John Wiley & Sons Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Pollution, Volume 1 Cover Environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems facing our world today, in every country, reg.. Product #: 978-1-119-78535-4 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 In Stock

Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Pollution, Volume 1

Waste Management and Value-Added Products

El-Gendy, Nour Shafik (Editor)

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1. Edition November 2021
512 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-78535-4
John Wiley & Sons

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Environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems facing our world today, in every country, region, and even down to local landfills. Not just solving these problems, but turning waste into products, even products that can make money, is a huge game-changer in the world of environmental engineering. Finding ways to make fuel and other products from solid waste, setting a course for the production of future biorefineries, and creating a clean process for generating fuel and other products are just a few of the topics covered in the groundbreaking new first volume in the two-volume set, Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Pollution.

The valorization of waste, including the creation of biofuels, turning waste cooking oil into green chemicals, providing sustainable solutions for landfills, and many other topics are also covered in this extensive treatment on the state of the art of this area in environmental engineering.

This groundbreaking new volume in this forward-thinking set is the most comprehensive coverage of all of these issues, laying out the latest advances and addressing the most serious current concerns in environmental pollution. Whether for the veteran engineer or the student, this is a must-have for any library.

Preface xv

1 An Overview of Electro-Fermentation as a Platform for Future Biorefineries 1
Tae Hyun Chung and Bipro Ranjan Dhar

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Fundamental Mechanisms 5

1.3 Value-Added Products from Electro-Fermentation 7

1.3.1 Carboxylates 11

1.3.1.1 Short-Chain Carboxylates 11

1.3.1.2 Medium-Chain Carboxylates 13

1.3.2 Bioethanol 14

1.3.3 Bio-Butanol 16

1.3.4 Microalgae Derived Lipids 18

1.3.5 Acetoin 21

1.3.6 Biopolymer 23

1.3.7 L-lysine 25

1.3.8 1,3-propanediol 27

1.4 Challenges and Future Outlook 29

1.5 Acknowledgements 30

References 30

2 Biodiesel Sustainability: Challenges and Perspectives 41
Hussein N. Nassar, Abdallah R. Ismail and Nour Sh. El-Gendy

Abbreviations 42

2.1 Introduction 44

2.2 Biodiesel Production 48

2.3 Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production Process 51

2.3.1 The Type of Feedstock 51

2.3.2 The Type of Alcohol 54

2.3.3 Effect of Alcohol to Oil Molar Ratio 55

2.3.4 Catalyst Concentration 55

2.3.5 Catalysts Type 56

2.3.5.1 Lipases 56

2.3.5.2 Acid Catalysts 58

2.3.5.3 Alkaline Catalysts 63

2.3.6 Effect of Reaction Temperature 73

2.3.7 Effect of Reaction Time 74

2.3.8 Mixing Efficiency 75

2.3.9 Effect of pH 76

2.4 Transesterification Mechanisms 76

2.4.1 Homogeneous Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification Reaction 76

2.4.2 Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification Reaction 77

2.4.3 CaO-Catalyzed Transesterification Reaction 77

2.4.4 Other Calcium Derived-Catalyzed Transesterification Reaction 80

2.5 Production of Biodiesel Using Heterogeneous Catalyst Prepared from Natural Sources 81

2.6 Challenges and Perspectives 94

References 99

3 Multidisciplinary Sides of Environmental Engineering and Sustainability 123
Said S. E. H. Elnashaie

3.1 Introduction 124

3.2 System Theory and Integrated System Approach 126

3.2.1 System Theory 126

3.2.2 The State of the System and State Variables 128

3.2.3 Input Variables (Parameters) 128

3.2.4 Design Variables (Parameters) 128

3.2.5 Physico-Chemical Variables (Parameters) 128

3.2.6 Boundaries of System 129

3.2.6.1 Isolated System 129

3.2.6.2 Closed System 129

3.2.6.3 Open System 129

3.2.7 Steady, Unsteady States and Thermodynamic Equilibrium of Systems 130

3.3 Sustainable Development, Sustainable Development Engineering and Environmental Engineering 130

3.3.1 Bio-Fuels and Integrated Bio-Refineries 132

3.3.2 Integrated System Approach 137

3.4 Advanced Multi-Disciplinary Sustainable Engineering Education 139

3.4.1 Bio-Fuels 143

3.4.1.1 Bio-Hydrogen 143

3.4.1.2 Bio-Diesel 143

3.4.1.3 Bio-Ethanol 144

3.4.2 Bio-Products 145

3.4.3 Integrated Bio-Refineries 146

3.4.4 Development of Novel Technologies 147

3.4.5 Economics of Bio-Fuels and Bio-Products 147

3.4.6 Nano-Technology (NT) 148

3.4.7 Non-Linear Dynamics (NLDs), Bifurcation (B), Chaos (C) and Complexity (COMP) 148

3.4.8 Sustainable Development (SD), Sustainable Development Engineering (SDE), System Theory (ST) and Integrated System Approach (ISA) 149

