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Thermal Food Engineering Operations

Kumar, Nitin / Panghal, Anil / Garg, M. K.

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1. Edition May 2022
496 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-77559-1
John Wiley & Sons

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Thermal Food Engineering Operations

Presenting cutting-edge information on new and emerging food engineering processes, Thermal Food Engineering Operations, the first volume in the new series, "Bioprocessing in Food Science," is an essential reference on the modeling, quality, safety, and technologies associated with food processing operations today.

As the demand for healthy food increases in the current global scenario, manufacturers are searching for new possibilities for occupying a greater share in the rapidly changing food market. Compiled reports and updated knowledge on thermal processing of food products are imperative for commercial enterprises and manufacturing units. In the current scenario, academia, researchers, and food industries are working in a scattered manner and different technologies developed at each level are not compiled to implement for the benefits of different stakeholders. However, advancements in bioprocesses are required at all levels for the betterment of food industries and consumers. This series of groundbreaking edited volumes will be a comprehensive compilation of all the research that has been carried out so far, their practical applications, and the future scope of research and development in the food bioprocessing industry.

This first volume includes all the conventional and novel thermal technologies based on conduction, convection, and radiation principles and covers the basics of microbial inactivation with heat treatments, aseptic processing, retorting, drying, dehydration, combined high-pressure thermal treatments, and safety and quality concerns in food processing. Before studying the novel non-thermal processes and the concept of minimal processing, comprehensive knowledge about the conventional thermal technologies is desired along with benefits, constraints, equipment, and implementation of these technologies. Whether for the engineer, scientist, or student, this series is a must-have for any library.

This outstanding new volume:
* Discusses food safety and quality and thermal processing, laying the groundwork for further study and research
* Provides case studies of solid-liquid and supercritical fluid extraction
* Explores pasteurization, ohmic heating, irradiation, and more
* Presents cutting-edge information on new and emerging food engineering processes

Audience: Process and chemical engineers, chemists, engineers in other disciplines, managers, researchers, scientists, students, and teachers working in the field of food engineering and processing

Preface xvii

1 Novel Thermal Technologies: Trends and Prospects 1
Amrita Preetam, Vipasha, Sushree Titikshya, Vivek Kumar, K.K Pant and S N Naik

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Novel Thermal Technologies: Current Status and Trends 3

