts 183

5.4 Basic Types of Migration 183

5.4.1 Classification of Migration Based on the Pattern 184

5.4.2 Classification of Migration Based on the Type of Motion 186

5.4.3 Classification of Migration Based on Distance Traveled 186

5.4.4 Permanent Residents 187

5.5 Flight Speed of Migrating Birds 187

5.6 Navigation of Migrating Birds 187

5.7 Migration Threats 188

5.8 Migratory Bird Flyways 188

5.8.1 Introduction 188

5.8.2 North American Migration Flyways - The Four Ways 191

5.8.2.1 The Atlantic Flyway 191

5.8.2.2 The Mississippi Flyway 193

5.8.2.3 The Central Flyway 193

5.8.2.4 The Pacific Flyway 194

5.8.3 The Americas Bird Migration 194

5.8.3.1 North-South Americas 194

5.8.3.2 Alaska's Flyways 194

5.8.4 Africa Eurasia Flyways 194

5.8.5 East Asian-Australian Flyways 199

5.9 Radio Telemetry 200

References 202

6 Bird Strike Management 205

6.1 Introduction 206

6.2 Why Birds Are Attracted to Airports 206

6.2.1 Food 206

6.2.2 Water 207

6.2.3 Cover 208

6.3 Misconceptions or Myths 209

6.4 The FAA National Wildlife Strike Database for Civil Aviation 209

6.5 Management for Fixed-Wing Aircraft 214

6.5.1 Reduction of Bird Strike Hazard 214

6.5.2 Awareness 214

6.5.3 Airfield Bird Control 215

6.5.4 Aircraft Design 215

6.6 Control of Airport and Surroundings 215

6.7 Active Controls 215

6.7.1 Auditory (or Bioacoustic) Methods 216

6.7.1.1 Pyrotechnics 216

6.7.1.2 Gas Cannons 217

6.7.1.3 Bioacoustics 217

6.7.2 Visual Techniques 219

6.7.2.1 Lasers 219

6.7.2.2 Falconry 221

6.7.2.3 Dogs 222

6.7.2.4 Scarecrow 223

6.7.2.5 Human Scarer 223

6.7.2.6 Radio-Controlled Craft 224

6.7.2.7 All-Terrain Vehicles (ATV) 224

6.7.2.8 Pulsating Lights 224

6.7.2.9 Scaring Aircraft 224

6.7.2.10 The Robotic Peregrine, Hawk and Falcon (Robop and Robird) 224

6.7.2.11 Corpses 227

6.7.3 Lethal Techniques 228

6.7.3.1 Shooting 228

6.7.3.2 Live Trapping 230

6.7.3.3 Removal of Nests and Young 230

6.7.3.4 Egg Manipulation 231

6.7.4 Chemical Repellents 233

6.7.4.1 Polybutene 233

6.7.4.2 Anthraquinone 233

6.7.4.3 Methyl Anthranilate 233

6.7.4.4 Naphthalene 234

6.7.4.5 Avitrol 234

6.7.5 Exclusion 234

6.7.5.1 Netting 234

6.7.5.2 Porcupine Wire (Nixalite) 235

6.7.5.3 Bird-B-Gone 235

6.7.5.4 Avi-Away 235

6.7.5.5 Fine Wires (Large-Area Applications) 235

6.7.5.6 Bird Balls(TM) 235

6.8 Habitat Modification or Passive Management Techniques 236

6.8.1 Food Control 236

6.8.2 Water Control 238

6.8.3 Shelter Control 238

6.8.3.1 Managing Reforested Areas 240

6.8.3.2 Landscaping 240

6.9 Air Traffic Service Providers 240

6.9.1 Controllers and Flight-Service Specialists 240

6.9.2 Terminal Controllers 242

6.9.3 Tower and Ground Controllers 244

6.9.4 Flight Service Specialists (FSS) 244

6.9.5 Pilots 244

6.9.5.1 Preflight Preparation 244

6.9.5.2 Taxiing for Takeoff 245

6.9.5.3 Takeoff 245

6.9.5.4 Climb 245

6.9.5.5 En Route 245

6.9.5.6 Approach and Landing 245

6.9.5.7 Post-Flight 246

6.9.6 Air Operators 246

6.9.6.1 Introduction 246

6.9.6.2 Air Operator General Flight Planning and Operating Principles 247

6.9.6.3 Flight Planning 247

6.9.6.4 Managing Agricultural Programs in Airfields 247

6.10 Aircraft Design 247

6.10.1 Certification Standards 248

6.10.1.1 Airframe Certification Standards 248

6.10.1.2 Engine Certification Standards 248

