John Wiley & Sons Biodiesel Technology and Applications Cover Energy technologies have attracted great attention due to the fast development of sustainable energy.. Product #: 978-1-119-72464-3 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 In Stock

Biodiesel Technology and Applications

Inamuddin / Ahamed, Mohd Imran / Boddula, Rajender / Rezakazemi, Mashallah (Editor)

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1. Edition August 2021
512 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-72464-3
John Wiley & Sons

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Energy technologies have attracted great attention due to the fast development of sustainable energy. Biodiesel technologies have been identified as the sustainable route through which overdependence on fossil fuels can be reduced. Biodiesel has played a key role in handling the growing challenge of a global climate change policy. Biodiesel is defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is a cost-effective, renewable, and sustainable fuel that can be made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Compared to petroleum-based diesel, biodiesel would offer a non-toxicity, biodegradability, improved air quality and positive impact on the environment, energy security, safe-to-handle, store and transport and so on. Biodiesels have been used as a replacement of petroleum diesel in transport vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, locomotives, heat oils, hydrogen production, electricity generators, agriculture, mining, construction, and forestry equipment.

This book describes a comprehensive overview, covering a broad range of topics on biodiesel technologies and allied applications. Chapters cover history, properties, resources, fabrication methods, parameters, formulations, reactors, catalysis, transformations, analysis, in situ spectroscopies, key issues and applications of biodiesel technology. It also includes biodiesel methods, extraction strategies, biowaste utilization, oleochemical resources, non-edible feedstocks, heterogeneous catalysts, patents, and case-studies. Progress, challenges, future directions, and state-of-the-art biodiesel commercial technologies are discussed in detail. This book is an invaluable resource guide for professionals, faculty, students, chemical engineers, biotechnologists, and environmentalists in these research and development areas.

Preface xvii

1 Biocatalytic Processes for Biodiesel Production 1
Ubaid Mehmood, Faizan Muneer, Muhammad Riaz, Saba Sarfraz and Habibullah Nadeem

1.1 Introduction and Background 2

1.2 Importance of Biodiesel Over Conventional Diesel Fuel 3

1.3 Substrates for Biodiesel Production 4

1.4 Methods in Biodiesel Production 6

1.5 Types of Catalysts Involved in Biodiesel Production 7

1.5.1 Chemical Homogenous Catalysts 7

1.5.2 Solid Heterogeneous Catalysts 8

1.5.3 Biocatalysts 8

1.6 Factors Affecting Enzymatic Transesterification Reaction 8

1.6.1 Effect of Water in Enzyme Catalyzed Transesterification 9

1.6.2 Effect of Bioreactor 10

1.6.3 Effect of Acyl Acceptor on Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel 10

1.6.4 Effect of Temperature on Enzymatic Biodiesel Production 14

1.6.5 Effect of Glycerol on Enzymatic Biodiesel Production 14

1.6.6 Effect of Solvent on Biodiesel Production 16

1.7 Lipases as Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production 17

1.7.1 Mechanisms of Lipase Action 19

1.7.2 Efficient Lipase Sources for Biodiesel Producing Biocatalyst 19

1.8 Comparative Analysis of Intracellular and Extracellular Lipases for Biodiesel Production 21

1.9 Recombinant Lipases for Cost-Effective Biodiesel Production 26

1.10 Immobilization of Lipases for Better Biodiesel Production 28

1.11 Recent Strategies to Improve Biodiesel Production 31

1.11.1 Combination of Lipases 31

1.11.2 Microwave and Ultrasonic-Assisted Reaction 33

1.12 Lipase Catalyzed Reaction Modeling and Statistical Approaches for Reaction Optimization 35

1.13 Conclusion and Summary 38

References 38

2 Application of Low-Frequency Ultrasound for Intensified Biodiesel Production Process 59
Mohd Razealy Anuar, Mohamed Hussein Abdurahman, Nor Irwin Basir and Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah

2.1 Current Fossil Fuel Scenario 60

2.2 Biodiesel 60

2.3 Transesterification 61

2.4 Challenges for Improved Biodiesel Production 62

2.5 Homogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production 63

2.6 Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production 64

2.7 Immiscibility of the Reactants 65

2.8 Ultrasound-Assisted Biodiesel Production Process 66

2.8.1 Fundamental Aspects of the Process 66

2.8.2 Homogeneously Catalyzed Ultrasound-Assisted System 69

2.8.3 Heterogeneously Catalyzed Ultrasound-Assisted System 72

2.8.3.1 Heterogeneously Acid Catalyzed System 72

2.8.3.2 Heterogeneous Based Catalyzed Ultrasound-Assisted System 74

2.8.3.3 Influence of Reaction Parameters 78

2.9 Conclusions 79

Acknowledgement 80

References 80

3 Application of Catalysts in Biodiesel Production 85
Anilkumar R. Gupta and Virendra K. Rathod

3.1 Introduction 85

3.2 Homogeneous Catalysis for the Biodiesel Production 89

3.2.1 Homogeneous Acid Catalyst 89

3.2.2 Homogeneous-Base Catalyst 93

3.3 Heterogeneous Catalyst 96

3.3.1 Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst 97

3.3.2 Heterogeneous-Base Catalyst 106

3.4 Biocatalysts 115

3.5 Conclusion 119

References 124

4 Hydrogenolysis as a Means of Valorization of Biodiesel-Derived Glycerol: A Review 137
Manjoro T.T., Adeniyi A. and Mbaya R.K.K.

4.1 Introduction 138

4.2 Ways of Valorization of Biodiesel-Derived Glycerol 139

4.2.1 Catalytic Conversion of Glycerol Into Value-Added Commodities 140

4.2.1.1 Catalytic Oxidation of Glycerol 140

4.2.1.2 Catalytic Dehydration of Glycerol 143

4.2.1.3 Pyrolysis of Bioglycerol 144

4.2.1.4 Glycerol Transesterification 145

4.2.1.5 Glycerol Direct Carboxylation 146

4.3 Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol 147

4.3.1 Definition of Hydrogenolysis 147

4.3.2 Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol 148

4.3.3 Product Spectrum from Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol 148

4.3.4 Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1,2-PDO (Propylene Glycol): Reaction Systems Overview 149

4.3.5 Catalyst Selection 151

4.3.6 Reaction Conditions That Influence the Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1,2-PDO 153

4.3.6.1 Effect of Reaction Temperature 153

4.3.6.2 Effect of H2 Pressure 154

4.3.6.3 Effect of Initial Water Concentration 155

4.3.6.4 Effect of Reaction Time 156

4.3.6.5 Effect of Catalyst Weight 156

4.3.6.6 Proposed Reaction Mechanisms for Glycerol Hydrogenolysis to Produce 1,2-PDO 157

4.4 Conclusion 159

References 159

5 Current Status, Synthesis, and Characterization of Biodiesel 167
Akshay Garg, Gaurav Dwivedi, Prashant Baredar and Siddharth Jain

