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Smart Grid Telecommunications

Fundamentals and Technologies in the 5G Era

Sendin, Alberto / Matanza, Javier / Ferrus, Ramon

Wiley - IEEE

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1. Edition September 2021
384 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-75537-1
John Wiley & Sons

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SMART GRID TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Discover the foundations and main applications of telecommunications to smart grids

In Smart Grid Telecommunications, renowned researchers and authors Drs. Alberto Sendin, Javier Matanza, and Ramon Ferrús deliver a focused treatment of the fundamentals and main applications of telecommunication technologies in smart grids. Aimed at engineers and professionals who work with power systems, the book explains what smart grids are and where telecommunications are needed to solve their various challenges.

Power engineers will benefit from explanations of the main concepts of telecommunications and how they are applied to the different domains of a smart grid. Telecommunication engineers will gain an understanding of smart grid applications and services and will learn from the explanations of how telecommunications need to be adapted to work with them.

The authors offer a simplified vision of smart grids with rigorous coverage of the latest advances in the field, while avoiding some of the technical complexities that can hinder understanding in this area. The book offers:
* Discussions of why telecommunications are necessary in smart grids and the various telecommunication services and systems relevant for them
* An exploration of foundational telecommunication concepts ranging from system-level aspects, such as network topologies, multi-layer architectures and protocol stacks, to communications channel transmission- and reception-level aspects
* Examinations of telecommunication-related smart grid services and systems, including SCADA, protection and teleprotection, smart metering, substation and distribution automation, synchrophasors, distributed energy resources, electric vehicles, and microgrids
* A treatment of wireline and wireless telecommunication technologies, like DWDM, Ethernet, IP, MPLS, PONs, PLC, BPL, 3GPP cellular 4G and 5G technologies, Zigbee, Wi-SUN, LoRaWAN, and Sigfox, addressing their architectures, characteristics, and limitations

Ideal for engineers working in power systems or telecommunications as network architects, operations managers, planners, or in regulation-related activities, Smart Grid Telecommunications is also an invaluable resource for telecommunication network and smart grid architects.