3.4.9 Novel Education 149

3.4.10 New Journal 150

3.5 Novel Designs for Auto-Thermal Behavior Towards Sustainability 152

3.5.1 Integrated System Approach Classification 153

3.6 Conclusions 156

References 156

4 Biofuels 163
Karuna K. Arjoon and James G. Speight

4.1 Introduction 163

4.2 Composition 165

4.3 Classification of Biofuels 166

4.3.1 First-Generation Biofuels 166

4.3.1.1 Sugars and Starch 166

4.3.1.2 Cellulose 168

4.3.1.3 Lignin 168

4.3.2 Second-Generation Biofuels 169

4.3.3 Third-Generation Biofuels 169

4.4 Examples of Biofuels 170

4.4.1 Biodiesel 170

4.4.2 Bio-Alcohols 174

4.4.3 Bioethers 176

4.4.4 Biogas 177

4.4.5 Bio-Oil 179

4.4.6 Synthesis Gas 180

4.5 Property Variations with Source 181

4.6 Properties Compared to Fuels from Crude Oil Tar Sand Bitumen, Coal and Oil Shale 185

4.7 Fuel Specifications and Performance 189

4.8 Conclusion 195

References 197

5 Sustainable Valorization of Waste Cooking Oil into Biofuels and Green Chemicals: Recent Trends, Opportunities and Challenges 199
Omar Aboelazayem and Ranim Alayoubi

5.1 Introduction 200

5.2 Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) 201

5.3 Biofuels from WCO 203

5.3.1 Biodiesel 203

5.3.2 Biojet Fuel 206

5.3.2.1 Hydro-Treatment Process 208

5.3.2.2 Cracking and Isomerisation Processes 209

5.4 Green Chemicals from WCO 210

5.4.1 Asphalt Rejuvenator 211

5.4.2 Plasticizers 212

5.4.3 Polyurethane Foam 214

5.4.4 Bio-Lubricants 215

5.4.5 Surfactants 215

5.5 Challenges and Future Work 216

5.6 Conclusion 217

References 218

6 Waste Valorization: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Routes 229
Muhammad Faheem, Muhammad Azher Hassan, Tariq Mehmood, Sarfraz Hashim and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

6.1 Background 230

6.2 Land Biomass vs. Oceanic Biomass 233

6.3 Waste Management 233

6.4 Waste Valorization for Adsorbents Development 234

6.5 Waste Valorization for Catalysts Preparations 237

6.6 Bio-Based Waste Valorization for Bio-Fuel and Bio-Fertilizer Production 240

6.6.1 Biomass Briquetting: (Bio-Fuel) 240

6.6.2 Composting: (Bio-Fertilizer) 241

6.6.3 Anaerobic Digestion: (Bio-Fuel) 243

6.7 Biochemical Mechanism Involved in Anaerobic Digestion System 244

6.7.1 Hydrolysis 244

6.7.2 Acidogenesis 244

6.7.3 Acetogenesis 245

6.7.4 Methanogenesis 245

6.8 Challenges and Recent Advances in Anaerobic Digestion 245

6.9 Bio-Based Waste and Bioeconomy Perspective 246

6.10 Conclusion 248

References 248

7 Electrocoagulation Process in the Treatment of Landfill Leachate 257
Mohd Azhar Abd Hamid, Hamidi Abdul Aziz and Mohd Suffian Yusoff

7.1 Introduction 258

7.2 Decomposition of Solid Waste 259

7.3 Landfill Leachate Properties 262

7.3.1 Organic Matter 262

7.3.2 Inorganic Substances 263

7.3.3 Heavy Metals 263

7.3.4 Xenobiotic Organics 264

7.4 Characteristics of Landfill Leachate 264

7.5 Electrocoagulation Process 267

7.5.1 Fundamentals of Electrocoagulation Process 267

7.5.2 Mechanism of Electrocoagulation Process 269

7.5.3 Advantages and Disadvantages 272

7.6 Key Parameters of Electrocoagulation Process 272

7.6.1 Electrodes Material 272

7.6.2 Electrodes Arrangement 274

7.6.3 Electrode Spacing 275

7.6.4 Current Density 276

7.6.5 Electrolysis Time 277

7.6.6 Initial pH 278

7.6.7 Agitation Speed 279

7.6.8 Electrolyte Conductivity 280

7.7 Operating Mode 281

7.8 Economic Analysis 283

7.9 Case Study: Removal of the Organic Pollutant of Colour in Natural Saline Leachate from Pulau Burung Landfill Site 284

