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Food Chemistry

The Role of Additives, Preservatives and Adulteration

Sen, Mousumi (Editor)

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1. Edition January 2022
496 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-79161-4
John Wiley & Sons

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FOOD CHEMISTRY

A unique book detailing the impact of food adulteration, food toxicity and packaging on our nutritional balance, as well as presenting and analyzing technological advancements such as the uses of green solvents with sensors for non-destructive quality evaluation of food.

Food Chemistry: The Role of Additives, Preservatives and Adulteration is designed to present basic information on the composition of foods and the chemical and physical changes that their characteristics undergo during processing, storage, and handling. Details concerning recent developments and insights into the future of food chemical risk analysis are presented, along with topics such as food chemistry, the role of additives, preservatives, and food adulteration, food safety objectives, risk assessment, quality assurance, and control. Moreover, good manufacturing practices, food processing systems, design and control, and rapid methods of analysis and detection are covered, as well as sensor technology, environmental control, and safety.

The book also presents detailed information about the chemistry of each major class of food additive and their multiple functionalities. In addition, numerous recent findings are covered, along with an explanation of how their quality is ascertained and consumer safety ensured.

Audience The core audience of this book include food technologists, food chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists, food, and beverage technologists, and nanoscientists working in the field of food chemistry, food technology, and food and nanoscience. In addition, R&D experts, researchers in academia and industry working in food science/safety, and process engineers in industries will find this book extremely valuable.

Preface xix

1 Food Chemistry: Role of Additives, Preservatives, and Adulteration 1
Mousumi Sen

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Categories of Food Colors 2

1.3 Natural Colors Are Best Over Artificial Colors 3

1.4 Classification of Food Colorants 3

1.4.1 Natural Colorants 3

1.4.2 Synthetic Colorants 7

1.4.2.1 Water Soluble Synthetic Colors 7

1.4.2.2 Fat Soluble Synthetic Colorants 8

1.4.2.3 Lake Colorants 8

1.5 Classification of Food Additives 9

1.5.1 Why Food Colors Are Preferred 12

1.5.2 E-Numbering 13

1.6 Food Spoilage and Preservation 14

1.6.1 Causes of Spoilage 14

1.6.2 Principle of Food Preservation 15

1.7 Preservatives 15

1.7.1 Factors Affecting Preservative Efficiency 15

1.7.1.1 Interaction With Formulation Components 15

1.7.1.2 Properties of Preservatives 16

1.7.1.3 Effect of Containers 16

1.7.1.4 Types of Micro-Organisms 16

1.7.1.5 Influence of pH 16

1.7.2 Factors Affecting Chemical Preservation 17

1.7.3 Classification of Chemical Preservatives 17

1.7.4 Types of Chemical Preservatives 17

1.7.5 Natural Chemical Preservatives 18

1.7.6 Methods of Food Preservation 19

1.8 Antioxidants 20

1.9 Oils and Spices 21

1.10 Introduction to Hurdle Technology 22

1 Advantages of Food Additives and Preservatives 23

2 Disadvantages of Food Additives and Preservatives 23

3 Effects of Food Additives and Food Preservatives 24

4 Safety of Food Additives and Preservatives 25

1.11 Adulteration 26

1 History of Food Adulteration 27

2 Types of Food Adulteration 27

2.1 Intentional Adulteration 27

2.2 Incidental Adulteration 28

2.3 Metallic Adulteration 28

3 A Food Is Considered Adulterated if It Has the Following Factors 28

4 Effects of Adulterated Food on Human Health 28

5 Reasons for Food Adulteration 29

6 Methods of Food Adulteration 29

7 Trends of Food Adulteration in Developing Countries 30

1.12 Food Safety and Standards Act 30

1 Few Steps to Avoid Adulteration 32

2 Detection Methods of Adulteration 33

3 Technique to Check Food Adulteration 33

1.13 Conclusion 33

References 35

2 Additives and Preservatives Used in Food Processing and Preservation, and Their Health Implication 43
Sunita Adhikari (Nee Pramanik)