Author Biographies xv

Preface xvii

Acronyms xxi

1 The Smart Grid: A General Perspective 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Electric Power Systems 1

1.2.1 Electricity 2

1.2.1.1 Frequency and Voltage 3

1.2.2 The Grid 4

1.2.2.1 The Grid from a Technical Perspective 5

1.2.2.2 The Grid from a Regulatory Perspective 9

1.2.3 Grid Operations 12

1.2.4 The Grid Assets 14

1.2.4.1 Substations 14

1.2.4.2 Power Lines 16

1.3 A Practical Definition of the Smart Grid 18

1.4 Why Telecommunications Are Instrumental for the Smart Grid 20

1.5 Challenges of the Smart Grid in Connection with Telecommunications 23

1.5.1 Customer Engagement Challenges 23

1.5.1.1 Customers as Smart Electricity Consumers 23

1.5.1.2 Customers as Energy Generators 24

1.5.2 Grid Control Challenges 25

1.6 Challenges of Telecommunications for Smart Grids 26

1.6.1 Telecommunication Solutions for Smart Grids 26

1.6.2 Standards for Telecommunications for Smart Grids 27

1.6.3 Groups of Interest Within Telecommunications for Smart Grids 29

1.6.4 Locations to be Served with Telecommunications 29

1.6.5 Telecommunication Services Control 31

1.6.6 Environmental Conditions 32

1.6.7 Distributed Intelligence 34

1.6.8 Resilient Telecommunication Networks and Services 34

1.6.9 Telecommunications Special Solution for Utilities 35

References 36

2 Telecommunication Networks and Systems Concepts 41

2.1 Introduction 41

2.2 Telecommunication Networks, Systems, and Services Definitions 41

2.3 Telecommunication Model and Services 42

2.3.1 Telecommunication Model 42

2.3.2 Analog and Digital Telecommunications 44

2.3.3 Types of Telecommunications Services 45

2.4 Telecommunication Networks 46

2.4.1 Network Topologies 48

2.4.2 Transport and Switching/Routing Functions 48

2.4.3 Circuit-switched and Packet-switched Networks 50

2.4.3.1 Circuit-switched Technologies 51

2.4.3.2 Packet-switched Technology 51

2.4.3.3 Multilayered Telecommunication Networks 54

2.4.4 Telecommunications Networks and Computing 55

2.5 Protocol Architectures for Telecommunication Networks 55

2.5.1 Why a Protocol Layered Model Is Needed 55

2.5.2 The OSI Model 56

2.5.3 The TCP/IP Protocol Stack 57

2.5.4 User, Control, and Management Planes 59

2.6 Transmission Media in Telecommunications for Smart Grids 59

2.6.1 Optical Fibers 61

2.6.1.1 Optical Fiber Cables for Smart Grids 63

2.6.1.2 Optical Fiber Cables Specifications 65

2.6.2 Radio Spectrum 67

2.6.2.1 Radio Spectrum for Utility Telecommunications 69

2.6.2.2 Radio Spectrum Use 70

2.7 Electricity Cables 71

2.7.1 PLC Use 73

References 75

3 Telecommunication Fundamental Concepts 79

3.1 Introduction 79

3.2 Signals 79

3.2.1 Analog vs. Digital 79

3.2.1.1 Continuous vs. Discrete 79

3.2.1.2 Sampling 81

3.2.1.3 Quantizing and Coding 81

3.2.1.4 Analog and Digital Signals 82

3.2.2 Frequency Representation of Signals 83

3.2.2.1 The Continuous-time Fourier Transform 83

3.2.2.2 The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform 85

3.2.3 Bandwidth 88

3.3 Transmission and Reception 89

3.3.1 Modulation 89

3.3.1.1 Example of a Simple Analog Modulation: Double Sideband 91

3.3.1.2 Example of a Simple Digital Modulation: Quadrature-Phase Shift Keying 91

3.3.2 Channel Impairments 93

3.3.2.1 Attenuation 93

3.3.2.2 Noise and Interference 93

3.3.2.3 Signal Distortion 94

3.3.3 Demodulation, Equalization, and Detection 97

3.3.3.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Bit Error Rate 97

3.3.3.2 Channel Equalization 98

3.3.4 Multiplexing 99

3.3.5 Channel Coding 103

3.3.5.1 A Simple Example of Coding 104

3.3.5.2 Interleaving 106

3.3.5.3 Advanced Coding Techniques 106

3.3.5.4 Channel Coding in Multicarrier Modulations 107

3.3.6 Duplexing 107

3.3.7 Multiple Access 108

3.3.7.1 TDMA/FDMA/CDMA/OFDMA 108

3.3.7.2 Multiple Access Methods 109

3.3.7.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (Collision Avoidance/Collision Detection) 109

3.4 Signal Propagation 110

3.4.1 Optical Fiber Propagation 110

3.4.1.1 Optical Communications Components 110

3.4.1.2 Optical Fiber Propagation Phenomena 111

3.4.2 Radio Propagation 112

3.4.2.1 Antennas 113

3.4.2.2 Array Antennas and Beamforming 113

3.4.2.3 Free-space Propagation Phenomena 114

3.4.3 Link Budget 115

References 116

4 Transport, Switching, and Routing Technologies 117

4.1 Introduction 117

4.2 Transport Networks 117

4.2.1 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) 118

4.2.2 SDH/SONET 119

4.2.3 DWDM 121

4.2.4 Optical Transport Network (OTN) 123

4.3 Switching and Routing 124

4.3.1 Switching Principles 124

4.3.1.1 Switching Process 125

4.3.1.2 Solving Switching Loops: Spanning Tree Protocol 126

4.3.2 Routing Principles 127

4.3.2.1 Routing Classification 127

4.3.2.2 Routing Metrics 128

4.3.2.3 Autonomous Systems 129

4.3.2.4 Routing Algorithms 129

4.3.2.5 Routing Protocols 131

4.3.3 Ethernet 132

4.3.3.1 Carrier Ethernet 133

4.3.4 Internet Protocol (IP) 133

4.3.5 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 134

4.3.5.1 Multiprotocol Label Switching - Transport Profile (MPLS-TP) 134

References 135

5 Smart Grid Applications and Services 137

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Smart Grid Applications and Their Telecommunication Needs 137