7.9.1 Pulau Burung Landfill Site 285

7.9.2 Experimental Design 286

7.9.3 Results and Discussion 287

7.10 Gaps in Current Knowledge 288

7.11 Conclusion and Future Prospect 289

References 290

8 Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Pollutants from Solid Waste Landfills 305
Salem S. Abu Amr, Mohammed J.K. Bashir, Sohaib K. M. Abujayyab and Waseem Ahmad

8.1 Introduction 306

8.2 Domestic Solid Waste and Its Critical Environmental Issues 306

8.3 Landfill Leachate Characterization and Its Impact on the Environment 307

8.4 Effect of Landfills on Air Quality 311

8.5 Effect of Unsuitable Location of Landfill on Environment and Community 315

8.6 Recent Sustainable Technologies for Leachate Treatment 318

8.6.1 Effects of AOPs on Leachate Biodegradability 320

8.6.2 Case Study and Proposed Data for Leachate Treatment Plant Using AOPs 322

8.7 Sustainable Solutions for Gas Emission 324

8.8 Consideration for Selection of Sustainable Locations for Landfills 328

8.9 Conclusion 331

References 332

9 Progress on Ionic Liquid Pre-Treatment for Lignocellulosic Biomass Valorization into Biofuels and Bio-Products 343
Ranim Alayoubi and Omar Aboelazayem

9.1 Introduction 344

9.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biofuels and Bio-Products 345

9.2.1 Cellulose 346

9.2.2 Hemicellulose 347

9.2.3 Lignin 348

9.3 Pre-Treatment Technologies for Lignocellulosic Biomass 349

9.4 Ionic Liquids for Lignocellulosic Biomass Pre-Treatment: Characteristics and Properties 354

9.5 Insights into Pre-Treatment Performance of Ionic Liquids 357

9.5.1 Interactions of Ionic Liquids with Lignocellulose 357

9.5.2 Effect of the Ionic Liquid Pre-Treatment on the Recovered Biomass 359

9.5.3 Impact of Ionic Liquids on the Biological Tools 361

9.6 Concluding Remarks: Challenges Facing the Development of Ionic Liquids Use at Large Scale and Future Directions 364

References 365

10 Septage Characterization and Sustainable Fecal Sludge Management in Rural Nablus - Palestine 375
A. Rasem Hasan,Mohammed A. Hussein, Hanan A. Jafar and Amjad I.A. Hussein