1.2.1 Environmental Impact of Novel Thermal Technologies 6

1.2.2 The Objective of Thermal Processing 8

1.2.3 Preservation Process 9

1.3 Types of Thermal Technologies 11

1.3.1 Infrared Heating 12

1.3.1.1 Principal and Mechanism 12

1.3.1.2 Advantages of IR Heating 13

1.3.1.3 Applications of IR Heating 14

1.3.2 Microwave Heating 14

1.3.2.1 Principal and Mechanism 14

1.3.2.2 Advantages of Microwave in Food Industry 17

1.3.2.3 Application of Microwave in Food Processing Technologies 19

1.3.3 Radiofrequency (RF) Heating 24

1.3.3.1 Principal and Mechanism 24

1.3.3.2 Advantages and Disadvantages 26

1.3.3.3 Applications 27

1.3.4 Ohmic Heating 28

1.3.4.1 Principal and Mechanism 28

1.3.4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages 31

1.3.4.3 Applications 33

1.4 Future Perspective of Novel Thermal Technologies 36

1.5 Conclusion 36

References 37

2 Microbial Inactivation with Heat Treatments 45
Sushree Titikshya, Monalisa Sahoo, Vivek Kumar and S.N Naik

2.1 Introduction 45

2.2 Innovate Thermal Techniques for Food Reservation 47

2.3 Inactivation Mechanism of Targeted Microorganism 48

2.3.1 Action Approach and Inactivation Targets 49

2.4 Environmental Stress Adaption 50

2.4.1 Sublethal Injury 50

2.5 Resistance of Stress 51

2.5.1 Oxidative Stress 51

2.5.2 Osmotic Stress 52

2.5.3 Pressure 52

2.6 Various Techniques for Thermal Inactivation 52

2.6.1 Infrared Heating 52

2.6.1.1 Principle and Mechanism 52

2.6.1.2 Application for Inactivation in Food Sector 53

2.6.2 Microwave Heating 57

2.6.2.1 Principle and Mechanism 57

2.6.2.2 Application for Inactivation in Food Sector 58

2.6.3 Radiofrequency Heating 59

2.6.3.1 Principle and Mechanism 59

2.6.3.2 Application for Inactivation in Food Sector 60

2.6.4 Instant Controlled Pressure Drop Technology (DIC) 60

2.6.4.1 Principle and Mechanism 60

2.6.4.2 Application for Inactivation in Food Sector 61

2.6.5 Ohmic Heating 62

2.6.5.1 Principle and Mechanism 62

2.6.5.2 Application for Inactivation in Food Sector 63

2.7 Forthcoming Movements of Thermal Practices in Food Industry 64

2.8 Conclusion 65

References 66

3 Blanching, Pasteurization and Sterilization: Principles and Applications 75
Monalisa Sahoo, Sushree Titikshya, Pramod Aradwad, Vivek Kumar and S N Naik