6.10.1.3 Improved Design and Material Developments of Both Airframe and Engine Parts 249

6.10.2 Additional Requirements 249

6.10.2.1 New Aircraft Categories 249

6.10.2.2 Aircraft Modules 249

6.11 Rotary-Wing Aviation 250

6.11.1 Helicopters 250

6.11.2 Heliports 251

6.12 Bird Avoidance 252

6.12.1 Avian Radar 252

6.12.1.1 Avian Radar Fundamentals 252

6.12.1.2 Integration into Airport Operations 254

6.12.2 Optical Systems 260

References 262

7 Airframe and Engine Bird Strike Testing 267

7.1 Introduction 267

7.2 Bird Impact Test Facilities 268

7.2.1 Introduction 268

7.2.2 Test Facilities 269

7.2.2.1 USA 269

7.2.2.2 Canada 269

7.2.2.3 Europe 269

7.3 Details of Some Test Facilities 269

7.3.1 Aircraft Windshield and Airframe Testing 270

7.3.1.1 Chicken Gun or Chicken Cannon 270

7.3.1.2 Alenia Plant Testing 270

7.3.2 Engine Testing 270

7.3.3 Artificial Birds Versus Real Birds 271

7.3.3.1 Real Birds 272

7.3.3.2 Artificial Birds 272

7.4 Certification Requirements 273

7.5 Airframe Testing of Transport Aircraft 273

7.5.1 Wing Testing 273

7.5.1.1 Case Study 274

7.5.2 Empennage Testing 275

7.5.2.1 Case Study 1 275

7.5.2.2 Case Study 2 276

7.6 Airframe Testing of Military Aircraft 277

7.6.1 Canopy and Windscreen 278

7.6.2 Lift Fan Inlet Door (STOVL Mode) 279

7.7 Engine Testing of Civil and Military Aircraft 280

7.7.1 Certification Regarding Bird Strike 280

7.7.2 Typical Damage to Turbofan Modules 283

7.8 Helicopters 283

References 285

8 Numerical Simulation of Bird Strike 287

8.1 Introduction 287

8.2 Numerical Steps 289

8.2.1 Pre-processing 290

8.2.2 Solution 290

8.2.3 Post-processing 291

8.3 Bird Impact Modeling 291

8.3.1 Modeling the Geometry and Material of Birds 291

8.3.2 Impact Modeling 293

8.4 Numerical Approaches for Bird Strike 296

8.4.1 Mathematical Models 296

8.4.2 The Lagrangian Method 297

8.4.3 The Eulerian Approach 298

8.4.4 The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) 299

8.4.5 Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) 300

8.5 Case Study 301

8.5.1 Leading Edges of Wing/Tail 302

8.5.1.1 Wing 302

8.5.1.2 Vertical Tail 306

8.5.1.3 Horizontal Tail 307

8.5.2 Sidewall Structure of an Aircraft Nose 308

8.5.3 Windshield 309

8.5.4 Fan 312

8.5.5 Helicopter Windshield 316

8.5.6 Helicopter Rotor and Spinner 318

References 318

9 Bird Identification 323

9.1 Introduction 323

9.2 Collecting Bird Strike Material 325

9.2.1 Feathers 325

9.2.2 Tissue/Blood ("Snarge") 325

9.2.2.1 Dry Material 325

9.2.2.2 Fresh Material 325

9.3 Reporting and Shipping 326

9.4 Methods Used to Identify Bird Strike Remains 327

9.4.1 Examination by Eye 327

9.4.2 Microscopic Examination 328

9.4.3 Keratin Electrophoresis 330

9.4.4 DNA Analysis 330

9.5 Accident Analysis 331

References 332

Index 335
Dr. Ahmed F. El-Sayed is a Professor of Aerospace and Mechanical Power Engineering at Zagazig University, Egypt. He was a Senior Engineer for Egyptian Airline EGYPTAIR for 10 years, working in the maintenance, technical inspection and R&D departments. He has worked as a researcher in corporate projects with Westinghouse (USA), Rolls Royce (UK) and Arab Organization for Industry (AOI), Egypt and taught aircraft propulsion and turbomachinery courses in several universities and institutes in Egypt, Libya, Austria, Belgium, China, Japan, Russia and the USA.