List of Abbreviations 376

10.1 Introduction 377

10.1.1 Background 377

10.1.2 What is Fecal Sludge? 378

10.1.3 Legal Considerations 378

10.1.4 Study Area 379

10.2 Septage Characteristics 381

10.2.1 Introduction 381

10.2.2 General Background of Septage Characterization 381

10.2.3 General Treatment of Fecal Sludge 385

10.3 Study Methodology 388

10.3.1 General 388

10.3.2 Research Methodology and Methods of Laboratory Analysis 388

10.3.2.1 Data Collection 388

10.3.2.2 Sampling and Storage 388

10.3.2.3 Sampling of Septage 389

10.3.2.4 Sampling of Stools and Urine 390

10.3.2.5 Storage of Samples 390

10.3.3 Characterization of Fecal Sludge (FS) 390

10.3.4 Statistical Analysis of Data on Characterization of FS 390

10.4 Septage Pre-Treatment Process 391

10.4.1 General Treatment Options 391

10.4.2 Selection of Treatment Options 391

10.4.3 Septage Quality Determination 392

10.4.4 Software Selection 392

10.4.4.1 Modeling by GPS-X 7.0 392

10.4.5 End-Use and Disposal 393

10.5 Results and Discussion 393

10.5.1 Measured Parameters for Fecal Sludge 393

10.5.1.1 Septage Characteristics 393

10.5.2 Stools Characteristics 398

10.5.3 Urine Characteristics 398

10.5.4 Specific Parameters in Details 398

10.5.4.1 pH and EC 398

10.5.4.2 Turbidity 398

10.5.4.3 COD/BOD5 401

10.5.4.4 Total Nitrogen and Ammonia 401

10.5.4.5 TS, TDS, and TSS 402

10.5.4.6 VS, VDS, and VSS 402

10.5.4.7 PO4 -P and PO4 -T 403

10.5.4.8 Fat and Grease 403

10.5.4.9 Alkalinity 404

10.5.4.10 TC and FC 404

10.6 Pre-Treatment of the Fecal Sludge - Results and Discussions 404

10.6.1 Quantification of Domestic Septage 404

10.6.2 Design Septage Characteristics 405

10.6.2.1 Untreated Septage Characteristics 405

10.6.2.2 Treated Septage Characteristics 406

10.6.3 Software Design 406

10.6.3.1 Treatment Plant Modeling 406

10.6.3.2 Optimizing the Appropriate Model 408

10.7 Treatment Plant Estimated Cost Breakdown 408

10.8 Conclusion 410

10.9 Recommendations 412

References 413

11 Lipase Catalyzed Reactions: A Promising Approach for Clean Synthesis of Oleochemicals 417
Ahmad Mustafa

11.1 Introduction to Oleochemicals Industry 418

11.2 Sources of Lipases 420

11.2.1 Bacterial Lipases 420

11.2.2 Fungal Lipases 422

11.2.3 Plant Lipases 422

11.2.4 Animal Lipases 422

11.3 Application of Lipases 422

11.3.1 Monoglycerides Production 423

11.3.2 Oil/Fats Glycerolysis (Chemically Catalyzed) 423

11.3.3 Oil/Fats Glycerolysis (Enzymatically Catalyzed) 425

11.3.4 Biodiesel Production 429

11.4 Lipase Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel 430

11.4.1 Production of Biodiesel from Oil Extracted from Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) 431

11.5 Esterification of Fatty Acids with Glycerol 433

11.5.1 Chemically Catalyzed Esterification 433

11.5.2 Lipase Catalyzed Production of Monoglycerides 435

11.6 Interesterification 435

11.6.1 Chemical Interesterification 438

11.6.2 Enzymatic Interesterification 438

11.7 Environmental Benefits of Enzymatic Process Against Chemical Process 439

11.8 Conclusion 440

References 441

12 Seaweeds for Sustainable Development 449
Nermin Adel El Semary

12.1 Introduction 449

12.2 Types of Seaweeds 451

12.2.1 Green Algae 451

12.2.2 Red Algae 451

12.2.3 Brown Algae 452

12.3 Bioremediation 452

12.3.1 Pollution 452

12.3.2 Bioremediation of Polluted Water 452

12.3.3 Algal Bioremediation of Eutrophic Water 456

12.4 Seaweeds in Nutrition 457

12.4.1 Human Nutrition 457

12.4.2 Animal Feed and Feed Additive 457

12.5 Seaweeds as a Source of Pharmaceutics 458

12.5.1 Pharmaceutics from Green Algae 458

12.5.2 Pharamaceutics from Brown Algae 458

12.5.3 Pharmaceutics from Red Algae 458

12.6 Seaweeds Hydrocolloids and Biopolymers 459

12.6.1 Agar 459

12.6.2 Carrageenans 459

12.6.3 Alginates (Alginic Acid) 460

12.7 Seaweeds and Bioenergy 460

12.8 Seaweeds as Biofertilizers 461

12.9 Seaweeds as Ecological Player in Sulfur Geocycle 462

12.10 Culturing Seaweeds in the Marine Habitat (Algal Maricultures) 463

12.10.1 Mariculture Establishment 464

12.10.1.1 Single Culture 464

12.10.1.2 Repeated Culture 464

12.10.1.3 Multiple Cultures 464

12.10.2 Cultured Seaweed Harvest 464

12.10.3 Processes Following the Algae Harvest 465

12.11 Conclusion 465

12.12 Recommendations 466

12.13 References 466

About the Editor 471

Index 473
Nour Shafik El-Gendy, PhD, is a professor in the field of petroleum and environmental biotechnology, advisor for the Egyptian Minster of Environment, vice head for Department of Process Design & Development and former head manager of Petroleum Biotechnology Lab, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI). She is an editor, reviewer, and contributor to many scientific journals, and she has numerous awards, papers, and presentations to her credit, including being the author or co-author of several books. She is vice coordinator of the Scientific Research Committee, National Council for Women (NCW) of Egypt and member in the Egyptian Young Academy of Sciences (EYAS). El-Gendy is expert in the field of environmental pollution, wastewater treatment, biofuel, petroleum upgrading, green chemistry, nanobiotechnology, recycling of wastes and biocorrosion. She has extensive research, teaching, and lecturing experience, and she is the co-editor of the book, Biodesulfurization in Petroleum Refining, also available from Wiley-Scrivener.

N. S. El-Gendy, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI)