John Wiley & Sons Digitization of Healthcare Data using Blockchain Cover DIGITIZATION OF HEALTHCARE DATA USING BLOCKCHAIN The book gives a detailed description of the integ.. Product #: 978-1-119-79185-0 Regular price: $167.29 $167.29 In Stock

Digitization of Healthcare Data using Blockchain

Poongodi, T. / Sumathi, D. / Balamurugan, B. / Savita, K. S. (Editor)

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1. Edition July 2022
320 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-79185-0
John Wiley & Sons

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DIGITIZATION OF HEALTHCARE DATA USING BLOCKCHAIN

The book gives a detailed description of the integration of blockchain technology for Electronic Health Records and provides the research challenges to consider in various disciplines such as supply chain, drug discovery, and data management.

The aim of the book is to investigate the concepts of blockchain technology and its association with the recent development and advancements in the medical field. Moreover, it focuses on the integration of workflow strategies like NLP, and AI which could be adopted for boosting the clinical documentation and electronic healthcare records (EHR) usage by bringing down the physician EHR data entry. Also, the book covers the usage of smart contracts for securing patient records. Digitization of Healthcare Data Using Blockchain presents the practical implementations that deal with developing a web framework for building highly usable healthcare applications, a simple blockchain-powered EHR system.

Audience

Researchers in information technology, artificial intelligence, electronics engineering, medical informatics, as well as policymakers and healthcare providers and management systems.

Preface xiii

1 Evolution of Blockchain Technologies and its Fundamental Characteristics 1
Aradhna Saini, R. Gopal, S. Suganthi and T. Poongodi

1.1 An Overview of Blockchain Technology 2

1.1.1 Evolution of Blockchain Technology 2

1.1.2 Significant Characteristics of Blockchain Technology 3

1.2 Blockchain Architecture and Its Components 5

1.3 Comparative Analysis of Blockchain Categories 8

1.3.1 Permissionless or Public Blockchain 9

1.3.2 Permissioned or Private Blockchain 11

1.3.3 Consortium Blockchain 13

1.3.4 Hybrid Blockchain 15

1.4 Blockchain Uses Cases in Healthcare 15

1.5 Research Opportunities and Challenges of Blockchain Technology in Healthcare 20

1.6 Conclusion 21

References 21

2 Geospatial Blockchain: Promises, Challenges, and Scenarios in Healthcare 25
Janarthanan S., S. Vijayalakshmi, Savita and T. Ganesh Kumar