5.1 Introduction 167

5.2 Status of Biodiesel in India 169

5.3 Biodiesel Production in India 169

5.3.1 Feedstocks Popular in India 169

5.3.1.1 Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Oil 171

5.3.1.2 Pongamia Oil 171

5.3.1.3 Mahua Oil 171

5.3.1.4 Neem Oil 171

5.3.1.5 Linseed Oil 171

5.3.1.6 Rubber Seed Oil 172

5.3.1.7 Tobacco Oil 172

5.3.1.8 Castor 172

5.3.1.9 Waste Cooking Oil 172

5.3.1.10 Algae Oil 172

5.3.2 Advantages of Non-Edible Oils 173

5.3.3 Modification Techniques 173

5.3.3.1 Blending 173

5.3.3.2 Micro-Emulsification 173

5.3.3.3 Cracking 174

5.3.3.4 Transesterification 174

5.3.4 Biodiesel Production Methodology 174

5.3.4.1 Catalytic Transesterification 174

5.3.4.2 Non-Catalytic Transesterification 178

5.3.5 Optimization Methodology for Biodiesel 179

5.3.5.1 Central Composite Design Technique 179

5.3.5.2 Box Behnken Technique 179

5.4 Properties of Biodiesel 180

5.5 Analytical Methods 181

5.5.1 Titration 181

5.5.2 Chromatic Methods 181

5.5.2.1 Gas Chromatography 183

5.5.2.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 184

5.5.3 Spectroscopic Methods 184

5.5.3.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 184

5.5.3.2 Infrared Spectroscopy 185

5.5.4 Rancimat Method 185

5.5.5 Viscometry 186

5.6 Conclusion 186

References 187

6 Commercial Technologies for Biodiesel Production 195
Chikati Roick, Leonard Okonye, Nkazi Diankanua and Gorimbo Joshua

Abbreviation 196

6.1 Introduction 196

6.2 Biodiesel Production 197

6.3 Technologies Used for Biodiesel Production 198

6.3.1 Chemical Reaction (Transesterification) 199

6.3.2 Thermochemical Conversion 199

6.3.3 Biomechanical Conversion 201

6.3.4 Direct Combustion 201

6.4 Other Technologies in Use for Biodiesel Production 201

6.5 Feedstock Requirement 203

6.6 Some Problems Facing Commercialization of Biodiesel in Africa 203

6.7 Case Studies/Current Status and Future Potential 204

6.8 Conclusions 207

Acknowledgments 208

References 208

7 A Global Scenario of Sustainable Technologies and Progress in a Biodiesel Production 215
M. B. Kumbhar, P. E. Lokhande,, U. S. Chavan and V.G. Salunkhe

7.1 Introduction 216

7.2 Current Status of Feedstock for Biodiesel Production Technology 218

7.3 Scenario of Biodiesel in Combustion Engine 222

7.4 Biodiesel Production Technologies 223

7.4.1 Direct Blending 223

7.4.2 Pyrolysis 224

7.4.3 Microemulsification 225

7.4.4 Transesterification 226

7.5 Microwave-Mediated Transesterification 227

7.6 Ultrasound-Mediated Transesterification 229

7.7 Catalysis in Biodiesel Production 230

7.7.1 Homogeneous Catalysts 230

7.7.2 Heterogeneous Catalysts 231

7.7.3 Heterogeneous Nanocatalysts 232

7.7.4 Supercritical Fluids 232

7.7.5 Biocatalysts 232

7.8 The Concept of Biorefinery 234

7.9 Summary and Outlook 236

7.10 Conclusion 237

References 237

8 Biodiesel Production Technologies 241
Moina Athar and Sadaf Zaidi

8.1 Introduction 242

8.2 Biodiesel Feedstocks 242

8.2.1 Selection of Feedstocks 243

8.3 Biodiesel Production Technologies 248

8.3.1 Pyrolysis 248

8.3.2 Dilution 249

8.3.3 Micro-Emulsion 249

8.3.4 Transesterification 249

8.3.4.1 Homogeneously Catalyzed Transesterification Processes 250

8.3.4.2 Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transesterification Processes 252

8.3.4.3 Enzymatic Catalyzed Transesterification Processes 252

8.4 Intensification Techniques for Biodiesel Production 253

8.4.1 Supercritical Alcohol Method 253

8.4.2 Microwave Heating 253

8.4.3 Ultrasonic Irradiation 255

8.4.4 Co-Solvent Method 256

8.5 Other Techniques of Biodiesel Production 256

References 257

9 Methods for Biodiesel Production 267
M.Gul, M.A. Mujtaba, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam and N.W.M. Zulkifli