3.1 Introduction 76

3.2 Blanching: Principles & Mechanism 76

3.2.1 Types of Blanching 76

3.2.1.1 Hot Water Blanching 76

3.2.1.2 Steam Blanching 80

3.2.1.3 High Humidity Hot Air Impingement Blanching (HHAIB) 81

3.2.1.4 Microwave Blanching 81

3.2.1.5 Ohmic Blanching 85

3.2.1.6 Infrared Blanching 86

3.2.2 Application of Blanching 89

3.2.2.1 Inactivation of Enzymes 89

3.2.2.2 Enhancement of Product Quality and Dehydration 90

3.2.2.3 Toxic and Pesticides Residues Removal 90

3.2.2.4 Decreasing Microbial Load 90

3.2.2.5 Reducing Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction 91

3.2.2.6 Peeling 91

3.2.2.7 Entrapped Air Removal 91

3.2.2.8 Enhancing Bioactive Extraction Efficiency 91

3.2.2.9 Other Applications 92

3.3 Pasteurization: Principles & Mechanism 92

3.3.1 Thermal Pasteurization 92

3.3.2 Traditional Thermal Pasteurization 93

3.3.3 Microwave and Radiofrequency Pasteurization 93

3.3.4 Ohmic Heating Pasteurization 94

3.3.5 Application of Pasteurization 98

3.4 Sterilization: Principles, Mechanism and Types of Sterilization 98

3.4.1 Conventional Sterilization Methods 99

3.4.2 Advanced Retorting 100

3.4.3 Microwave-Assisted Thermal Sterilization 101

3.4.4 Pressure-Assisted Thermal Sterilization 103

3.5 Conclusions 104

References 104

4 Aseptic Processing 117
Malathi Nanjegowda, Bhaveshkumar Jani and Bansee Devani

4.1 Introduction 118

4.2 Aseptic Processing 118

4.3 Principle of Thermal Sterilization 121

4.3.1 Effect of Thermal Treatment on Enzymes 123

4.3.2 Effect of Thermal Treatments on Nutrients and Quality 123

4.3.3 Effect of Thermal Treatments on the Cooking Index (C0) 124

4.3.4 Effect of Heat Treatments on Chemical Reactions in Food 124

4.4 Components of Aseptic Processing 124

4.4.1 Equipment Used in Aseptic/UHT Processing 124

4.4.1.1 Indirect Heat Exchanger 125

4.4.1.2 Direct Heat Exchanger 126

4.4.1.3 Ohmic Heating (OH) 126

4.5 Aseptic Packaging 127

4.5.1 Types of Packaging Materials Used in Aseptic Processing 127

4.5.2 Methods and Requirements of Decontamination of Packaging Materials 128

4.6 Applications of Aseptic Processing and Packaging 128

4.6.1 Milk Processing 133

4.6.2 Non-Milk Products Processing 135

4.7 Advantages of Aseptic Processing and Packaging 136

4.8 Challenges of Aseptic Processing and Packaging 137

4.9 Conclusion 137

References 138

5 Spray Drying: Principles and Applications 141
Sukirti Joshi, Asutosh Mohapatra, Lavika Singh and Jatindra K Sahu

5.1 Introduction 142

5.2 Concentration of Feed Solution 142

5.3 Atomization of Concentrated Feed 143

5.3.1 Principle of Atomization 143

5.3.2 Classification of Atomizers 143

5.3.2.1 Rotary Atomizers 144

5.3.2.2 Pressure Nozzle/Hydraulic Atomizer 144

5.3.2.3 Two-Fluid Nozzle Atomizer 145

5.4 Droplet-Hot Air Contact 145

5.5 Drying of Droplets 146

5.6 Particle Separation 148

5.7 Effect of Process Parameters on Product Quality 148

5.7.1 Process Parameters of Atomization 150

5.7.2 Parameters of Spray-Air Contact and Evaporation 151

5.7.2.1 Spray Angle 151

5.7.2.2 Aspirator Flow Rate 151

5.7.2.3 Inlet Air Temperature 151

5.7.2.4 Outlet Air Temperature 152

5.7.2.5 Glass Transition Temperature 152

5.7.2.6 Residence Time 153

5.8 Classification of Spray Dryer 153

5.8.1 Open-Cycle Spray Dryer 153

5.8.2 Closed-Cycle Spray Dryer 154

5.8.3 Semi-Closed Cycle Spray Dryer 154

5.8.4 Single-Stage Spray Dryer 154

5.8.5 Two-Stage Spray Dryer 154

5.8.6 Short-Form Spray Dryer 154

5.8.7 Tall-Form Spray Dryer 154

5.9 Morphological Characterization of Spray-Dried Particles 155

5.10 Application of Spray Drying for Foods 156

5.11 Wall Materials 157

5.11.1 Carbohydrate-Based Wall Materials 158

5.11.1.1 Starch 158

5.11.1.2 Modified Starch 158

5.11.1.3 Maltodextrins 158

5.11.2 Cyclodextrins 159

5.11.3 Gum Arabic 159

5.11.4 Inulin 159

5.11.5 Pectin 160

5.11.6 Chitin and Chitosan 160

5.11.7 Protein-Based Wall Materials 160

5.11.7.1 Whey Protein Isolate 161

5.11.7.2 Skim Milk Powder 161

5.11.7.3 Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) 161

5.12 Encapsulation of Probiotics 162

5.12.1 Choice of Bacterial Strain 162

5.12.2 Response to Cellular Stresses 163

5.12.3 Growth Conditions 164

5.12.4 Effect of pH 164

5.12.5 Harvesting Technique 165

5.12.6 Total Solid Content of the Feed Concentrate 165

5.13 Encapsulation of Vitamins 165

5.14 Encapsulation of Flavours and Volatile Compounds 166

5.14.1 Selective Diffusion Theory 166

5.15 Conclusion and Perspectives 170

References 170

6 Solar Drying: Principles and Applications 179
Baher M A Amer

6.1 Introduction 179

6.2 Principle of Solar Drying 180

6.3 Construction of Solar Dryer 181

6.4 Historical Classification of Solar Energy Drying Systems 182

6.5 Storing Solar Energy for Drying 185

6.6 Hybrid/Mixed Solar Drying System 186

6.7 Solar Greenhouse Dryer 188

6.8 Solar Drying Economy 188

6.9 New Applications Related to Solar Drying 190

References 192

7 Fluidized Bed Drying: Recent Developments and Applications 197
Praveen Saini, Nitin Kumar, Sunil Kumar and Anil Panghal