2.1 Introduction 26

2.1.1 Basics of Blockchain 26

2.1.2 Promises and Challenges in Blockchain 27

2.1.3 Comparative Study 28

2.2 Geospatial Blockchain Analysis Based on Healthcare Industry 29

2.2.1 Remote Monitoring and Geospatial Healthcare System 30

2.3 Smart Internet of Things Devices and Systems 32

2.3.1 Main Challenges and Importance in Smart Convention 33

2.3.2 Recent Innovations in Healthcare 33

2.4 Implementation Strategies and Methodologies 34

2.4.1 Promises and Challenges in Implementation 35

2.5 Information Security and Privacy Protection in Geospatial Blockchain Healthcare Systems 37

2.5.1 Security and Privacy Protection Framework 37

2.5.2 Data Access Control System 37

2.6 Challenges in Present and Past and Future Directions 40

2.6.1 Present Challenges in Healthcare 40

2.6.2 Past Challenges in Healthcare 41

2.6.3 Future Challenges in Healthcare 42

2.7 Conclusion 45

References 45

3 Architectural Framework of Blockchain Technology in Healthcare 49
Kiran Singh, Nilanjana Pradhan and Shrddha Sagar

3.1 Introduction 50

3.2 Healthcare 51

3.2.1 Electronic Healthcare 52

3.2.2 Smart Healthcare 53

3.3 Blockchain Technology 54

3.4 Architecture of Smart Healthcare 55

3.5 Blockchain in Electronic Healthcare 57

3.6 Architecture for Blockchain 59

3.7 Distributed System 60

3.8 Security and Privacy 61

3.9 Applications of Healthcare Management in Blockchain 64

3.9.1 The Use of the Blockchain for EMR Data Storage 64

3.9.2 Blockchains and Data Security are Related 66

3.9.3 Blockchain for Personal Health Information 66

3.9.4 Blockchain is a Strong Technology at the Point of Treatment Genomic Analytics 67

3.10 Applications of IoT in Blockchain 67

3.11 Challenges 68

3.12 Conclusion 68

References 69

4 Smart Contract and Distributed Ledger for Healthcare Informatics 73
Yogesh Sharma and B. Balamurugan

4.1 Introduction 74

4.1.1 History of Healthcare Informatics 75

4.2 Introduction of Blockchain Technology 76

4.2.1 A Blockchain Process 77

4.3 Types of Blockchains 78

4.3.1 Public Blockchain 79

4.3.2 Private Blockchain 79

4.3.3 Consortium Blockchain 80

4.4 Blockchain in Healthcare 80

4.5 Distributed Ledger Technology 82

4.6 Evolution of Distributed Ledger Technology 82

4.7 Smart Contract 83

4.7.1 Limitations of Smart Contract 85

4.7.2 Smart Contract in Healthcare Informatics 85

4.8 Distributed Ledger in Healthcare Informatics as Blockchain 86

4.9 Distributed Ledger Technology in Healthcare Payments 88

4.10 Conclusion 89

References 90

5 Consensus Algorithm for Healthcare Using Blockchain 93
Faizan Salim, John A., Rajesh E. and A. Suresh Kumar

5.1 Introduction 94

5.2 Types of Blockchain 95

5.3 Blockchain Database 98

5.4 Consensus Algorithm 98

5.5 Healthcare System 100

5.5.1 Healthcare and Blockchain 101

5.5.2 Benefits of Blockchain in Healthcare 101

5.6 Algorithms 103

5.6.1 Smart Contract 104

5.6.2 Algorithm for Fault Tolerance Using Blockchain 104

5.6.3 Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance Algorithm 106

5.6.4 Algorithm for Distributed Healthcare Using Blockchain 108

5.7 Security for Healthcare System Using Blockchain 109

5.7.1 Framework for Security Using Blockchain 110

5.8 Issues and Challenges in Healthcare Using Blockchain 112

5.9 Future Scope 114

5.10 Conclusion 115

References 115

6 Industry 4.0 and Smart Healthcare: An Application Perspective 117
R. Saminathan, S. Saravanan and P. Anbalagan

6.1 Introduction 118

6.2 Evolution of Industry 4.0 119

6.3 Vision and Challenges of Industry 4.0 120

6.4 Technologies Used in Fourth Industrial Revolution 121

6.5 Blockchain in Industry 4.0 127

6.6 Smart Healthcare Design Using Healthcare 4.0 Processes 129

6.7 Blockchain Tele-Surgery Framework for Healthcare 4.0 131

6.8 Digital Twin Technology in Healthcare Industry 133

6.9 Conclusion 134

References 134

7 Blockchain Powered EHR in Pharmaceutical Industry 137
Piyush Sexena, Prashant Singh, John A. and Rajesh E.

7.1 Introduction 138

7.2 Traditional Healthcare System vs Blockchain EHR 140

7.3 Working of Blockchain in EHR 141

7.4 System Design and Architecture of EHR 143

7.5 Blockchain Methodologies for EHR 146

7.6 Benefits of Using Blockchain in EHR 149

7.7 Challenges Faced by Blockchain in HER 151

7.8 Future Scope 154

7.9 Conclusion 155

References 156

8 Convergence of IoT and Blockchain in Healthcare 159
Swaroop S. Sonone, Kapil Parihar, Mahipal Singh Sankhla, Rajeev Kumar and Rohit Kumar Verma

