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Biofertilizers

Study and Impact

Inamuddin / Ahamed, Mohd Imran / Boddula, Rajender / Rezakazemi, Mashallah (Editor)

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1. Edition August 2021
688 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-72467-4
John Wiley & Sons

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Great attention has been paid to reduce the use of conventional chemical fertilizers harming living beings through food chain supplements from the soil environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative sustainable fertilizers to enhance soil sustainability and agriculture productivity. Biofertilizers are the substance that contains microorganisms (bacteria, algae, and fungi) living or latent cells that can enrich the soil quality with nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, organic matter, etc. They are a cost-effective, biodegradable, and renewable source of plant nutrients/supplements to improve the soil-health properties. Biofertilizers emerge as an attractive alternative to chemical fertilizers, and as a promising cost-effective technology for eco-friendly agriculture and a sustainable environment that holds microorganisms which enhance the soil nutrients' solubility leading a raise in its fertility, stimulates crop growth and healthy food safety.

This book provides in-depth knowledge about history and fundamentals to advances biofertilizers, including latest reviews, challenges, and future perspectives. It covers fabrication approaches, and various types of biofertilizers and their applications in agriculture, environment, forestry and industrial sectors. Also, organic farming, quality control, quality assurance, food safety and case-studies of biofertilizers are briefly discussed. Biofertilizers' physical properties, affecting factors, impact, and industry profiles in the market are well addressed. This book is an essential guide for farmers, agrochemists, environmental engineers, scientists, students, and faculty who would like to understand the science behind the sustainable fertilizers, soil chemistry and agroecology.

Preface xxi

1 Biofertilizer Utilization in Forestry 1
Wendy Ying Ying Liu and Ranjetta Poobathy

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Mechanisms of Actions of Biofertilizers 3

1.2.1 Facilitation of N Acquisition 3

1.2.1.1 Mutualistic N2 Fixation 4

1.2.1.2 Non-Symbiotic N2 Fixation 5

1.2.2 Facilitation of P Acquisition 5

1.2.2.1 Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms 6

1.2.2.2 Mycorrhizas 7

1.2.3 Potassium Solubilization 8

1.2.4 Production of Siderophores 9

1.2.5 Modulation of Phytohormones 10

1.2.6 Phytoprotection 12

1.3 Factors Influencing the Outcome of Forestry-Related Biofertilizer Applications 13

1.4 Applications of Biofertilizers in Forestry 16

1.5 Conclusion and Future Prospects 18

References 20

2 Impact of Biofertilizers on Horticultural Crops 39
Clement Kiing Fook Wong and Chui-Yao Teh

2.1 Introduction 40

2.2 Microbial Strains Used in Biofertilizers 41

2.3 Impact of Biofertilizer Application on Horticultural Crops 41

2.3.1 Increased Yield and Quality of Crops 41

2.3.1.1 Vegetable Crops 44

2.3.1.2 Fruit Crops 46

2.3.1.3 Ornamental Plants 48

2.3.2 Enhanced Nutritional Content of Produce 49

2.3.2.1 Mineral-Biofortified Crops 49

2.3.2.2 Enhanced Secondary Metabolites 50

2.3.2.3 Improved Vitamin Content 51

2.3.3 Improved Tolerance Against Biotic Stress 52

2.3.3.1 Fungal and Bacterial Pathogens 52

2.3.3.2 Viral Pathogens 56

2.3.3.3 Insect Pests 58

2.3.3.4 Nematodes 61

2.3.3.5 Weeds 64

2.3.4 Improved Tolerance Against Abiotic Stress 65

2.3.4.1 Drought 66

2.3.4.2 Salinity 68

2.3.4.3 Heavy Metal 70

2.3.4.4 Cold Stress 71

2.3.4.5 Heat Stress 73

2.3.5 Improved Vegetative Propagation Efficiency 73

2.3.5.1 Propagation by Cuttings 73

2.3.5.2 Grafting 74

2.4 Future Perspectives and Challenges Ahead 75

2.5 Conclusion 79

References 79

3 N2 Fixation in Biofertilizers 105
Rekha Sharma, Sapna Nehra and Dinesh Kumar

3.1 Introduction 106

3.2 Biofertilizers 108

3.2.1 Origin 108

3.3 Biofertilizer: Transporter Constituents 108

3.4 Mechanism of Actions of Biofertilizers 109

3.5 Biochemistry of Manufacture of Biofertilizer 109

3.6 Benefits of Biofertilizer Over Biochemical Fertilizers 110

3.7 Variances Among Organic and Biofertilizer 111

3.8 Types of Biofertilizers 111

3.9 Microorganisms Utilized to Make Biofertilizer 111

3.10 Microorganism in Nitrogen Fixation 113

3.10.1 Biofertilizers: Symbiotic N-Fixers 113

3.10.2 Biofertilizers: Free Living N-Fixers 114

3.10.3 Biofertilizers: Associative Symbiotic N-Fixers 114

3.11 Phosphorus Solubilizing Microbes 115

3.12 Conclusion and Future Prospect 115

Acknowledgments 116

Abbreviations 116

References 117

4 Organic Farming by Biofertilizers 121
Anuradha and Jagvir Singh

4.1 Introduction 122

4.2 Biofertilizers 123

4.2.1 Benefits of Biofertilizers 126

4.2.2 Method of Biofertilizer Application 126

4.2.2.1 Seed Treatment 126

4.2.2.2 Seedling Treatment 127

4.2.2.3 Setts and Tuta Treatment 127

4.2.2.4 Soil Treatment 127

4.2.3 Precautions During Application of Biofertilizers 127

4.3 Classification of Biofertilizers 128

4.3.1 Nitrogen Fixer Bacteria 128

4.3.1.1 Commercial Applications 129

4.3.2 Cyanobacteria as Biofertilizers 130

4.3.2.1 Commercial Applications 130

4.3.2.2 Factors Affecting Cyanobacteria Biofertilizer 131

4.3.3 Mycorrhiza as Biofertilizers 131

4.3.3.1 Ectotrophic Mycorrhiza 132

4.3.3.2 Endotrophic Mycorrhiza 132

4.3.3.3 Changes in Mineral Compounds 133

4.3.3.4 Manure Value and Its Importance 133

4.3.4 Azolla as Biofertilizer 134

4.3.5 Vermicompost 135

4.3.5.1 Method of Vermicompost 135

4.4 Organic Farming 136

4.4.1 Objectives of Organic Farming 136

4.4.2 Benefits of Organic Farming 136

4.4.3 Benefit for Environment 137

4.4.4 Methods of Organic Farming 137

4.4.5 Techniques for Organic Farming 137

4.4.5.1 Crop Diversity 138

4.4.5.2 Soil Management 138

4.4.5.3 Weed Management 138

4.5 Traditional Agriculture vs. Organic and Inorganic Farming 139

4.5.1 Problems Created by Traditional Farming 139

4.6 Reasons for Doing Organic Farming 140

4.6.1 To Save Soil Health 140

4.6.2 To Preserve Nutrients 141

4.6.3 To Reduce the Cost of Agriculture 141

4.6.4 To Prevent Hazardous Elements in Animal Products 141

