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Materials for Biomedical Engineering

Fundamentals and Applications

Rahaman, Mohamed N. / Brown, Roger F.

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1. Edition January 2022
720 Pages, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-55108-9
John Wiley & Sons

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MATERIALS FOR BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

A comprehensive yet accessible introductory textbook designed for one-semester courses in biomaterials

Biomaterials are used throughout the biomedical industry in a range of applications, from cardiovascular devices and medical and dental implants to regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and cancer treatment. Materials for Biomedical Engineering: Fundamentals and Applications provides an up-to-date introduction to biomaterials, their interaction with cells and tissues, and their use in both conventional and emerging areas of biomedicine.

Requiring no previous background in the subject, this student-friendly textbook covers the basic concepts and principles of materials science, the classes of materials used as biomaterials, the degradation of biomaterials in the biological environment, biocompatibility phenomena, and the major applications of biomaterials in medicine and dentistry. Throughout the text, easy-to-digest chapters address key topics such as the atomic structure, bonding, and properties of biomaterials, natural and synthetic polymers, immune responses to biomaterials, implant-associated infections, biomaterials in hard and soft tissue repair, tissue engineering and drug delivery, and more.
* Offers accessible chapters with clear explanatory text, tables and figures, and high-quality illustrations
* Describes how the fundamentals of biomaterials are applied in a variety of biomedical applications
* Features a thorough overview of the history, properties, and applications of biomaterials
* Includes numerous homework, review, and examination problems, full references, and further reading suggestions

Materials for Biomedical Engineering: Fundamentals and Applications is an excellent textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biomedical materials science courses, and a valuable resource for medical and dental students as well as students with science and engineering backgrounds with interest in biomaterials.

Preface

PART I: INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 Biomaterials - An Introductory Overview

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Definition and meaning of common terms

1.2.1 Biomaterial

1.2.2 Biocompatibility

1.2.3 Host Response

1.2.4 Categories of biomaterials

1.2.5 Bioactivity

1.2.6 Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

1.2.7 In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro

1.3 Biomaterials design and selection

1.3.1 Evolving trend in biomaterials design

1.3.2 Factors in biomaterials design and selection

1.4 Properties of materials

1.4.1 Intrinsic properties of metals

1.4.2 Intrinsic properties of ceramics

1.4.3 Intrinsic properties of polymers

1.4.4 Properties of composites

1.4.5 Representation of properties

1.5 Case study in biomaterials design and selection: the hip implant

1.5.1 Femoral stem

1.5.2 Femoral head

1.5.3 Acetabular cup

1.5.4 Modern hip implants

1.6 Brief history of the evolution of biomaterials

1.6.1 Prior to World War II

1.6.2 A few decades after World War II

1.6.3 Contemporary period

1.7 Biomaterials an interdisciplinary field

1.8 Concluding remark

Problems

References and further reading

PART II MATERIALS SCIENCE OF BIOMATERIALS

Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and Bonding

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Atomic structure and bonding

2.3 Interatomic forces and bonding energies

2.4 Types of bonds between atoms and molecules

2.5 Primary bonds

2.5.1 The octet rule

2.5.2 Electronegativity of atoms

2.5.3 Polarity of covalent bonds

2.6 Ionic bonding

2.7 Covalent bonding

2.7.1 Hybrid orbitals

2.7.2 Covalent bonding in ceramics

2.7.3 Covalent bonding in polymers

2.8 Metallic bonding

2.9 Secondary bonds

2.9.1 Van der Waals bonding

2.9.2 Hydrogen bonding

2.10 Atomic bonding and structure in proteins

2.10.1 Primary structure

2.10.2 Secondary structure

2.10.3 Tertiary structure

2.10.4 Quaternary structure

2.11 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 3 Structure of Solids

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Packing of atoms in crystals

3.2.1 Unit cells and crystal systems

3.3 Structure of solids used as biomaterials

3.3.1 Crystal structure of metals

3.3.2 Crystal structure of ceramics

3.3.3 Structure of inorganic glasses

3.3.4 Structure of carbon materials

3.3.5 Structure of polymers

3.4 Defects in crystalline solids

3.4.1 Point defects

3.4.2 Line defects: dislocations

3.4.3 Planar defects: surfaces and grain boundaries

3.5 Microstructure of biomaterials

3.5.1 Microstructure of dense biomaterials

3.5.2 Microstructure of porous biomaterials

3.6 Special topic: Lattice planes and lattice directions

3.6.1 Unit cell geometry

3.6.2 Lattice positions

3.6.3 Lattice planes

3.6.4 Lattice directions

3.7 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

Chapter 4 Bulk Properties of Materials

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Mechanical properties of materials