Abbreviations 44

2.1 Introduction 44

2.2 Merits and Demerits of Food Additives and Preservatives 47

2.2.1 Merits of Food Additives and Preservatives 47

2.2.2 Demerits of Food Additives and Preservatives 47

2.3 Types of Food Additives and Preservatives 48

2.3.1 Preservatives 48

2.3.2 Nutritional Additives 51

2.3.3 Flavoring Agent 51

2.3.4 Coloring Agent 51

2.3.5 Texturizing Agent 53

2.3.6 Miscellaneous Additives 54

2.3.6.1 Acidity Regulator 54

2.3.6.2 Anti-Caking Agent 54

2.3.6.3 Antifoaming Agent 54

2.3.6.4 Flour Treatment Agents 54

2.3.6.5 Fat Replacers 56

2.3.6.6 Sweeteners 56

2.3.6.7 Leavening Agent 61

2.3.6.8 Firming Agent 62

2.3.6.9 Glazing Agent 62

2.3.6.10 Humectant 62

2.3.6.11 Sequestering Agent 62

2.3.6.12 Gelling Agent 63

2.3.6.13 Propellants 63

2.3.6.14 Foaming Agent 63

2.3.6.15 Seasoning 63

2.3.6.16 Curing Agents 64

2.3.6.17 Probiotics 64

2.3.6.18 Other Food Additives 65

2.3.6.19 Indirect Food Additives 65

2.4 Health Effect of Food Additives and Preservatives 66

2.5 Conclusion 70

References 71

3 Role of Packaging in Food Processing 73
Bhasha Sharma, Susmita dey Sadhu, Rajni Chopra and Meenakshi Garg

3.1 Introduction 74

3.2 State-of-the-Art 76

3.3 Raw Materials Used in Food Packaging 78

3.3.1 Metals 79

3.3.2 Glass 80

3.3.3 Plastics 80

3.3.4 Paper and Cardboard 80

3.4 Packaging Footprints on Quality, Shelf Life, and Safety of Food 81

3.5 Prolegomenon on Active and Smart Packaging Systems 81

3.5.1 Active Packaging 82

3.5.2 Intelligent Packaging System 83

3.6 Aseptic Packaging in Food Processing 84

3.7 The Paradigm in Strategies for Improvement of Food Packaging 85

3.7.1 Bequest of Packaging Into the Cycle of Food Chain Sustainability 85

3.7.2 Selection of Materials With the Objective of Recyclability 86

3.7.3 Escalating Protective Role of Packaging 87

3.7.4 How Biodegradable Polymers can Mitigate the Plight of Packaging in Food Processing 88

3.8 Integration of Nanotechnology to Ameliorate Food Packaging 89

3.9 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 90

3.10 Deciphering the Challenges for Sustainable Food Packaging 91

3.11 Conclusion and the Way Forward 92

Acknowledgement 92

References 92

4 Laws Impacting Chemicals Added to Food 97
Preeti Khanna, Rajni Chopra and Meenakshi Garg

4.1 Introduction 98

4.2 Functions of Food Additives 98

4.2.1 Sustain or Enhance the Shelf Life and Freshness of a Product 99

4.2.2 Sustain or Enhance the Nutritional Quality of a Product 99

4.2.3 Improve the Aesthetic Appeal and Sensory Attributes of a Product 99

4.3 Classification of Food Additives 99

4.3.1 Classification Based on Functionality 99

4.3.1.1 Flavoring Agents 100

4.3.1.2 Enzyme Preparations 100

4.3.1.3 Other Additives 100

4.4 Classification Based on Primary and Secondary Technological Roles--Direct and Indirect Additives 101

4.5 Evaluating the Health Risk of Food Additives 101

4.6 International Regulations for the Efficacy of Food Additives 102

4.7 International Laws 102

4.7.1 US Food and Drug Administration 102

4.8 Indian Regulations--Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), Additives Regulations (Regulation 3.1) 103

4.9 Safety Assessment: Redbook's Principles of Safety Evaluation 105

4.10 Levels of Concern for Direct Food Additives 106

4.11 Threshold Regulation Exemption for Indirect Food Additives 107

4.12 Estimated Daily Intakes 108

4.13 Human Data and Clinical Studies 109

4.14 GRAS Substances 109

4.15 European Union Legislation 110

4.16 Categorization of Food Additives 110

1 Additives Can Be Used for the Following Purposes 110

4.17 Safety Assessment of Food Additives 111

4.18 Safety Evaluation Process and Authorization 112

4.19 Use of Food Additives in Food Products 113

1 Traditional Foods 113

2 Restricted Provisions 114

4.20 Labeling Regulations and Guidelines 114

4.21 Conclusion 114

References 114

5 Detection of Food Adulterants in Different Foodstuff 117
Aditi Negi, P Lakshmi Praba K., R Meenatchi and Akash Pare

5.1 Introduction 118

5.2 Types of Adulteration 118

5.3 Impact of Adulteration on Health 120

5.4 Approaches for Adulterant Authentication in Food Materials 121

5.5 Physical Authentication Techniques 122

5.6 Application of Biochemical and Analytical Methods in Adulterant Authentication 124

5.6.1 Adulterant Authentication Through HPLC 124

5.6.2 Adulterant Authentication Through GCMS 127

5.6.3 Adulterant Authentication Through Spectroscopic Method 127

5.6.4 Adulterant Authentication Through Ambient Mass Spectroscopy Techniques 128

5.6.5 Adulterant Authentication Through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique 128

5.7 Adulterant Identification by Molecular Techniques 136

5.7.1 Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Techniques for Adulterant Identification 137