7.1 Introduction 197

7.2 Principle and Design Considerations of Fluidized Bed Dryer 198

7.2.1 Spouted Bed Dryer 201

7.2.2 Spout Fluidized Bed Dryer 202

7.2.3 Hybrid Drying Techniques 205

7.2.3.1 Microwave-Assisted FBD 205

7.2.3.2 FIR-Assisted FBD 206

7.2.3.3 Heat Pump-Assisted FBD 207

7.2.3.4 Solar-Assisted FBD 207

7.3 Design Alterations for Improved Fluidization Capacity 208

7.3.1 Vibrated Fluidized Bed 208

7.3.2 Agitated Fluidized Bed 209

7.3.3 Centrifugal Fluidized Bed 210

7.4 Energy Consumption in Fluidized Bed Drying 211

7.5 Effect of Fluidized Bed Drying on the Quality 212

7.6 Applications of Fluidized Bed Drying 215

7.7 Concluding Remarks 215

References 215

8 Dehumidifier Assisted Drying: Recent Developments 221
Vaishali Wankhade, Vaishali Pande, Monalisa Sahoo and Chirasmita Panigrahi

8.1 Introduction 221

8.2 Absorbent Air Dryer 222

8.2.1 Working Principle of Adsorption Air Dryer 223

8.2.2 Design Considerations and Components of the Absorbent Air Drier 223

8.2.2.1 Desiccant Drying System 223

8.2.3 Performance Indicators of Desiccant Air Dryer System 226

8.2.3.1 Low Temperature Drying With No Temperature Control and Air Circulation System 227

8.2.3.2 Low Temperature Drying With Air Circulation and Temperature Control 228

8.3 Heat Pump-Assisted Dehumidifier Dryer 228

8.3.1 Working Principles of a Heat Pump-Assisted Dehumidifier Dryer 229

8.3.2 Performance Indicators of Heat Pump-Assisted Dehumidifier Dryer 231

8.4 Applications of Dehumidifier-Assisted Dryers in Agriculture and Food Processing 233

8.5 Concluding Remarks 234

References 234

9 Refractance Window Drying: Principles and Applications 237
Peter Waboi Mwaurah, Modiri Dirisca Setlhoka and Tanu Malik

9.1 Introduction 238

9.2 Refractance Window Drying System 239

9.2.1 History and Origin 239

9.2.2 Components and Working of the Dryer 240

9.2.3 Principle of Operation 242

9.3 Heat Transfer and Drying Kinetics 244

9.3.1 Drying Rate and Moisture Reduction Rate 245

9.4 Effect of Process Parameters on Drying 245

9.4.1 Effect of Temperature of the Hot Circulating Water 245

9.4.2 Effect of Product Inlet Temperature and Thickness 246

9.4.3 Effect of Residence Time 247

9.4.4 Effect of Ambient Air Temperature (Air Convection) 247

9.5 Comparison of Refractance Window Dryer with Other Types of Dryers 247

9.6 Effect of Refractance Window Drying on Quality of Food Products 248

9.6.1 Effects on Food Color 249

9.6.2 Effects on Bioactive Compounds 250

9.6.2.1 Carotene Retention 251

9.6.2.2 Ascorbic Acid Retention 252

9.6.2.3 Anthocyanin Retention 252

9.7 Applications of Refractance Window Drying in Food and Agriculture 253

9.7.1 Applications of Refractance Window Drying in Preservation of Heat-Sensitive and Bioactive Compounds 253

