# Flight Theory and Aerodynamics

## A Practical Guide for Operational Safety

4. Edition January 2022

480 Pages, Hardcover*Professional Book*

**978-1-119-77239-2**

FLIGHT THEORY AND AERODYNAMICS

GET A PILOT'S PERSPECTIVE ON FLIGHT AERODYNAMICS FROM THE MOST UP-TO-DATE EDITION OF A CLASSIC TEXT

The newly revised Fourth Edition of Flight Theory and Aerodynamics delivers a pilot-oriented approach to flight aerodynamics without assuming an engineering background. The book connects the principles of aerodynamics and physics to their practical applications in a flight environment. With content that complies with FAA rules and regulations, readers will learn about atmosphere, altitude, airspeed, lift, drag, applications for jet and propeller aircraft, stability controls, takeoff, landing, and other maneuvers.

The latest edition of Flight Theory and Aerodynamics takes the classic textbook first developed by Charles Dole and James Lewis in a more modern direction and includes learning objectives, real world vignettes, and key idea summaries in each chapter to aid in learning and retention. Readers will also benefit from the accompanying online materials, like a test bank, solutions manual, and FAA regulatory references.

Updated graphics included throughout the book correlate to current government agency standards. The book also includes:

* A thorough introduction to basic concepts in physics and mechanics, aerodynamic terms and definitions, and the primary and secondary flight control systems of flown aircraft

* An exploration of atmosphere, altitude, and airspeed measurement, with an increased focus on practical applications

* Practical discussions of structures, airfoils, and aerodynamics, including flight control systems and their characteristics

* In-depth examinations of jet aircraft fundamentals, including material on aircraft weight, atmospheric conditions, and runway environments

* New step-by-step examples of how to apply math equations to real-world situations

Perfect for students and instructors in aviation programs such as pilot programs, aviation management, and air traffic control, Flight Theory and Aerodynamics will also appeal to professional pilots, dispatchers, mechanics, and aviation managers seeking a one-stop resource explaining the aerodynamics of flight from the pilot's perspective.