4.2.1 Mechanical stress and strain

4.2.2 Elastic modulus

4.2.3 Mechanical response of materials

4.2.4 Stress strain behavior of metals, ceramics and polymers

4.2.5 Fracture of materials

4.2.6 Toughness and fracture toughness

4.2.7 Fatigue

4.2.8 Hardness

4.3 Effect of microstructure on mechanical properties

4.3.1 Effect of porosity

4.3.2 Effect if grain size

4.4 Designing with ductile and brittle materials

4.4.1 Designing with metals

4.4.2 Designing with ceramics

4.4.3 Designing with polymers

4.5 Electrical properties

4.5.1 Electrical conductivity of materials

4.5.2 Electrical conductivity of conducting polymers

4.6 Magnetic properties

4.6.1 Origins of magnetic response in materials

4.6.2 Meaning and definition of relevant magnetic properties

4.6.3 Diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials

4.6.4 Ferromagnetic materials

4.6.5 Ferrimagnetic materials

4.6.6 Magnetization curves and hysteresis

4.6.7 Hyperthermia treatment of tumors using magnetic nanoparticle

4.7 Thermal properties

4.7.1 Thermal conductivity

4.7.2 Thermal expansion coefficient

4.8 Optical properties

4.9 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 5 Surface Properties of Materials

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Surface energy

5.2.1 Determination of surface energy of materials

5.2.2 Measurement of contact angle

5.2.3 Effects of surface energy

5.3 Surface chemistry

5.3.1 Characterization of surface chemistry

5.4 Surface charge

5.4.1 Surface charging mechanisms

5.4.2 Measurement of surface charge and potential

5.4.3 Effect of surface charge

5.5 Surface topography

5.5.1 Surface roughness parameters

5.5.2 Characterization of surface topography

5.5.3 Effect of surface topography on cell and tissue response

5.6 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

PART III CLASSES OF MATERIALS USED IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

Chapter 6 Metals used as Biomaterials

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Crystal structure of metals

6.3 Polymorphic transformation

6.3.1 Formation of nuclei of critical size

6.3.2 Rate of phase transformation

6.3.3 Diffusive transformations

6.3.4 Displacive transformations

6.3.5 Time temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams

6.4 Alloys

6.5 Shape (morphology) of phases

6.5.1 Phase diagram principles: The Fe C phase diagram

6.5.2 Composition structure property relationships in carbon steels

6.6 Production methods

6.6.1 Wrought metal products

6.6.2 Cast metal products

6.6.3 Alternative production methods

6.7 Strengthening metals

6.7.1 Solid solution hardening

6.7.2 Precipitation and dispersion hardening

6.7.3 Work hardening

6.7.4 Grain size refinement

6.8 Classes of metals used as biomaterials

6.8.1 Stainless steels

6.8.2 Titanium and titanium alloys

6.8.3 Cobalt chromium alloys

6.8.4 Nickel titanium alloys

6.8.5 Tantalum

6.8.6 Zirconium alloys

6.8.7 Noble metals

6.9 Degradable metals

6.9.1 Designing degradable metals

6.9.2 Degradable magnesium alloys

6.10 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 7 Ceramic Biomaterials

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Design and processing of ceramics

7.2.1 Design principles for creating mechanically reliable ceramics

7.2.2 Principles of processing ceramics

7.3 Ceramics used as biomaterials

7.3.1 Chemically unreactive ceramics

7.3.2 Calcium phosphate compounds

7.3.3 Calcium phosphate cements

7.3.4 Calcium sulfate

7.4 Glasses

7.4.1 Glass transition temperature

7.4.2 Glass viscosity

7.4.3 Production of glasses

7.4.4 Chemically unreactive glasses

7.4.5 Bioactive glasses

7.5 Glass ceramics

7.5.1 Production of glass ceramics

7.5.2 Bioactive glass ceramics

7.5.3 Chemically unreactive glass ceramics

7.6 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 8 Synthetic Polymers I: Nondegradable Polymers

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Polymer science fundamentals