5.7.2 Application of Real-Time PCR in Adulterant Authentication 142

5.7.3 Isothermal Amplification Methods for Adulterant Identification 142

5.7.4 Sequencing and Hybridization-Based Methods in Adulterant Identification 147

5.8 Limitation in Use of Molecular-Based Methods for Adulterant Authentication 148

5.9 Conclusion 152

References 152

6 Trends of Food Adulteration in Developing Countries and Its Remedies 165
Satyam Chachan, Anand Kishore, Khushbu Kumari and Arun Sharma

6.1 Introduction 166

6.2 Food Fraud in Developing Countries 166

6.2.1 Impact of Adulteration 168

6.3 Classification of Food Adulteration 169

6.3.1 Intentional Adulteration 171

6.4 Common Food Adulterants 172

6.5 Adulteration Remedy Strategies 177

6.5.1 Government and Regulatory Agency Initiative 177

6.5.2 Loopholes in Existing Method of Eliminating Adulteration 179

6.5.3 Process and Product Verification 181

6.5.4 Higher Levels of Transparency/Traceability in Supply Chain 182

6.5.5 Use of Novel Technology 182

6.5.6 Training 183

6.5.7 Awareness 183

6.6 Conclusion 185

References 186

7 Food Adulteration and Its Impacts on Our Health/Balanced Nutrition 189
Suka Thangaraju, Nikitha Modupalli and Venkatachalapathy Natarajan

7.1 Introduction 190

7.2 Types of Adulteration 192

7.2.1 Intentional Adulteration 192

7.2.2 Incidental Adulteration 193

7.2.3 Other Types of Adulteration 193

7.2.3.1 Natural Contamination 193

7.2.3.2 Metallic Contamination 193

7.2.3.3 Microbial Contamination 194

7.2.3.4 Adulteration in Organic Foods 195

7.2.3.5 Adulteration During Irradiation of Foods 195

7.2.3.6 Genetically Modified Foods 195

7.3 Adulteration in Foods 196

7.3.1 Global Food Environment 197

7.4 Effects of Food Adulteration 201

7.4.1 Health Effects 201

7.4.2 Balanced Nutrition 205

7.5 Measures to Mitigate Food Adulteration 206

7.5.1 Producer's or Manufacturer's End 206

7.5.2 Consumer's End 206

7.5.3 Government and Regulatory Agencies 207

References 209

8 Natural Food Toxins as Anti-Nutritional Factors in Plants and Their Reduction Strategies 217
Naman Kaur, Aparna Agarwal, Manisha Sabharwal and Nidhi Jaiswal