9.7.2 Applications of Refractance Window Drying on Food Safety 254

9.8 Advantages and Limitations of Refractance Window Dryer 255

9.9 Recent Developments in Refractance Window Drying 255

9.10 Conclusion and Future Prospects 256

References 257

10 Ohmic Heating: Principles and Applications 261
Sourav Misra, Shubham Mandliya and Chirasmita Panigrahi

10.1 Introduction 261

10.2 Basic Principles 263

10.3 Process Parameters 265

10.3.1 Electrical Conductivity 265

10.3.2 Electrical Field Strength 266

10.3.3 Frequency and Waveform 267

10.3.4 Product Size, Viscosity, and Heat Capacity 267

10.3.5 Particle Concentration 267

10.3.6 Ionic Concentration 267

10.3.7 Electrodes 268

10.4 Equipment Design 268

10.5 Application 270

10.5.1 Blanching 276

10.5.2 Pasteurisation/Sterilization 276

10.5.3 Extraction 277

10.5.4 Dehydration 278

10.5.5 Fermentation 279

10.5.6 Ohmic Thawing 280

10.6 Effect of Ohmic Heating on Quality Characteristics of Food Products 280

10.6.1 Starch and Flours 280

10.6.1.1 Water Absorption Index (WAI) and Water Solubility Index (WSI) 280

10.6.1.2 Pasting Properties 280

10.6.1.3 Thermal Properties 281

10.6.2 Meat Products 282

10.6.3 Fruits and Vegetable Products 282

10.6.3.1 Electrical Properties 282

10.6.3.2 Soluble Solids Content and Acidity 282

10.6.3.3 Vitamins 283

10.6.3.4 Flavor Compounds 284

10.6.3.5 Phenolic Compounds 284

10.6.3.6 Colour Properties 284

10.6.3.7 Change in Chlorophyll Content 285

10.6.3.8 Textural Properties 285

10.6.3.9 Sensory Properties 286

10.6.4 Dairy Products 286

10.6.5 Seafoods 290

10.7 Advantages of Ohmic Heating 290

10.8 Disadvantages of Ohmic Heating 291

10.9 Conclusions 291

References 292

11 Microwave Food Processing: Principles and Applications 301
Jean-Claude Laguerre and Mohamad Mazen Hamoud-Agha

11.1 Introduction 301

11.2 Principles of Microwave Heating 302

11.2.1 Nature of Microwaves 302

11.2.1.1 Propagation of EM Waves in Free Space 302

11.2.1.2 Propagation of EM Waves in Matter 306

11.2.2 Mechanism of Microwave Heating 309

11.2.2.1 Dielectric Characteristic of a Material 309

11.2.2.2 Waves-Product Interactions 312

11.2.3 Transmission and Absorption of a Wave in a Material 316

11.2.3.1 Expression of Transmitted Power 316

11.2.3.2 Penetration Depths 317

11.2.3.3 Power Dissipation 319

11.3 Applications 320

11.3.1 Microwave Baking 320

11.3.2 Microwave Blanching 323

11.3.3 Microwave Tempering and Thawing 326

11.3.4 Microwave Drying 328

11.3.4.1 Microwave-Assisted Hot Air Drying 329

11.3.4.2 Microwave-Assisted Vacuum Drying 330

11.3.4.3 Microwave-Assisted Freeze-Drying 330

11.3.5 Microwave Pasteurization and Sterilization 331

References 334

12 Infrared Radiation: Principles and Applications in Food Processing 349
Puneet Kumar, Subir Kumar Chakraborty and Lalita