About the Authors xiii

About the Companion Website xv

1 Introduction to the Flight Environment 1

Chapter Objectives 1

Introduction 2

Basic Quantities 2

Forces 3

Mass 4

Scalar and Vector Quantities 5

Moments 7

Equilibrium Conditions 8

Newton's Laws of Motion 8

Linear Motion 9

Rotational Motion 11

Energy and Work 11

Power 12

Friction 13

Symbols 14

Key Terms 15

Problems 16

2 Atmosphere, Altitude, and Airspeed Measurement 19

Chapter Objectives 19

Properties of the Atmosphere 19

ICAO Standard Atmosphere 24

Altitude Measurement 24

Continuity Equation 29

Bernoulli's Equation 30

Airspeed Measurement 31

Symbols 38

Key Terms 39

Problems 40

3 Structures, Airfoils, and Aerodynamic Forces 43

Chapter Objectives 43

Aircraft Structures 43

Airfoils 52

Development of Forces on Airfoils 58

Aerodynamic Force 59

Aerodynamic Pitching Moments 61

Aerodynamic Center 63

Accident Brief: Air Midwest Flight 5481 63

Symbols 64

Key Terms 64

Problems 65

4 Lift 69

Chapter Objectives 69

Introduction to Lift 69

Angle of Attack 70

Boundary Layer Theory 71

Reynolds Number 74

Adverse Pressure Gradient 76

Airflow Separation 77

Stall 78

Aerodynamic Force Equations 79

Lift Equation 80

Airfoil Lift Characteristics 84

High Coefficient of Lift Devices 85

Effect of Ice and Frost 89

Lift During Flight Maneuvers 90

Symbols 93

Key Terms 93

Problems 93

5 Drag 97

Chapter Objectives 97

Induced Drag 98

Ground Effect 105

Laminar Flow Airfoils 109

Parasite Drag 110

Drag Equation 114

Total Drag 115

Lift-to-Drag Ratio 117

Drag Reduction 119

Symbols 121

Key Terms 122

Problems 122

6 Jet Aircraft Performance 125

Chapter Objectives 125

Thrust-Producing Aircraft 126

Thrust-Required Curve 129

Principles of Propulsion 130

Thrust-Available Turbojet Aircraft 132

Specific Fuel Consumption 133

Fuel Flow 136

Thrust-Available/Thrust-Required Curves 137

Items of Aircraft Performance 139

Variations in the Thrust-Required Curve 146

Symbols 156

Key Terms 157

Problems 157

7 Propeller Aircraft Performance 161

Chapter Objectives 161

Power Available 162

Principles of Propulsion 166

Power-Required Curves 169

Items of Aircraft Performance 175

Variations in the Power-Required Curve 183

Symbols 193

Key Terms 194

Problems 194

8 Takeoff Performance 199

Chapter Objectives 199

Normal Takeoff 201

Improper Liftoff 206

Rejected Takeoffs 207

Initial Climb 213

Linear Motion 215

Factors Affecting Takeoff Performance 218

Symbols 224

Key Terms 224

Problems 225

9 Landing Performance 229

Chapter Objectives 229

Prelanding Performance 231

Normal Landing 238

Improper Landing Performance 244

Hazards of Hydroplaning 247

Landing Deceleration, Velocity, and Distance 250

Landing Equations 255

Symbols 260

Key Terms 260

Problems 261

10 Slow-Speed Flight 265

Chapter Objectives 265

Region of Reversed Command 266

Stalls 270

Spins 278

Hazards During Slow-Speed Flight - Low-Level Wind Shear 283

Aircraft Performance in Low-Level Wind Shear 285

Hazards During Slow-Speed Flight - Wake Turbulence 289

Key Terms 292

Problems 292

11 Maneuvering Performance 295

Chapter Objectives 295

General Turning Performance 295

Load Factor 297

The V-G Diagram (Flight Envelope) 303

Load Factor and Flight Maneuvers 308

Symbols 316

Key Terms 316

Problems 317

12 Longitudinal Stability and Control 319

Chapter Objectives 319

Definitions 320

Oscillatory Motion 322

Weight and Balance 323

Airplane Reference Axes 328

Static Longitudinal Stability 329

Dynamic Longitudinal Stability 341

Pitching Tendencies in a Stall 342

Longitudinal Control 345

Symbols 347

Key Terms 347

Problems 348

13 Directional and Lateral Stability 351

Chapter Objectives 351

Static Directional Stability 352

Directional Control 359

Multi-Engine Flight Principles 364

Lateral Stability and Control 368

Static Lateral Stability 368

Lateral Control 374

Dynamic Directional and Lateral Coupled Effects 374

Symbols 380

Key Terms 380

Problems 380

14 High-Speed Flight 385

Chapter Objectives 385

The Speed of Sound 386

High-Subsonic Flight 389

Design Features for High-Subsonic Flight 390

Transonic Flight 395

Supersonic Flight 399

Symbols 411

Key Terms 411

Problems 412

15 Rotary-Wing Flight Theory 415

Chapter Objectives 415

Momentum Theory of Lift 417

Airfoil Selection 417

Forces on Rotor System 418

Thrust Development 420

Hovering Flight 420

Ground Effect 423

Rotor Systems 425

Dissymmetry of Lift in Forward Flight 426

High Forward Speed Problems 429

Helicopter Control 432

Helicopter Power-Required Curves 433

Power Settling, Settling with Power, and Vortex Ring State 435

Autorotation 437

Dynamic Rollover 440

Problems 440

Answers to Problems 443

Bibliography 447

Index 451

BRIAN A. JOHNSON is an Adjunct Faculty Member in the Aeronautical Science Department of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Additionally, he is a former regional airline and corporate pilot who holds an airline transport pilot certificate with a multi-engine rating.