Abbreviations 218

8.1 Introduction 218

8.2 Anti-Nutritional Factor 221

8.2.1 Tannins 221

8.2.1.1 Types 222

8.2.1.2 Adverse Effects 222

8.2.2 Saponins 223

8.2.2.1 Saponins 223

8.2.2.2 Adverse Effects 224

8.2.3 Lectins and Hemagglutinin 225

8.2.3.1 Adverse Effects 226

8.2.4 Alkaloids 227

8.2.4.1 Adverse Health Effects 227

8.2.5 Oxalates 228

8.2.5.1 Adverse Effects 229

8.2.6 Cyanogenic Glycosides 230

8.2.6.1 Adverse Effects 231

8.2.7 Goitrogens 231

8.2.7.1 Adverse Effects 232

8.3 Methods to Reduce Levels of Anti-Nutritional Factors in Foods 234

8.3.1 Soaking 234

8.3.2 Fermentation 235

8.3.3 Germination 236

8.3.4 Milling 237

8.3.5 Extrusion 237

8.3.6 Heating-Autoclaving (Wet Heating) and Roasting (Dry Heating) 238

8.3.7 Gamma Radiation 239

8.3.8 Genomic Technology 239

8.4 Conclusion 240

References 240

9 Feeding the Future--Challenges and Limitations 249
Baishakhi De and Tridib Kumar Goswami

9.1 Introduction 250

9.2 Early Life Nutrition and Healthy Future 252

9.2.1 Choice of Food and "Nutrition Transition" 253

9.3 Challenges and Opportunities in Developing the Future Food Systems 255

9.4 Sustainable Diet for the Future 257

9.5 Research Trends and Green Food Technologies 259

9.5.1 Green Technologies in Food Processing 260

9.5.2 Nanotechnology in Food Processing and Food Safety 262

9.5.3 CRISPR-Based Technologies 262

9.5.4 Future Directives 265

9.5.4.1 3D Food Printing and Mass Customization of Diet 266

9.6 Regulations and Trade 270

9.7 Conclusion 270

References 271

10 Alternate Food Preservation Technology 275
Pratik S Gaikwad, Chayanika Sarma, Aditi Negi and Akash Pare

10.1 Introduction 276

10.2 Non-Thermal Preservation Technique 277

10.2.1 Packaging Technology 277

10.2.1.1 Challenges and Future Scope of MAP Processing 282

10.2.2 Ozone (O3) Treatment 282

10.2.2.1 Properties of O3 291

10.2.2.2 Principle of O3 Generation 291

10.2.2.3 Challenges and Future Scope of O3 Processing 292

10.2.3 High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment 292

10.2.3.1 Principles of HPP Treatment 294

10.2.3.2 HPP Time 294

10.2.3.3 Challenges and Future Scope of HPP Treatment 295

10.2.4 Ultrasound Treatment 295

10.2.4.1 Principle of Ultrasound Treatment 296

10.2.4.2 Challenges and Future Scope of Ultrasound Treatment 296

10.2.5 Pulsed Electric Field Treatment 296

10.2.5.1 Principle of PEF Treatment 297

10.2.5.2 Challenges and Future Scope of PEF Treatment 298

10.2.6 Cold Plasma Treatment 298

10.2.6.1 Generation of CP Treatment 298

10.2.6.2 Challenges and Future Scope of CP 300

10.2.7 Oscillating Magnetic Field 300

10.2.7.1 Challenges and Future Scope of OMF 301

10.2.8 Membrane Filtration Process 301

10.2.8.1 Principle of the Membrane Filtration Process 301

10.2.8.2 Microfiltration 301

10.2.8.3 Ultrafiltration 302

10.2.8.4 Nanofiltration 303

10.2.8.5 Reverse Osmosis 303

10.2.8.6 Challenges and Future Scope of the Membrane Filtration Process 303

10.3 Novel-Thermal Preservation Technique 303

10.3.1 Ohmic Heating Treatment 303

10.3.1.1 Application of OH Treatment 304

10.3.1.2 Challenges and Future Scope of OH Treatment 311

10.3.2 Microwave Heating 311

10.3.2.1 Principle of MW Heating 311

10.3.2.2 Applications of MW Heating 312

10.3.2.3 Challenges and Future Scope of MW Heating 312

10.3.3 Infrared Heating (IRH) 312

10.3.3.1 Application of IRH 313

10.3.3.2 Challenges and Future Scope of IRH 313

10.3.4 Radio Frequency Heating 313

10.3.4.1 Principle of RF Heating 314

10.3.4.2 Factor Influencing of RF Heating 314

10.3.4.3 Challenges and Future Scope of RF Heating 314

10.4 Other Alternate Preservation Techniques 315

10.4.1 Freezing 315

10.4.1.1 Challenges and Future Scope of Freezing 316

10.4.2 Dehydration 316

10.4.3 Frying 317

10.4.4 Chilling 318

10.4.5 Extrusion 318

10.4.6 Three-Dimensional (3-D) Printing 319

10.4.6.1 Principle of 3-D Printing 319

10.4.6.2 Factor Influencing 3-D Printing 319

10.4.7 Blanching 320

10.5 Hurdle Technology for Preservation of Food 320

10.6 Irradiation Process for Preservation of Food 321

10.6.1 Electron Beam 327

10.6.2 X-Radiation (X-Ray) 327

10.6.3 Gamma Rays 327

10.7 Food Additives for the Preservation of Food 328

10.7.1 Natural Additives 328

10.7.2 Synthetic Additives 328

10.7.3 Challenges and Future Scope of Additives 331

10.8 Conclusion 332

References 332

11 Green Solvents for Food Processing Applications 341
A Surendra Babu, A Sangeetha and R Jaganmohan

11.1 Introduction 342

11.2 Green Solvents 344

11.2.1 Water as Green Solvent 345