8.1 Introduction 160

8.2 Overview of Convergence 161

8.3 Healthcare 162

8.4 IoTs and Blockchain Technology 163

8.5 IoT Technologies for Healthcare 163

8.6 Blockchain in Healthcare 165

8.7 Integration for Next-Generation Healthcare 167

8.8 Basic Structure of Convergence 170

8.9 Challenges 172

8.10 Conclusion 174

References 175

9 Disease Prediction Using Machine Learning for Healthcare 181
S. Vijayalakshmi and Ashutosh Upadhyay

9.1 Introduction to Disease Prediction 182

9.1.1 Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare 182

9.1.2 Data Collection and Information Processing 183

9.1.3 Human Living Standard and Possible Diseases 185

9.1.4 Importance of Data in Disease Prediction 185

9.2 Data Analytics for Disease Prediction 186

9.3 Segmentation and Features of Medical Images 186

9.4 Prediction Model for Healthcare 188

9.5 Introduction to ML 191

9.5.1 K-Nearest Neighbor, Artificial Neural Network, CNN, Decision Tree, and Random Forest 195

9.6 Prediction Model Study of Different Disease 198

9.7 Decision Support System 199

9.8 Preventive Measures Based on Predicted Results 199

9.9 Conclusions and Future Scope 200

References 200

10 Managing Healthcare Data Using Machine Learning and Blockchain Technology 203
BKSP Kumar Raju Alluri

10.1 Introduction 203

10.2 Current Situation of Healthcare 204

10.3 Introduction to Blockchain for Healthcare 206

10.4 Introduction to ML for Healthcare 211

10.4.1 Open Issues in Machine Learning for Healthcare 213

10.5 Using ML and Blockchain for Healthcare Management 214

10.5.1 Bucket 1: Theory Centric 215

10.5.2 Bucket 2: Result Oriented 219

10.5.3 Outcomes of the Study 222

10.5.4 Why are Most of the Current Blockchain + Healthcare Papers Theory-Based? 227

10.6 Conclusion 228

References 228

11 Advancement of Deep Learning and Blockchain Technology in Health Informatics 235
Anubhav Singh, Mahipal Singh Sankhla, Kapil Parihar and Rajeev Kumar

11.1 Introduction 236

11.2 Associated Works 238

11.2.1 Preliminaries 240

11.3 Internet of Things 240

11.4 Big Data 241

11.5 Deep Learning 241

11.5.1 Common Deep Learners 242

11.5.1.1 Convolutional Neural Network 242

11.5.1.2 Recurrent Neural Networks 242

11.5.1.3 Deep Autoencoders 243

11.5.1.4 Deep Boltzmann Machine 243

11.6 Restricted Boltzmann Machine 243

11.7 Profound Conviction Organization 244

11.8 Application and Challenges of Deep Learners 244

11.8.1 Predictive Healthcare 244

11.8.2 Medical Decision Support 245

11.8.3 Personalized Treatments 245

11.8.4 Difficulties 246

11.8.5 Blockchain Technology 247

11.8.6 Types of Blockchain 247

11.8.7 Challenges of Blockchain in Healthcare 248

11.8.8 Interoperability 248

11.8.9 Management, Privacy, and Anonymity of Data 248

11.8.10 Quality of Service 249

11.8.11 Heterogeneous Gadgets and Traffic 249

11.8.12 Inertness 249

11.8.13 Asset Imperatives and Energy Proficiency 249

11.8.14 Storage Capacity and Scalability 250

11.8.15 Security 250

11.8.16 Data Mining 250

11.8.17 System Model 251

11.8.18 Attack Model 251

11.9 Open Research Issues 252

11.10 Conclusion 252

References 253

12 Research Challenges and Future Directions in Applying Blockchain Technology in the Healthcare Domain 257
Sneha Chakraverty and Sakshi Bansal

12.1 Introduction 258

12.2 Healthcare 259

12.2.1 Stakeholders of Indian Healthcare Ecosystem 259

12.2.2 Major Data Related Challenges in Indian Healthcare System 260

12.3 Need of Blockchain in Healthcare Domain 261

12.4 Application of Blockchain in Healthcare Domain 262

12.5 Methodology 263

12.5.1 Review of Literature 264

12.5.2 Interviews 264

12.6 Challenges 265

12.6.1 How to Overcome This Problem 267

12.7 Future Directions 268

12.8 Conclusion 269

References 269

Appendix 272

Appendix 12.1 272

Interview Form 272

Appendix 12.2: Response 1 273

Interview Form 273

Appendix 12.3: Response 2 276

Interview Form 276

Appendix 12.4: Response 3 278

Interview Form 278

Appendix 12.5: Response 4 280

Interview Form 280

Index 285
T. Poongodi, PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Galgotias University, Delhi - NCR, India. She has more than 15 years of experience working in teaching and research.

D. Sumathi, PhD, is an associate professor at VIT-AP University, Andhra Pradesh. She has an overall experience of 21 years out of which six years in industry, 15 years in the teaching field. Her research interests include cloud computing, network security, data mining, natural language processing, and theoretical foundations of computer science.

B. Balamurugan, PhD, is a professor in the School of Computing Sciences and Engineering at Galgotias University, Greater Noida, India. His contributions focus on engineering education, blockchain, and data sciences. He has published more than 30 books on various technologies and more than 150 research articles in SCI journals, conferences, and book chapters.

K. S. Savita, PhD, is on the academic staff in the Department of Computer and Information Sciences (CISD), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia since 2006. She is accredited by the Malaysia Board of Technologies as Professional Technologist (Ts.) in Information and Computing Technology.