8.2.1 Copolymers

8.2.2 Linear and crosslinked molecules

8.2.3 Molecular symmetry and stereo-regularity

8.2.4 Molecular weight

8.2.5 Molecular conformation

8.2.6 Molecular conformation in amorphous polymers

8.2.7 Glass transition temperature

8.2.8 Semicrystalline polymers

8.2.9 Molecular orientation in amorphous and semicrystalline polymers

8.3 Production of polymers

8.3.1 Polymer synthesis

8.3.2 Production methods

8.4 Mechanical properties of polymers

8.4.1 Effect of temperature

8.4.2 Effect of crystallinity

8.4.3 Effect of molecular weight

8.4.4 Effect of molecular orientation

8.5 Thermoplastic polymers

8.5.1 Polyolefins

8.5.2 Fluorinated hydrocarbon polymers

8.5.3 Vinyl polymers

8.5.4 Acrylic polymers

8.5.5 Polyaryletherketones

8.5.6 Polysulfone, polyethersulfone and polycarbonate

8.5.7 Polyesters

8.5.8 Polyamides

8.6 Elastomeric polymers

8.6.1 Polydimethylsiloxane

8.7 Special topic: Polyurethanes

8.7.1 Production of polyurethanes

8.7.2 Structure property relations in polyurethanes

8.7.3 Chemical stability of polyurethanes in vivo

8.7.4 Biomedical applications of polyurethanes

8.8 Water-soluble polymers

8.9 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 8 Synthetic Polymers II: Degradable Polymers

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Degradation of polymers

9.3 Erosion of polymers

9.4 Characterization of degradation and erosion

9.5 Factors controlling polymer degradation

9.5.1 Chemical structure

9.5.2 pH

9.5.3 Copolymerization

9.5.4 Crystallinity

9.5.5 Molecular weight

9.5.6 Water uptake

9.6 Factors controlling polymer erosion

9.6.1 Bulk erosion

9.6.2 Surface erosion

9.7 Design criteria for degradable polymers

9.8 Types of degradable polymers relevant to biomaterials

9.8.1 Poly(alpha-hydroxy esters)

9.8.2 Polycaprolactone

9.8.3 Polyanhydrides

9.8.4 Poly(ortho esters)

9.8.5 Polydioxanone

9.8.6 Polyhydroxyalkanoates

9.8.7 Poly(propylene fumarate)

9.8.8 Polyacetals and polyketals

9.8.9 Poly(polyol sebacate)

9.8.10 Polycarbonates

9.9 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 10 Natural Polymers

10.1 Introduction

10.2 General properties and characteristics of natural polymers

10.3 Protein-based natural polymers

10.3.1 Collagen

10.3.2 Gelatin

10.3.3 Silk

10.3.4 Elastin

10.3.5 Fibrin

10.3.6 Laminin

10.4 Polysaccharide-based natural polymers

10.4.1 Hyaluronic acid

10.4.2 Sulfated glycosaminoglycans

10.4.3 Alginate

10.4.4 Chitosan

10.4.5 Agarose

10.4.6 Cellulose

10.4.7 Bacterial (microbial) cellulose

10.5 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

Chapter 11 Hydrogels

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Characteristics of hydrogels

11.3 Types of hydrogels

11.4 Creation of hydrogels

11.4.1 Chemical hydrogels

11.4.2 Physical hydrogels

11.5 Characterization of sol to gel transition

11.6 Swelling behavior of hydrogels

11.6.1 Theory of swelling

11.6.2 Determination of swelling parameters

11.7 Mechanical properties of hydrogels

11.8 Transport properties of hydrogels

11.9 Surface properties of hydrogels

11.10 Environmentally responsive hydrogels

11.10.1 pH responsive hydrogels

11.10.2 Temperature responsive hydrogels

11.11 Synthetic hydrogels

11.11.1 Polyethylene glycol and polyethylene oxide

11.11.2 Polyvinyl alcohol

11.11.3 Polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate

11.11.4 Polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid

11.11.5 Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)