5.3 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 139

5.3.1 Components 140

5.3.2 Protocols 141

5.3.2.1 Central Infrastructure to Field Protocols 142

5.3.2.2 Central Infrastructure Protocols 143

5.4 Protection 143

5.5 Distribution Automation 147

5.5.1 Distributed Energy Resources Integration 148

5.5.2 Electric Vehicles Integration 150

5.5.3 Fault Location, Isolation, and Service Restoration 151

5.5.4 Indices for Operations Performance 151

5.6 Substation Automation 153

5.7 Metering 158

5.8 Synchrophasors 161

5.9 Customers 164

5.9.1 Demand-side Management 165

5.9.2 Energy Management 166

5.9.3 Microgrids 168

5.10 Power Lines 169

5.10.1 Flexible AC Transmission System 169

5.10.2 Dynamic Line Rating 169

5.11 Premises and People 170

5.11.1 Business Connectivity 170

5.11.2 Workforce Mobility 171

5.11.3 Surveillance 172

References 174

6 Optical Fiber and PLC Access Technologies 179

6.1 Introduction 179

6.2 Optical Fiber Passive Network Technologies 179

6.2.1 Mainstream Technologies and Standards 180

6.2.1.1 PON Technologies Evolution 180

6.2.1.2 Supported Services and Applicability Scenarios 183

6.2.1.3 Spectrum 184

6.2.1.4 System Architecture 184

6.2.2 Main Capabilities and Features 186

6.2.2.1 Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing 186

6.2.2.2 Features Needed in PONs 187

6.2.2.3 Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment 187

6.2.3 ITU's GPON Family 188

6.2.3.1 GPON 188

6.2.3.2 XG(S)-PON 190

6.2.3.3 NG-PON2 190

6.2.4 IEEE's EPON Family 191

6.2.4.1 EPON 191

6.2.4.2 10G-EPON 191

6.3 Power Line Communication Technologies 191

6.3.1 Mainstream Technologies and Standards 192

6.3.1.1 PLC Technologies Evolution 192

6.3.1.2 Supported Services and Applicability Scenarios 193

6.3.1.3 Architecture 194

6.3.2 Main Capabilities and Features 196

6.3.2.1 Common Transceiver Designs in PLC Systems 196

6.3.2.2 PLC Signal Coupling 197

6.3.3 Narrowband PLC Systems 198

6.3.3.1 ITU-T G.9904 (PRIME v1.3) 198

6.3.3.2 Future ITU-T G.9904.1 (PRIME v1.4) 204

6.3.3.3 ITU-T G.9903 (G3-PLC) 205

6.3.3.4 IEEE 1901.2 209

6.3.3.5 ITU-T G.9902 (G.hnem) 210

6.3.4 Broadband PLC Systems 211

6.3.4.1 IEEE 1901 211

6.3.4.2 ITU-T G.996x (G.hn) 214

6.4 Applicability to Smart Grids 215

6.4.1 Passive vs. Active Optical Fiber Networks 216

6.4.2 Broadband PLC over Medium Voltage for Secondary Substation Connectivity 217

6.4.3 High Data Rate Narrowband PLC over the Low Voltage Grid for Smart Metering 218

References 220

7 Wireless Cellular Technologies 225

7.1 Introduction 225

7.2 Mainstream Technologies and Standards 225

7.2.1 Cellular Technologies Evolution 225

7.2.1.1 1G and 2G. Voice-centric, Circuit-switched Services 225

7.2.1.2 3G. Paving the Way for Mobile Data Services 227

7.2.1.3 4G. The First Global Standard for Mobile Broadband 227

7.2.1.4 5G. Expanding the Applicability Domain of Cellular Technologies 228

7.2.2 Supported Services and Applicability Scenarios 229

7.2.2.1 Service Categories 229

7.2.2.2 Performance Indicators 229

7.2.2.3 Commercial Networks and Private Networks 229

7.2.3 Spectrum 231

7.2.3.1 Spectrum Harmonization. IMT Bands 231

7.2.3.2 Frequency Bands Being Prioritized for 5G 232

7.2.3.3 Spectrum Exploitation Models 233

7.2.4 3GPP Standardization 235

7.3 System Architecture 237

7.3.1 High-level Architecture of 4G/5G Systems 237

7.3.2 Radio Access Network 240

7.3.2.1 E-UTRAN 240

7.3.2.2 NG-RAN 246

7.3.3 Core Network 250

7.3.3.1 Evolved Packet Core 250

7.3.3.2 5G Core Network 252

7.3.3.3 Transitioning from 4G to 5G 255

7.3.4 Service Platforms 256

7.3.4.1 IMS and Voice Services over 4G/5G 256

7.3.4.2 5G Service Frameworks and Application Enablers 256

7.3.5 Main System Procedures 257

7.3.5.1 Network Registration 257

7.3.5.2 Service Request 258

7.3.5.3 PDU Session Establishment 259

7.3.5.4 Handover 260

7.4 Main Capabilities and Features 261