12.1 Introduction 350

12.2 Mechanism of Heat Transfer 351

12.2.1 Principles of IR Heating 351

12.2.1.1 Planck's Law 352

12.2.1.2 Wien's Displacement Law 352

12.2.1.3 Stefan-Boltzmann's Law 352

12.2.2 Source of IR Radiations 353

12.2.2.1 Natural Source 354

12.2.2.2 Artificial Sources 354

12.3 Factors Affecting the Absorption of Energy 356

12.3.1 Characteristics of Food Materials 357

12.3.1.1 Composition 357

12.3.1.2 Layer Thickness 357

12.3.2 IR Parameters 357

12.3.2.1 Wavelength of IR Rays 358

12.3.2.2 IR Intensity 358

12.3.2.3 Depth of Penetration 358

12.3.3 Advantages of IR Heating Over Conventional Heating Methods 359

12.4 Applications of IR in Food Processing 359

12.4.1 Drying 360

12.4.2 Peeling 361

12.4.3 Blanching 363

12.4.4 Microbial Decontamination 364

12.5 IR-Assisted Hybrid Drying Technologies 366

12.5.1 IR-Freeze-Drying 366

12.5.2 Hot Air-Assisted IR Heating 367

12.5.3 Low-Pressure Superheated Steam Drying with IR 368

12.6 Conclusion 368

References 369

13 Radiofrequency Heating 375
Chirasmita Panigrahi, Monalisha Sahoo, Vaishali Wankhade and Siddharth Vishwakarma

13.1 Introduction 376

13.2 History of RF Heating 377

13.3 Principles and Equipment 378

13.3.1 Basic Mechanism of Dielectric Heating 378

13.3.1.1 Basic Mechanism and Working of Radiofrequency Heating 379

13.3.1.2 Basic Mechanism and Working of Microwave Heating 380

13.3.2 Factors of Food Affecting the Performance of RF Processing 380

13.3.2.1 Permittivity and Loss Factor 380

13.3.2.2 Power Density and Penetration Depth 381

13.3.2.3 Wave Impedance and Power Reflection 382

13.3.3 Comparison of RF Heating With Other Methods 383

13.3.4 Lab Scale and Commercial Scale of RF Equipment 385

13.3.4.1 Radiofrequency Processing of Food at Lab Scale 386

13.3.4.2 Radiofrequency Processing of Food at Industrial Scale 387

13.4 Applications in Food Processing 388

13.4.1 Drying 388

13.4.2 Thawing 393

13.4.3 Roasting 394

13.4.4 Baking 394

13.4.5 Disinfestation 395

13.4.6 Blanching 395

13.4.7 Pasteurization/Sterilization 396

13.5 Technological Constraints, Health Hazards, and Safety Aspects 399

13.6 Commercialization Aspects and Future Trends 402

13.7 Conclusions 404

References 404

14 Quality, Food Safety and Role of Technology in Food Industry 415
Nartaj Singh and Prashant Bagade

14.1 Introduction 416

14.1.1 Food Quality 417

14.1.1.1 Primary and Secondary Food Processing 419

14.1.1.2 Historical Trends in Food Quality 421

14.1.1.3 Food Quality Standards and its Requirements 423

14.1.1.4 Role of Technology in Building Food Quality Within the Industry 440

14.1.1.5 Regulations and their Requirements 444

14.1.2 Food Safety 445

14.1.2.1 Primary and Secondary Food Production 445

14.1.2.2 Historical Trends in Food Safety 446

14.1.2.3 Food Safety Standards and its Requirements 447

14.1.2.4 Role of Technology in Building Food Safety Within Industry 450

14.2 Future Trends in Quality and Food Safety 451

14.3 Conclusion 453

References 453

Index 455
Nitin Kumar, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Processing and Food Engineering at CCS Haryana Agricultural University. He obtained his doctorate in the discipline of processing and food engineering from Punjab Agricultural University, India, focusing on the preparation and characterization of novel bio-nano composite materials for food packaging. His area of expertise includes food packaging, biopolymers, shelf-life extension, and transformation and valorization of horticultural co-products. He is actively working on several research projects with the USA, UK, and Germany.

Anil Panghal, PhD, is an assistant scientist in the Department of Processing and Food Engineering at CCS Haryana Agricultural University. Previously, he worked with Nestle as a production manager for nine years. His areas of expertise include bioprocessing, manufacturing, food chemistry, food science, and technology, FSMS, and nutrition. He obtained his PhD in food technology, focusing on the molecular and physicochemical quality aspects of commercial wheat varieties. He has published various research papers in reputed journals and chapters for international publishers.

M.K. Garg, PhD, is very well-known and respected in the field of food process engineering. After completing his PhD in agricultural structures and process engineering from the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, he started his career at Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar as an assistant professor in 1985. He is the former Dean of the College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Hisar. He has been involved in the design, development, and field evaluation of various post-harvest machinery and processing equipment. He is a member of the Bureau of Indian Standards and has been a referee for several reputed research journals.