11.12 Natural hydrogels

11.13 Application of hydrogels

11.12.1 Drug delivery

11.12.2 Cell encapsulation and immunoisolation

11.12.3 Scaffolds for tissue engineering

11.14 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

Chapter 12 Composite Biomaterials

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Types of composites

12.3 Mechanical properties of composites

12.3.1 Mechanical properties of fiber composites

12.3.2 Mechanical properties of particulate composites

12.4 Biomedical applications of composites

12.5 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

Chapter 13 Surface Modification and Biological Functionalization of Biomaterial

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Surface modification

13.3 Surface modification methods

13.4 Plasma processes

13.4.1 Plasma treatment principles

13.4.2 Advantages and drawbacks of plasma treatment

13.4.3 Applications of plasma treatment

13.5 Chemical vapor deposition

13.5.1 Chemical vapor deposition of inorganic films

13.5.2 Chemical vapor deposition of polymer films

13.6 Physical methods of surface modification

13.7 Parylene coating

13.8 Radiation grafting

13.9 Chemical reactions

13.10 Solution processing of coatings

13.10.1 Silanization

13.10.2 Langmuir Blodgett films

13.10.3 Self-assembled monolayers

13.10.4 Layer-by-layer deposition

13.11 Biological functionalization of biomaterials

13.11.1 Immobilization of biomolecules on biomaterials

13.11.2 Physical immobilization

13.11.3 Chemical immobilization

13.11.4 Heparin modification of biomaterials

13.12 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

PART IV DEGRADATION OF BIOMATERIALS IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

Chapter 14 Degradation of Metallic and Ceramic Biomaterials

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Corrosion of metals

14.2.1 Principles of corrosion

14.2.2 Rate of corrosion

14.2.3 Pourbaix diagrams

14.2.4 Types of corrosion

14.3 Corrosion of metals in the physiological environment

14.3.1 Minimizing metal implant corrosion in vivo

14.4 Degradation of ceramics in the physiological environment

14.4.1 Degradation by dissolution and disintegration

14.4.2 Cell-mediated degradation

14.5 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

Chapter 15 Degradation of Polymeric Biomaterials

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Hydrolytic degradation

15.2.1 Hydrolytic degradation pathways

15.2.2 Role of the physiological environment

15.2.3 Effect of local pH changes

15.2.4 Effect of inorganic ions

15.2.5 Effect of bacteria

15.3 Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis

15.3.1 Principles of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis

15.3.2 Role of enzymes in hydrolytic degradation in vitro

15.3.3 Role of enzymes in hydrolytic degradation in vivo

15.4 Oxidative degradation

15.4.1 Principles of oxidative degradation

15.4.2 Production of radicals and reactive species in vivo

15.4.3 Role of radicals and reactive species in oxidative degradation

15.5 Other types of degradation

15.5.1 Stress cracking

15.5.2 Metal-ion induced oxidative degradation

15.5.3 Oxidative degradation induced by the external environment

15.6 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

PART V BIOCOMPATIBILITY PHENOMENA

Chapter 16 Biocompatibility Fundamentals

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Biocompatibility phenomena with implanted devices

16.2.1 Consequences of failed biocompatibility

16.2.2 Basic pattern of biocompatibility phenomena

16.3 Protein and cell interactions with biomaterial surfaces

16.3.1 Protein adsorption onto biomaterials

16.3.2 Cell biomaterial interactions

16.4 Cells and organelles

16.4.1 Plasma membrane

16.4.2 Cell nucleus

16.4.3 Ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus

16.4.4 Mitochondria

16.4.5 Cytoskeleton

16.5 Extracellular matrix and tissues

16.5.1 Components of extracellular matrix

16.5.2 Attachment factors

16.5.3 Adhesion factors

16.5.4 Molecular and physical factors in cell attachment

16.5.5 Tissue types and organs

16.6 Plasma and blood cells

16.6.1 Erythrocytes

16.6.2 Leukocytes

16.7 Platelet adhesion to biomaterial surface

16.8 Platelets and the coagulation process

16.9 Cell types and their roles in biocompatibility phenomena

16.10 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 17 Mechanical Factors in Biocompatibility Phenomena

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Stages and mechanisms of mechanotransduction

17.2.1 Force transduction pathways

17.2.2 Signal transduction pathways and other mechanisms

17.2.3 Mechanisms of cellular response

17.3 Mechanical stress-induced biocompatibility phenomena

17.3.1 Implantable devices in bone healing

17.3.2 Implantable devices in the cardiovascular system

17.3.3 Implants in soft tissue healing

17.3.4 Stem cells in tissue engineering

17.4 Outcomes of transduction of extracellular stresses and responses

17.5 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and Further Reading

Chapter 18 Inflammatory Reactions to Biomaterials

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Implant interaction with plasma proteins

18.3 Formation of provisional matrix

18.4 Acute inflammation and neutrophils

18.4.1 Neutrophil activation and extravasation

18.4.2 Formation of oxygen radicals

18.4.3 Phagocytosis by neutrophils

18.4.4 Neutrophil extracellular traps

18.4.5 Neutrophil apoptosis

18.5 Chronic inflammation and macrophages

18.5.1 Macrophage differentiation and recruitment to implant surfaces

18.5.2 Phagocytosis by M1 macrophages

18.5.3 Generation of oxidative radicals by M1 macrophages

18.5.4 Anti-inflammatory activities of M2 macrophages

18.6 Granulation tissue

18.7 Foreign body response

18.8 Fibrosis and fibrous encapsulation

18.9 Resolution of inflammation

18.10 Inflammation and biocompatibility

18.11 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further Reading

Chapter 19 Immune Responses to Biomaterials

19.1. Introduction

19.2 Adaptive immune system

19.2.1 Lymphocyte origins of two types of immune defense

19.2.2 Antibody characteristics and classes

19.2.3 Major histocompatibility complex and self-tolerance

19.2.4 B cell activation and release of antibodies

19.2.5 T cell development and cell mediated immunity

19.3 The complement system

19.4 Adaptive immune responses to biomaterials

19.4.1 Hypersensitivity responses

19.4.2 Immune responses to protein biomaterials and complexes

19.5 Designing biomaterials to modulate immune responses

19.6 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

Appendix

Chapter 20 Implant-Associated Infections

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Bacteria associated with implant infections

20.3 Biofilms and their characteristics

20.4 Sequence of biofilm formation on implant surfaces

20.4.1 Passive reversible adhesion of bacteria to an implant surface

20.4.2 Specific irreversible attachment of bacterial cells to implant surface

20.4.3 Microcolony expansion and formation of biofilm matrix

20.4.4 Biofilm maturation and tower formation

20.4.5 Dispersal and return to planktonic state

20.5 Biomaterial characteristics that affect bacterial adhesion

20.6 Biofilm shielding of infection from host defenses and antibiotics

20.7 Biofilm effects on host tissues and biomaterial interactions

20.8 Strategies for controlling implant infections

20.8.1 Orthopedic implants designed for rapid tissue integration

20.8.2 Surface nanotopography

20.8.3 Silver nanoparticles

20.8.4 Anti-biofilm polysaccharides

20.8.5 Bacteriophage therapy

20.8.6 Mechanical disruption

20.9 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 21 Response to Surface Topography and Particulate Materials

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Effects of biomaterial surface topography on cell response

21.2.1 Microscale surface roughness in osseointegration

21.2.2 Micropatterned and nanopatterned surfaces in macrophage differentiation

21.2.3 Micropatterned surfaces in neural regeneration

21.3 Biomaterial surface topography for antimicrobial activity

21.3.1 Microscale topography with antimicrobial activity

21.3.2 Submicron scale topography for antimicrobial activity

21.3.3 Nanoscale topography with antimicrobial activity

21.4 Microparticle-induced host responses

21.4.1 Mechanisms of microparticle endocytosis

21.4.2 Response to microparticles

21.4.3 Microparticle distribution in the organs

21.4.4 The inflammasome and particle induced inflammation

21.4.5 Wear debris-induced osteolysis

21.5 Nanoparticle-induced host responses

21.5.1 Mechanisms of nanoparticle endocytosis

21.5.2 Response to nanoparticles

21.5.3 Cytotoxicity effects of nanoparticles

21.6 Concluding remarks

Problems

References

Chapter 22 Tests of Biocompatibility of Prospective Implant Materials

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Biocompatibility standards and regulations