7.4.1 LTE Radio Interface 261

7.4.1.1 Operating Bands 262

7.4.1.2 Time-frequency Resource Grid 262

7.4.1.3 Scheduling, Link Adaptation, and Power Control 264

7.4.1.4 Fast Retransmissions and Minimum Latency 265

7.4.1.5 Multiple-antenna Transmission and Reception 265

7.4.1.6 Carrier Aggregation and Dual Connectivity 266

7.4.1.7 Physical Signals and Physical Channels 266

7.4.1.8 Mapping Between Physical, Transport, and Logical Channels 269

7.4.1.9 Radio Access Procedures 270

7.4.2 5G NR Interface 271

7.4.2.1 Flexible Waveform and Numerologies 272

7.4.2.2 Reduced Latency 274

7.4.2.3 Bandwidth Parts 274

7.4.2.4 Flexible Placement of the Control Channels 274

7.4.2.5 Massive MIMO and Beamforming 276

7.4.2.6 New Operating Bands 276

7.4.3 Edge Computing Support 276

7.4.4 QoS Parameters and Characteristics 278

7.4.5 Network Slicing 278

7.4.6 Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum 280

7.4.7 Private Networks 281

7.5 Applicability to Smart Grids 282

7.5.1 Smart Metering 285

7.5.2 Distribution Grid Multiservice Access 287

References 289

8 Wireless IoT Technologies 293

8.1 Introduction 293

8.2 Mainstream Wireless IoT Technologies for the Smart Grid 293

8.3 IEEE 802.15.4-based Technologies: Zigbee and Wi-SUN 294

8.3.1 Scope and Standardization 294

8.3.1.1 IEEE 802.15.4 Standard 294

8.3.1.2 Zigbee 296

8.3.1.3 Wi-SUN 297

8.3.2 Network and Protocol Stack Architecture 297

8.3.2.1 Network Components and Topologies 297

8.3.2.2 Zigbee Network Architecture and Protocol Stack 300

8.3.2.3 Wi-SUN FAN Network Architecture and Protocol Stack 300

8.3.3 Main Capabilities and Features 302

8.3.3.1 IEEE 802.15.4 Physical Layer 302

8.3.3.2 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer 303

8.3.3.3 Zigbee Specifics 304

8.3.3.4 Wi-SUN FAN Specifics 305

8.4 Unlicensed Spectrum-based LPWAN: LoRaWAN and Sigfox 307

8.4.1 Scope and Standardization 307

8.4.2 LoRaWAN 308

8.4.2.1 Network Architecture and Protocol Stack 308

8.4.2.2 Protocol Frame Structure 309

8.4.2.3 Physical Layer 310

8.4.2.4 MAC Layer 310

8.4.3 Sigfox 311

8.4.3.1 Network Architecture and Protocol Stack 311

8.4.3.2 Protocol Frame Structure 312

8.4.3.3 Physical Layer 313

8.4.3.4 MAC Layer 314

8.5 Cellular IoT: LTE-M and NB-IoT 314

8.5.1 Scope and Standardization 314

8.5.2 Network and Protocol Stack Architecture 315

8.5.2.1 New Network Attach Method and Connectivity Options 315

8.5.2.2 New Network Entities 316

8.5.2.3 Control Plane and Data Plane Optimizations 317

8.5.3 Main Capabilities and Features 317

8.5.3.1 LTE-M Radio Access 317

8.5.3.2 NB-IoT Radio Access 322

8.5.3.3 Operation in Unlicensed Spectrum 325

8.5.3.4 LTE-M and NB-IoT Roadmap in 5G 326

8.6 IoT Application and Management Layer Protocols 327

8.6.1 CoAP 328

8.6.2 MQTT 328

8.6.3 OMA LwM2M 329

8.7 Applicability to Smart Grids 329

8.7.1 Great Britain Smart Metering System 329

8.7.2 Unlicensed Spectrum-based LPWAN Technologies for Smart Metering 331

References 333

Index 339
Alberto Sendin, PhD, is Head of Telecommunications in Iberdrola, Spain and Professor with the Comillas Pontifical University, Spain. He received his PhD from the University of the Basque Country, Spain in 2013 and has authored eight books on telecommunications.

Javier Matanza, PhD, is a Research Professional with the Institute for Research in Technology, and a Lecturer with the Comillas Pontifical University, Spain. He received his PhD in 2013 from the same university.

Ramon Ferrús, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), from which he received his PhD in 2000. He has authored two books and 130+ publications in peer-reviewed journals and conferences on topics related to wireless communications.

A. Sendin, Comillas Pontifical University, Spain; J. Matanza, Comillas Pontifical University, Spain; R. Ferrus, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)