9.1 Selection of Feedstock for Biodiesel 267

9.1.1 First-Generation Feedstock 268

9.1.2 Second-Generation Feedstock 268

9.1.3 Third-Generation Feedstock 269

9.2 Methods for Biodiesel Production 269

9.2.1 Dilution With Hydrocarbons Blending 269

9.2.2 Micro-Emulsion 269

9.2.3 Pyrolysis (Thermal Cracking) 270

9.2.4 Transesterification (Alcoholysis) 271

9.2.4.1 In Situ Transesterification (Reactive Extraction) 271

9.2.4.2 Conventional Transesterification 272

9.2.4.3 Microwave/Ultrasound-Assisted Transesterification 278

9.2.4.4 Variables Affecting Transesterification Reaction 278

References 282

10 Non-Edible Feedstock for Biodiesel Production 285
Chikati Roick, Kabir Opeyemi Otun, Nkazi Diankanua and Gorimbo Joshua

List of Abbreviations 286

10.1 Introduction 286

10.2 Reports Relevant to Global Warming and Renewable Energy 287

10.3 Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source 288

10.3.1 First-Generation Biofuels 288

10.3.2 Second-Generation Biofuels 289

10.3.3 Third-Generation Biofuels 290

10.4 Benefits of Using Biodiesel 290

10.5 Technologies of Biodiesel Production From Non-Edible Feedstock 291

10.6 Biodiesel Production by Transesterification 292

10.7 Non-Edible Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production 295

10.7.1 Non-Edible Vegetable Oils 296

10.7.2 Waste Cooking Oil 297

10.7.3 Algal Oil 298

10.7.4 Waste Animal Fat/Oil 299

10.8 Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Obtained From Non-Edible Feedstock 299

10.9 Advantages of Non-Edible Feedstocks 302

10.10 Economic Importance of Biodiesel Production 302

10.11 Conclusions 303

Acknowledgments 303

References 304

11 Oleochemical Resources for Biodiesel Production 311
Gayathri R., Ranjitha J. and Vijayalakshmi Shankar

11.1 Introduction 311

11.2 Definition of Oleochemicals 312

11.3 Oleochemical Types 313

11.4 Production of Biodiesel 315

11.5 Types of Feedstocks 317

11.5.1 Non-Edible Feedstocks 317

11.5.2 Non-Edible Vegetable Oil 317

11.5.3 Tall Oil 318

11.5.4 Waste Cooking Oils 318

11.5.5 Animal Fats 318

11.5.6 Chicken Fat 319

11.5.7 Lard 319

11.5.8 Tallow 320

11.5.9 Leather Industry Solid Waste Fat 321

11.5.10 Fish Oil 322

11.6 Uses of Oleochemicals 322

11.6.1 Polymer Applications 322

11.6.2 Application of Plant Oil as a Substitute for Petro-Diesel 323

11.6.3 Used as Surfactants 323

11.6.4 Oleochemicals Used in Pesticide 324

11.6.5 Oleochemicals Used in Spray Adjuvants and Solvents 324

11.7 Methyl Ester or Biodiesel Production 324

11.7.1 Palm Oil 326

11.7.2 Sunflower Oil 326

11.7.3 ME From AFW 327

11.8 Parameters Affecting the Yield of Biodiesel 327

11.8.1 Reaction Conditions 327

11.8.2 Catalyst 327

11.8.2.1 Alkali Catalyst 327

11.8.2.2 Acid Catalyst 329

11.8.2.3 Biocatalyst 329

11.8.2.4 Heterogeneous Catalyst 329

11.8.2.5 ME Conversion by Supercritical Method 329

11.8.3 Properties of Feedstock 330

11.8.3.1 Composition of FA 330

11.8.3.2 FFA 330

11.8.3.3 Heat 330

11.8.3.4 Presence of Unwanted Materials 330

11.8.3.5 Titer 332

11.8.4 Characteristic of Feedstock 332

11.9 Optimization of Reactions Conditions for High Yield and Quality of Biodiesel 332

11.9.1 Pre-Treatment of Feedstock 332

11.9.1.1 Elimination of Water 332

11.9.1.2 Elimination of Insoluble Impurities 332

11.9.1.3 Elimination of Unsaponifiables 333

11.9.2 Characterization and Selection of Feedstocks 333

11.9.3 Selection of Reaction Conditions 333

11.10 Oil Recovery 333

11.10.1 Alkaline Flooding Method 333

11.10.2 Additives 334

11.11 Quality Improvement of Biodiesel 334

11.11.1 Additives for Improving Combustion Ability 334

11.11.2 Additives for Enhancing the Octane Number 334

11.11.3 Additives for Improving the Stability 334

11.11.4 Additives to Enhance Cold Flow Property 334

11.11.5 Additives to Enhance Lubricity 335

11.11.6 Additives to Enhance Cetane Number 335

11.12 Conclusion 335

Abbreviations 335

References 336

12 Overview on Different Reactors for Biodiesel Production 341
V. C. Akubude, K.F. Jaiyeoba, T.F Oyewusi, E.C. Abbah, J.A. Oyedokun and V.C. Okafor

12.1 Introduction 341

12.2 Biodiesel Production Reactors 342

12.2.1 Batch Reactor 343

12.2.2 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 344

12.2.3 Fixed Bed Reactor 346

12.2.4 Bubble Column Reactor 347

12.2.5 Reactive Distillation Column 349

12.2.6 Hybrid Catalytic Plasma Reactor 350

12.2.7 Microreactors Technology 350

12.2.8 Oscillatory Flow Reactors 353

12.2.9 Other Novel Reactors 353

12.3 Future Prospects 354

12.4 Conclusion 354

References 354

13 Patents on Biodiesel 361
Azira Abdul Razak, Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed and Darfizzi Derawi

13.1 Introduction 361

13.2 Generation of Biodiesel 362

13.3 Development of Catalyst 363

13.3.1 Homogeneous Catalyst 364

13.3.2 Heterogeneous Catalyst 364

13.4 Method Producing Biodiesel 365

13.4.1 Pre-Treatment Process 365

13.4.2 Direct Use and Blending of Oils 366

13.4.3 Esterification of FFA 366

13.4.4 Transesterification of TAG 367

13.4.5 Pyrolysis 368

13.5 Reactor's Technology for Biodiesel Production 369

13.5.1 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor 370

13.5.2 Fixed Bed Reactor 370

13.5.3 Micro-Mixer Reactor 371

13.6 Conclusion 372

References 372

14 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids With an Alcohol Over Acid Materials 377
J.E. Castanheiro

14.1 Introduction 377

14.2 Zeolites 378

14.3 SO3H as Catalyst 379

14.4 Metal Oxides 380

14.5 Heteropolyacids 382

14.6 Other Materials 384

14.7 Conclusions 384

References 385

15 Biodiesel Production From Non-Edible and Waste Lipid Sources 389
Opeoluwa O. Fasanya, Aishat A. Osigbesan and Onoriode P. Avbenake

15.1 Introduction 390

15.2 Non-Edible Plant-Based Oils 394

15.2.1 Jatropha curcas 394

15.2.2 Calophyllum inophyllum 397

15.2.3 Mesua ferrea 397

15.2.4 Jojoba Oil 398

15.2.5 Azadirachta indica 398

15.2.6 Rubber Seed Oil 399

15.2.7 Ricinus communis as Feedstock (Castor Oil) 402

15.2.8 Other Non-Edible Oils 403

15.3 Waste Animal Fats 404

15.4 Expired and Waste Cooking Oils 405

15.5 Algae/Microalgae 406

15.6 Insects as Biodiesel Feedstock 411

15.7 Deacidification 414

15.8 Other Technologies 414

15.9 Conclusion 415

References 415

16 Microalgae for Biodiesel Production 429
Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Victoria Olaide Adenigba, Devarajan Thangadura and Mohd Imran Ahamed