4.6.5 To Protect the Environment 141

4.6.6 Natural and Good Taste 142

4.7 Advantage of Organic Farming 142

4.7.1 Good Nutrition 142

4.7.2 Good Health 142

4.7.3 Freedom From Poison 142

4.7.4 Less Money 143

4.7.5 Great Taste 143

4.7.6 Environmental Safety 143

4.8 Disadvantages of Organic Farming 143

4.8.1 Lack of Information 143

4.8.2 Lack of Outline 143

4.8.3 Making More Money in the Beginning 144

4.9 Conclusion 144

Acknowledgement 144

References 144

5 Phosphorus Solubilizing Microorganisms 151
Rafig Gurbanov, Berkay Kalkanci, Hazel Karadag and Gizem Samgane

5.1 Phosphorus Pollution 152

5.2 Phosphate Solubilization 153

5.3 Microbial Mechanisms of Phosphate Solubilization 155

5.3.1 Organic Phosphate Solubilization 156

5.3.2 Inorganic Phosphate Solubilization 156

5.4 Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria 158

5.5 Phosphate-Solubilizing Fungi 160

5.5.1 Phosphate-Solubilizing Fungi as Plant Growth Promoters 162

5.5.2 The Methods of using Phosphate-Solubilizing Fungi in Agriculture 164

5.6 Bacteria-Fungi Consortium for Phosphate Solubilization 165

5.7 Conclusions 167

References 167

6 Exophytical and Endophytical Interactions of Plants and Microbial Activities 183
A. Mbotho, D. Selikane, J.S. Sefadi and M.J. Mochane

6.1 Introduction 184

6.2 Beneficial Interactions 185

6.2.1 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi 186

6.2.2 Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms 189

6.2.3 Rhizobia 193

6.2.4 Endophytes 194

6.3 Pathogenic (Harmful) Interactions 194

6.3.1 Oomycetes 195

6.3.2 Fungi 198

6.3.3 Bacteria 199

6.3.4 Viruses 200

6.4 Conclusion 203

References 204

7 Biofertilizer Formulations 211
Sana Saif, Zeeshan Abid, Muhammad Faheem Ashiq, Muhammad Altaf and Raja Shahid Ashraf

List of Abbreviations 212

7.1 Introduction 212

7.1.1 Evolution of Biofertilizers 212

7.1.2 Biofertilizers: A Sustainable Approach 213

7.2 Biofertilizer Formulations 215

7.2.1 Selection of Strain 215

7.2.1.1 Microbial Strains 215

7.3 Types of Formulations 227

7.3.1 Carrier-Based/Powder Formulations 230

7.3.1.1 Selection of Carrier Material 230

7.3.1.2 Sterilization of Carrier 235

7.3.2 Granular Formulations 236

7.3.3 Liquid Formulations 236

7.3.3.1 Inoculant Preparation 237

7.3.3.2 Common Additives 238

7.3.4 Cell Immobilization 239

7.3.4.1 Polymer Entrapped Formulations 239

7.3.4.2 Advantages and Constrains 243

7.3.5 Fluid Bed-Dried Formulation 243

7.3.6 Mycorrhizal Formulations 244

7.4 Stickers 246

7.5 Additives 246

7.6 Packaging 246

7.7 Conclusion 247

References 247

8 Scoping the Use of Transgenic Microorganisms as Potential Biofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Safety 257
Vasavi Rama Karri and Nirmala Nalluri

8.1 Introduction 258

8.2 Role of Nitrogen in Plant Growth and Development 260

8.2.1 Microorganisms Involved in Nitrogen Fixation 260

8.3 Importance of Phosphorus 261

8.3.1 Microbes Involved in Phosphate Solubilization 262

8.3.2 Reducing the pH of Soil 262

8.3.3 Mineralization 263

8.3.4 Chelation 263

8.3.5 Promotion of Plant Growth by PSMs 263

8.3.6 Approach of Using PSMs as Biofertilizer and the Future Perspective 264

8.4 Significance of Potassium (K) 265

8.4.1 Microorganisms Involved in Potassium Hydrolyzation 265

8.4.2 Effect of KSB on Plant Growth and Yield 266

8.4.3 Abilities and Objections of K Solubilizing Bacteria 266

8.5 Biofertilizers Used in Agriculture 267

8.5.1 Mycorrhiza 268

8.5.2 Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) 268

8.6 Role of Biotechnology in Agricultural Sector 268

8.6.1 Development of Potent Microbial Strains Through Genetic Engineering Approach to Produce Efficient Biofertilizers 269

8.6.2 Genetically Altered Transgenic Azotobacter vinelandii as an Effective Diazotrophs Biofertilizer 270

8.6.3 Phytostimuators and Biofertilizers 271

8.6.4 Azospirillum 272

8.6.5 Generation of Genetically Modified Transgenic Azospirillum Strains With Enhanced Levels of Phytoharmone Secretion 274