22.2.1 ISO 10993

22.2.2 FDA guidelines and requirements

22.3 In vitro biocompatibility test procedures

22.3.1 Cytotoxicity tests

22.3.2 Genotoxicity tests

22.3.3 Hemocompatibility test

22.4 In vivo biocompatibility test procedures

22.4.1 Implantation tests

22.4.2 Thrombogenicity tests

22.4.3 Irritation and sensitization tests

22.4.4 Systemic toxicity tests

22.5 Clinical trials of biomaterials

22.6 Regulatory review and approval

22.7 Case study: The Proplast temporomandibular joint

22.8 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

PART VI APPLICATIONS OF BIOMATERIALS

Chapter 23 Biomaterials for Hard Tissue Repair

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Healing of bone fracture

23.2.1 Mechanisms of fracture healing

23.2.2 Internal fracture fixation devices

23.3 Healing of bone defects

23.3.1 Bone defects

23.3.2 Bone grafts

23.3.3 Bone graft substitutes

23.3.4 Healing of non-structural bone defects

23.3.5 Healing of structural bone defects

23.4 Total joint replacement

23.4.1 Total hip arthroplasty

23.4.2 Total knee arthroplasty

23.5 Spinal fusion

23.5.1 Biomaterials for spinal fusion

23.6 Dental implants and restorations

23.6.1 Dental implants

23.6.2 Indirect dental restorations

23.6.3 Direct dental restorations

23.7 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 24 Biomaterials for Soft Tissue Repair

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Surgical sutures and adhesives

24.2.1 Sutures

24.2.2 Soft tissue adhesives

24.3 The cardiovascular system

24.3.1 Major anatomical features of the cardiovascular system

24.3.2 Vascular grafts

24.3.3 Balloon angioplasty

24.3.4 Intravascular stents

24.3.5 Prosthetic heart valves

24.4 Ophthalmologic applications

24.4.1 Contact lenses

24.4.2 Intraocular lenses

24.5 Skin wound healing

24.5.1 Fundamentals of skin wound healing

24.5.2 Complicating factors in skin wound healing

24.5.3 Biomaterials-based therapies for skin wound healing

24.5.4 Nanoparticle-based therapies for skin wound healing

24.6 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 25 Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Principles of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

25.2.1 Cells for tissue engineering

25.2.2 Biomolecules and nutrients for ex vivo tissue engineering

25.2.3 Growth factors for tissue engineering

25.2.4 Cell therapy

25.2.5 Gene therapy

25.3 Biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering

25.3.1 Properties of scaffolds for tissue engineering

25.3.2 Biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds

25.3.3 Porous solids

25.3.4 Hydrogels

25.3.5 Extracellular matrix scaffolds

25.4 Techniques for creating tissue engineering scaffolds

25.4.1 Creation of scaffolds in the form of porous solids

25.4.2 Electrospinning

25.4.3 Additive manufacturing (3D printing) techniques

25.4.4 Formation of hydrogel scaffolds

25.4.5 Preparation of extracellular matrix scaffolds

25.5 Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting

25.5.1 Inkjet-based bioprinting

25.5.2 Microextrusion-based bioprinting

25.6 Tissue engineering for the regeneration of functional tissues and organs

25.6.1 Bone tissue engineering

25.6.2 Articular cartilage tissue engineering

25.6.3 Articular joints

25.6.4 Tendons and ligaments

25.6.5 Skin tissue engineering

25.6.6 Bladder tissue engineering

25.7 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading

Chapter 26 Biomaterials for Drug Delivery

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Controlled drug delivery

26.2.1 Drug delivery systems

26.2.2 Mechanisms of drug release

26.3 Designing biomaterials for drug delivery systems

26.4 Microparticle-based drug delivery systems

26.4.1 Preparation of polymer-based microsphere delivery systems

26.4.2 Applications of microparticle-based delivery systems

26.5 Hydrogel-based drug delivery systems

26.5.1 Environmentally responsive drug delivery systems

26.5.2 Drug delivery systems responsive to external physical stimuli

26.6 Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems

26.6.1 Fate of nanoparticles

26.6.2 Targeting of nanoparticles to cells

26.6.3 Polymer nanoparticle-based systems

26.6.4 Lipid-based nanoparticles

26.6.5 Polymer conjugates

26.6.6 Dendrimers

26.6.7 Inorganic nanoparticles

26.7 Delivery of ribonucleic acid (RNA)

26.7.1 Modification of siRNA

26.7.2 Biomaterials for siRNA delivery

26.8 Biological drug delivery systems

26.8.1 Exosomes for therapeutic biomolecule delivery

26.9 Concluding remarks

Problems

References and further reading
Mohamed N. Rahaman, Professor Emeritus of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, USA. Dr. Rahaman is a Fellow of the American Ceramic Society, the author of five textbooks, the author and co-author of over 280 reviewed journal articles and conference proceedings, and the co-inventor on three US patents in the area of medical devices.

Roger F. Brown, Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences, Missouri University of Science and Technology, USA. Dr Brown is the author and co-author of over 60 reviewed journal articles and conference proceedings, and is a co-inventor on one US patent pertaining to the use of bioactive borate glass microfibers for soft tissue repair.