16.1 Introduction 430

16.2 Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel From Microalgae 431

16.3 Genetic Engineering/Techniques Enhancing Biodiesel Production 432

16.4 Nanotechnology in Microalgae Biodiesel Production 434

16.5 Specific Examples of Biodiesel Production From Microalgae 434

16.6 Methodology Involved in the Extraction of Algae 438

16.6.1 Chemical Solvents Extraction 439

16.6.2 Extraction by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide 439

16.6.3 Extraction Using Biochemical Techniques 439

16.6.4 Extraction Involving Direct Transesterification 440

16.6.5 Extraction Using Transesterification Techniques 440

16.7 Conclusion and Future Recommendation to Knowledge 440

References 441

17 Biodiesel Production Methods and Feedstocks 447
Setareh Heidari and David A. Wood

17.1 Introduction 448

17.2 Biofuel Classification in Terms of Origin and Technological Conversion of Raw Materials 449

17.3 Techniques Capable of Producing Biodiesel on Commercial Scales 451

17.3.1 Direct and Blending Methods With the Aim of Biodiesel Generation 452

17.3.2 Microemulsion Methods 452

17.3.3 Pyrolysis Methods 453

17.3.4 Transesterification Methods 453

17.4 Influential Parameters on Biodiesel Production 454

17.4.1 The Choice of Transesterification Catalysts 454

17.4.2 Effects of Catalyst Characteristics on Biodiesel Production Efficiency 454

17.5 Biodiesel Markets and Economic Considerations 455

17.6 Challenges Confronting Biodiesel Uptake 456

17.7 Corrosion and Quality Monitoring Issues for Biodiesel 457

17.8 Conclusions 457

References 458

18 Application of Nanoparticles for the Enhanced Production of Biodiesel 465
Muhammad Hilman Mustapha, Akhsan Kamil Azizi, Wan Nur Aini Wan Mokhtar and Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed

18.1 Introduction 465

18.2 Solid Nanoparticles 466

18.3 Nanobioparticles/Nanobiocatalyst 471

18.4 Magnetic Nanoparticles 473

18.5 How Nanoparticles Enhanced Biodiesel Production? 475

18.6 Conclusion 477

References 477

Index 481
Inamuddin, PhD, is an assistant professor at the Department of Applied Chemistry, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has extensive research experience in analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, electrochemistry, renewable energy, and environmental science. He has worked on different research projects funded by various government agencies and universities and is the recipient of multiple awards, including the Fast Track Young Scientist Award and the Young Researcher of the Year Award for 2020, from Aligarh Muslim University. He has published almost 200 research articles in various international scientific journals, 18 book chapters, and 120 edited books with multiple well-known publishers.

Mohd Imran Ahamed, PhD, is a research associate in the Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has published several research and review articles in various international scientific journals and has co-edited multiple books. His research work includes ion-exchange chromatography, wastewater treatment, and analysis, bending actuator and electrospinning.

Rajender Boddula, PhD, is currently working for the Chinese Academy of Sciences President's International Fellowship Initiative (CAS-PIFI) at the National Center forNanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing). His academic honors include multiple fellowships and scholarships, and he has published many scientific articles in international peer-reviewedjournals. He is also serving as an editorial boardmember and a referee for several reputed international peer-reviewed journals. He has published edited books with numerous publishers and has authored over twenty book chapters.

Mashallah Rezakazemi, PhD, received his doctorate from the University of Tehran (UT) in 2015. In his first appointment, he served as associate professor in the Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering at Shahrood University of Technology. He has co-authored in more than 140 highly cited journal publications, conference articles and book chapters. He has received numerous major awards and grants from various funding agencies in recognition of his research. Notable among these are Khwarizmi Youth Award from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), and the Outstanding Young Researcher Award in Chemical Engineering from the Academy of Sciences of Iran. He was named a top 1% most Highly Cited Researcher by Web of Science (ESI).

Inamuddin, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; M. I. Ahamed, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; R. Boddula, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing); M. Rezakazemi, University of Tehran (UT)