8.6.6 Development of Rhizobium Strains With Increased Competitiveness by Genetic Modification 275

8.6.7 Effect of GM Rhizobial strains on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi 278

8.6.8 Release of Genetically Manipulated Rhizobium for Field Trails 279

8.7 Conclusion 280

Acknowledgements 281

References 281

9 Biofertilizer Utilization in Agricultural Sector 293
Osikemekha Anthony Anani, Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Osayomwanbo Osarenotor and Inamuddin

9.1 Introduction 294

9.2 Application of Biofertilizer as Bioaugmentation Agent for Bioremediation of Heavily Polluted Soil 295

9.3 Advantages of Biofertilizer in Comparison With Synthetic Fertilizer 296

9.4 Specific Examples of a Biofertilizer for Crop Improvement in Agricultural Sector 298

9.5 Management of Biotic and Abiotic Stress 301

9.6 Combinatory Effect of Biofertilizer With Other Substance and Their Effect on Crops 303

9.7 Conclusion and Recommendation to Knowledge 305

References 306

10 Azospirillum: A Salient Source for Sustainable Agriculture 309
Rimjim Gogoi, Sukanya Baruah and Jiban Saikia

10.1 Introduction 309

10.1.1 The Genus Azospirillum 311

10.1.2 Properties of Azospirillum spp. 312

10.1.2.1 Chemotaxis 312

10.1.2.2 Aerotaxis 313

10.1.2.3 Formation of Cysts and Aggregates or Flocs 313

10.1.2.4 Survivability in Rhizosphere and Bulk Soil 314

10.1.2.5 Competition With Other Soil Microorganisms 316

10.1.2.6 Association With Plant Roots 316

10.2 Azospirillum and Induction of Stimulatory Effects for Promoting Plant Growth 318

10.3 Applications in Various Fields 320

10.4 Current Status 324

10.5 Challenges in Large-Scale Commercial Applications of Azospirillum Inoculants 327

10.6 Programs Employed for Enhanced Applications of Azospirillum Inoculants 328

10.7 Conclusion and Future Prospects 329

References 330

11 Actinomycetes: Implications and Prospects in Sustainable Agriculture 335
V. Shanthi

11.1 Introduction 336

11.2 Role in Maintaining Soil Fertility 338

11.2.1 Nitrogen Fixation 338

11.2.2 Phosphate Solubilization 340

11.2.3 Potassium Solubilization 342

11.3 Role in Maintaining Soil Ecology 342

11.4 Role as Biocontrol Agents 345

11.4.1 Production of Antibiotics 346

11.4.2 Production of Siderophores 348

11.4.3 Production of Hydrogen Cyanide 349

11.4.4 Production of Lytic Enzymes 349

11.5 Role as Plant Stress Busters 351

11.5.1 Resistance From Heavy Metal Toxicity 352

11.5.2 Resistance Against Drought/Water Deficit 354

11.5.3 Resistance Toward Salinity 355

11.6 Conclusion 355

11.7 Future Perspectives 356

References 357

12 Influence of Growth Pattern of Cyanobacterial Species on Biofertilizer Production 371
Jasti Tejaswi, Kaligotla Venkata Subrahmanya Anirudh, Lalitha Rishika Majeti, Viswanatha Chaitanya Kolluru and Rajesh K. Srivastava

12.1 Introduction 371

12.2 Habit and Habitat of Cyanobacteria 373

12.3 Morphology and Mode of Reproduction 373

12.4 Role of a Fertilizer in Plant Growth 375

12.4.1 Synthetic Fertilizers 376

12.4.2 Organic Fertilizers 377

12.4.3 Biofertilizer 377

12.5 Cyanobacteria as Biofertilizer 379

12.6 Production of Cyanobacteria 381

12.7 Methods for In Vitro Culture of Cyanobacteria 382

12.7.1 Macro- and Microelements 382

12.7.2 Temperature 383

12.7.3 Light and Cell Density 383

12.7.4 Media 383

12.8 Methods for Gene Transfer into Cyanobacteria 384

12.8.1 DNA-Mediated Transformation 385

12.8.2 Electroporation 385

12.8.3 Conjugation 386

12.8.4 Biolistic Method 386

12.9 Conclusion and Future Prospects 386

12.10 Abbreviations 387

References 388

13 Biofertilizers Application in Agriculture: A Viable Option to Chemical Fertilizers 393
Rajesh K. Srivastava

13.1 Introduction 394

13.2 Chemical Fertilizer 397

13.2.1 Customized Fertilizers 400

13.2.2 Fortified Fertilizer 400

13.3 Biofertilizers 400

13.3.1 Biocompost 403

13.3.2 Trichocard 404

13.3.3 Trichocard Production 405

13.3.4 Azotobacter 405

13.3.5 Phosphorus 406

13.3.6 Vermicompost 406

13.4 Conclusion 408

13.5 Abbreviations 408

References 408

14 Quality Control of Biofertilizers 413
Swati Agarwal, Sonu Kumari and Suphiya Khan

14.1 Introduction 413

14.2 Biofertilizer Requirement and Supply 414

14.3 Process of Biofertilizer Quality Control 416

14.4 Requirement of Quality Control 417

14.5 Standards for Biofertilizers Quality Control 419

14.6 Methods for Quality Testing 421

14.6.1 Microbiological Methods 422

14.6.2 Serological Methods 422

14.6.3 Molecular Methods 423

14.7 Conclusion 423

Acknowledgement 423

References 424

15 Biofertilizers: Characteristic Features and Applications 429
Tanushree Chakraborty and Nasim Akhtar

15.1 Introduction 430

15.2 Types of Biofertilizers 430

15.3 Characteristic Features and Applications of Biofertilizers 431

15.3.1 Cyanobacteria Biofertilizer 431

15.3.2 Actinomycetes 435

15.3.3 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii 436

15.3.4 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) 436

15.3.5 Bacillus thuringiensis 437

15.3.6 Microalgae 438

15.4 Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and Fungus (PSF) 438

15.4.1 Azotobacter 439

15.4.2 Azospirillum 440

15.4.3 Paenibacillus 440

15.4.4 Phyllosphere Associated Methylobacterium 441

15.4.5 MO Plus Biofertilizer 441

15.5 Effect of Biofertilizer on Various Plants (Experimental Design) 442

15.5.1 Azotobacter spp. (AZT) and Azospirillum spp. (AZP) on Eucalyptus grandis 442

15.5.2 Bradyrhizobium Strains and Streptomyces griseoflavus on Some Leguminous, Cereal, and Vegetable Crops 443

15.5.3 Rhizobium and Rhizobacteria on Trifolium repens 444

15.5.4 Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Phosphate Solubilizing Fungi on Coffee Plants 445

15.5.5 Glutamicibacter halophytocola KLBMP 5180

on Tomato Seedlings 446

15.6 Screening of Microbes for Biofertilizer 447

15.6.1 Screening for Phosphate Solubilization 447

15.6.2 Screening for Potassium Solubilizing 447

15.6.3 Screening for Nitrogen-Fixing 448

15.6.4 Screening for Zinc Solubilization 448

15.6.5 Screening for Ammonia Production 448

15.6.6 Screening for Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Production 448

15.6.7 Screening for Siderophores 448

15.6.8 Screening for Auxin Production 449

15.6.9 Screening for Gibberellic Acid Production 449

15.6.10 Screening for Production of Chitinase 449

15.7 Limitations of Biofertilizers 449

15.8 Success of Biofertilizer 450

15.9 Debottlenecking 453

15.10 Optimization of Biofertilizer 456

15.10.1 Optimization of Phosphate Solubilization 456

15.11 Concomitant of Biofertilizer 458

15.12 New Approach 458

15.13 Conclusion and Future Prospects 459

References 460

16 Fabrication Approaches for Biofertilizers 491
Andrew N. Amenaghawon, Chinedu L. Anyalewechi and Heri Septya Kusuma

16.1 Introduction 492

16.2 Biofertilizers 492

16.3 Types of Biofertilizers 493

16.3.1 Nitrogen-Fixing Biofertilizers 493

16.3.1.1 Rhizobium 494

16.3.1.2 Azospirillum 494

16.3.1.3 Azotobacter 495

16.3.2 Phosphorus-Solubilizing Biofertilizers 495

16.3.3 Phosphate-Mobilizing Biofertilizer (Mycorrhizae) 496

16.3.4 Potassium Biofertilizer 497

16.3.5 Growth-Promoting Biofertilizers 497

16.3.6 Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) 498

16.4 Preparation Approaches for Biofertilizers 499

16.4.1 Inoculant Formulation 499

16.4.2 Carriers for Biofertilizer Preparation 500

16.4.2.1 Sterilized Carriers 500

16.4.3 Carrier Form 501

16.5 Methods of Biofertilizer Formulation 501

16.5.1 Solid-Based Carrier Bioformulation 501

16.5.1.1 Peat Formulations 502

16.5.2 Liquid Inoculants Formulation 503

16.5.3 Polymer-Based Formulation 504

16.5.3.1 Alginate Formulations 504

16.5.4 Fluidized Bed Dried Formulation 504

16.5.5 Particles From Gas Saturated Solutions (PGSS) Method 505

16.5.6 Bionanoformulations 505

16.6 Application Modes for Biofertilizers 506

16.6.1 Seed Treatment 506

16.6.2 Seedling Root Dipping 506

16.6.3 Soil Application 507

16.7 Factors Affecting the Preparation of Biofertilizers 507

16.8 Beneficial Effects of Biofertilizers 508

16.9 Challenges and Limitations of Biofertilizers 509

16.10 Future Prospects 509

16.11 Conclusion 510

References 511

17 Biofertilizers From Waste 517
Rafaela Basso Sartori, Ihana Aguiar Severo, Álisson Santos de Oliveira, Paola Lasta, Leila Queiroz Zepka and Eduardo Jacob-Lopes

17.1 Introduction 518

17.2 Waste Sources 519

17.3 Technologies for Waste Treatment 521

17.3.1 Conventional Technologies 521

17.3.2 Emerging Technologies 522

17.3.2.1 Nutrients Recovery From Wastes by Microalgae 523

17.3.2.2 Overall Process Operations 526

17.4 Main Applications of Microalgae Biofertilizers 528

17.4.1 Fertility and Soil Quality 528

17.4.1.1 Nitrogen Fixation 528

17.4.1.2 Carbon Sequestration 529

17.4.1.3 Soil Organic Matter, Improvement, and Recovery 530

17.4.2 Promotion of Plant Growth, Disease, and Pest Control 531

17.4.2.1 Plant Colonization and Hormone Production 531

17.4.2.2 Disease and Pest Control 532

17.5 Conclusion and Recommendations 532

References 533

18 Biofertilizers Industry Profiles in Market 541
Kashish Gupta

18.1 Biofertilizers and Biofertilizer Technology 541

18.1.1 Benefits of Different Biofertilizers 542

18.2 Limitations in Usage of Biofertilizers 543

18.3 Biofertilizer Market Segments 544

18.4 Biofertilizers Market Drivers in India 546

18.5 Present Scenario of Biofertilizer Market 547

18.6 Key Players of Biofertilizers in Indian Market 549

18.7 Problems in Promotion of Biofertilizer 550

18.8 Popular Marketed Biofertilizers in Indian Market 553

18.9 Recent Trends in Biofertilizer: Liquid Biofertilizer 554

18.9.1 Specialties of Liquid Biofertilizer 554

18.10 Conclusion and Future Scope 555

References 556

19 Case Study on Biofertilizer Utilization in African Continents 561
Osikemekha Anthony Anani and Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji

19.1 Introduction 562

19.2 Specific Examples of Biofertilizer for Crop Improvement, Environmental Bioremediation, and Their Advantages and Challenges in Africa 563