11.2.2 Subcritical Water Extraction 346

11.2.3 Supercritical Fluids as Green Solvent 346

11.2.4 Gas Expanded Liquids as Green Solvent 347

11.2.5 Ionic Liquids as Green Solvent 348

11.2.5.1 Classification of Ionic Liquids 348

11.2.6 Solvents Derived From Biomass as Green Solvent 349

11.2.7 Deep Eutectic Solvents as Green Solvents 352

11.3 Synthesis of NADES 353

11.3.1 NADES for Extraction of Phenolic Compounds 355

11.3.2 NADES for Extraction of Flavonoids 360

11.3.3 NADES for Extraction of Other Polar Compounds 364

11.3.3.1 Ferulic Acid Extraction From Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort and NADES 364

11.3.4 NADES for Extraction of Food Samples 364

11.3.4.1 Extraction of Vanillin With NADES 364

11.3.4.2 Extraction of Anthocyanins With NADES 364

11.3.4.3 Extraction of Phenolic Compounds With NADES 364

11.3.5 General Considerations Using NADES as Extraction Solvents 365

11.4 Conclusion and Future Trends 366

References 366

12 Technological Advancement in Food Additives and Preservatives 375
Shikha Pandhi, Arvind Kumar and Akansha Gupta

Abbreviations 376

12.1 Introduction 377

12.2 Food Additives and Preservatives 378

12.2.1 Classes of Food Additives 379

12.2.2 Significance in Food Processing and Preservation 381

12.2.3 Mechanism of Action of Food Preservatives 381

12.3 Regulatory Aspects of Food Additives and Preservatives 382

12.3.1 Generally Recognized as Safe 383

12.3.2 FSSAI Regulations on Permissible Limits of Food Additives 383

12.4 Health Concerns of Conventional Food Additives 383

12.5 Technological Advancements in Food Additives and Preservatives 384

12.5.1 Novel Food Additives 384

12.5.1.1 Essential Oils/Phytochemicals 385

12.5.1.2 Metallic Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial (Green Route) 386

12.6 Novel Technological Approaches for Enhanced Functionality 386

12.6.1 Nanoencapsulation 386

12.6.1.1 Fundamentals and Techniques 387

12.6.1.2 Types of Encapsulating Material 388

12.7 Methods for Food Additives Determination 389

12.7.1 Analytical Methods 389

12.7.1.1 Spectroscopy Techniques 389

12.7.1.2 Chromatographic Techniques 390

12.7.1.3 Electroanalytical Techniques 391

12.8 Future Prospects 391

12.9 Conclusion 392

References 393

13 Sensors for Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Food 397
Krishna Gopalakrishnan, Arun Sharma, Neela Emanuel, Pramod K Prabhakar and Ritesh Kumar

13.1 Introduction 398

13.2 Different Types of Non-Destructive Methods 400

13.2.1 Mechanical Method 400

13.2.1.1 Mechanical Thumb Method 400

13.2.1.2 Sinclair IQTM-Firmness Tester (SIQ-FT) 401

13.2.1.3 Laser Air-Puff 401

13.2.2 Chemical Method 401

13.2.2.1 Electronic Nose 401

13.2.3 Electromagnetic Method 404

13.2.3.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) 404

13.2.3.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 406

13.2.4 Optical Method 408

13.2.4.1 NIR Spectroscopy 408

13.2.4.2 Image Analysis Techniques 410

13.2.4.3 Time-Resolved Reflectance Spectrometry 415

13.2.5 Dynamic Method 418

13.2.5.1 X-Rays 418

13.2.5.2 Computed Tomography 419

13.2.5.3 Ultrasonic 420

13.2.5.4 Acoustic Techniques 421

13.2.6 Sensor Fusion 423

13.3 Non-Destructive Quality Testing in Various Food Commodities 425

13.3.1 Staple Foods 425

13.3.1.1 Sensory Aspect 426

13.3.1.2 Adulteration Aspects 427

13.3.1.3 Chemical Aspects 427

13.3.2 Fruits 427

13.3.2.1 Fruit Quality Inspection Using Electronic Nose 429

13.3.2.2 Fruit Quality Inspection Using UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy 429

13.3.2.3 Fruit Quality Inspection Using Ultrasound Sensing Technique 430

13.3.2.4 Fruit Quality Inspection Using Machine Vision Sensing Technique 430

13.3.2.5 Fruit Quality Inspection Using Acoustic Impulse Technique 431

13.3.3 Vegetables 431

13.3.3.1 Spectroscopic Techniques 431

13.3.3.2 Sound Waves Techniques 434

13.3.3.3 Imaging Analysis Techniques 435

13.4 Conclusion 436

References 437

Index 451
Mousumi Sen, PhD is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry, Amity University, India. She received her PhD in Bioinorganic Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India. Her research interest is focused on the development of biotechnological processes for bioprocessing and conversion of waste to generate bioenergy, biofuels, and biobased chemicals. She has published numerous peer-reviewed research articles in international journals as well as authored, edited books, chapters and a conference proceedings volume.