19.3 Conclusion and Future Recommendations 570

References 570

20 Biofertilizers: Prospects and Challenges for Future 575
Tanushree Chakraborty and Nasim Akhtar

20.1 Introduction 576

20.2 Definition 579

20.2.1 Helper Bacteria 579

20.2.2 The Point of Difference 580

20.3 Advances in Biofertilizer 580

20.4 Preparation of Biofertilizer 581

20.5 The Carrier Materials 581

20.6 Production System of Biofertilizer 582

20.7 Mechanism of Growth-Promoting Activity of Biofertilizers 583

20.8 Advantages and Limitations 584

20.9 Future Aspects 584

20.10 Conclusion 585

References 586

21 Biofertilizers: Past, Present, and Future 591
Mukta Sharma and Manoj Sharma

21.1 Introduction 592

21.2 Biofertilizer: A Brief History 593

21.3 Biofertilizer Classification 594

21.4 Different Paradigms of Biofertilizers 596

21.4.1 Impregnation of Fertilizers and Fertilizer Use Efficiency 596

21.4.2 Inoculants of Mixtures of Microorganisms 597

21.4.3 Different Formulations of Inoculants 597

21.4.4 Inoculant Carrier 598

21.4.5 Biofertilizer Carriers and Liquid Formulations 599

21.4.6 Controlled Release Techniques: Encapsulation, Lyophilization, and Drying 600

21.5 Biofertilizers: Current Status 601

21.6 Biofertilizers: Future Paradigm 601

21.7 Conclusion 602

References 603

22 Algal Biofertilizer 607
Muhammad Mudassir Iqbal, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Zahid Shafiq and Haseeba Razzaq

22.1 Introduction 608

22.2 Algae and Algal Biofertilizers 609

22.2.1 Algae is a Polyphyletic Functional Group 609

22.2.2 Multifaceted Role of Algal Biofertilizer in Sustainable Cultivation 610

22.2.3 Biostimulants From Algae 612

22.3 Techniques of Application of Algal Biofertilizer 613

22.3.1 Algal Extracts as Biofertilizer 613

22.3.2 Addition of Algal Strains and Algal Biofertilizer to Soil 619

22.4 Cultivation of Algae and Production of Algal Biofertilizer 625

22.5 Conclusion 630

References 630

Index 637
Inamuddin, PhD, is an assistant professor at the Department of Applied Chemistry, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has extensive research experience in analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, electrochemistry, renewable energy, and environmental science. He has worked on different research projects funded by various government agencies and universities and is the recipient of multiple awards, including the Fast Track Young Scientist Award and the Young Researcher of the Year Award for 2020, from Aligarh Muslim University. He has published almost 200 research articles in various international scientific journals, 18 book chapters, and 120 edited books with multiple well-known publishers.

Mohd Imran Ahamed, PhD, is a research associate in the Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has published several research and review articles in various international scientific journals and has co-edited multiple books. His research work includes ion-exchange chromatography, wastewater treatment, and analysis, bending actuator and electrospinning.

Rajender Boddula, PhD, is currently working for the Chinese Academy of Sciences President's International Fellowship Initiative (CAS-PIFI) at the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing). His academic honors include multiple fellowships and scholarships, and he has published many scientific articles in international peer-reviewed journals. He is also serving as an editorial board member and a referee for several reputed international peer-reviewed journals. He has published edited books with numerous publishers and has authored over twenty book chapters.

Mashallah Rezakazemi, PhD, received his doctorate from the University of Tehran (UT) in 2015. In his first appointment, he served as associate professor in the Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering at Shahrood University of Technology. He has co-authored in more than 140 highly cited journal publications, conference articles and book chapters. He has received numerous major awards and grants from various funding agencies in recognition of his research. Notable among these are Khwarizmi Youth Award from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), and the Outstanding Young Researcher Award in Chemical Engineering from the Academy of Sciences of Iran. He was named a top 1% most Highly Cited Researcher by Web of Science (ESI).

Inamuddin, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; M. I. Ahamed, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; R. Boddula, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing); M. Rezakazemi, University of Tehran (UT), Iran