John Wiley & Sons Liquid Biofuels Cover Compiled by a well-known expert in the field, Liquid Biofuels provides a profound knowledge to resea.. Product #: 978-1-119-79198-0 Regular price: $214.02 $214.02 In Stock

Liquid Biofuels

Fundamentals, Characterization, and Applications

Shadangi, Krushna Prasad (Editor)

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1. Edition August 2021
752 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-79198-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Compiled by a well-known expert in the field, Liquid Biofuels provides a profound knowledge to researchers about biofuel technologies, selection of raw materials, conversion of various biomass to biofuel pathways, selection of suitable methods of conversion, design of equipment, selection of operating parameters, determination of chemical kinetics, reaction mechanism, preparation of bio-catalyst: its application in bio-fuel industry and characterization techniques, use of nanotechnology in the production of biofuels from the root level to its application and many other exclusive topics for conducting research in this area.

Written with the objective of offering both theoretical concepts and practical applications of those concepts, Liquid Biofuels can be both a first-time learning experience for the student facing these issues in a classroom and a valuable reference work for the veteran engineer or scientist. The description of the detailed characterization methodologies along with the precautions required during analysis are extremely important, as are the detailed description about the ultrasound assisted biodiesel production techniques, aviation biofuels and its characterization techniques, advance in algal biofuel techniques, pre-treatment of biomass for biofuel production, preparation and characterization of bio-catalyst, and various methods of optimization.

The book offers a comparative study between the various liquid biofuels obtained from different methods of production and its engine performance and emission analysis so that one can get the utmost idea to find the better biofuel as an alternative fuel. Since the book covers almost all the field of liquid biofuel production techniques, it will provide advanced knowledge to the researcher for practical applications across the energy sector.

A valuable reference for engineers, scientists, chemists, and students, this volume is applicable to many different fields, across many different industries, at all levels. It is a must-have for any library.

Preface xxi

1 Introduction to Biomass to Biofuels Technologies 1
Ezgi Rojda Taymaz, Mehmet Emin Uslu and Irem Deniz

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass and Its Composition 2

1.2.1 Cellulose 3

1.2.2 Hemicellulose 4

1.2.3 Lignin 5

1.3 Types and Category of the Biomass 6

1.3.1 Marine Biomass 6

1.3.2 Forestry Residue and Crops 7

1.3.3 Animal Manure 7

1.3.4 Industrial Waste 8

1.4 Methods of Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Biofuels 8

1.4.1 Pyrolysis and Types of the Pyrolysis Processes 9

1.4.2 Types of Reactors Used in Pyrolysis 12

1.4.2.1 Bubble Fluidized Bed Reactor 12

1.4.2.2 Circulating Fluidized Bed and Transport Bed Reactor 12

1.4.2.3 Ablative Pyrolysis Reactor 14

1.4.2.4 Rotary Cone Reactor 14

1.4.3 Chemical Conversion 14

1.4.4 Electrochemical Conversion 14

1.4.5 Biochemical Methods 16

1.4.6 Co-Conversion Methods of Pyrolysis (Copyrolysis) 16

1.5 Bioethanol and Biobutanol Conversion Techniques 16

1.6 Biogas and Syngas Conversion Techniques 20

1.7 Advantages and Drawbacks of Biofuels 23

1.8 Applications of Biofuels 25

1.9 Future Prospects 26

1.10 Conclusion 27

References 29

2 Advancements of Cavitation Technology in Biodiesel Production - from Fundamental Concept to Commercial Scale-Up 39
Ritesh S. Malani, Vijayanand S. Moholkar, Nimir O. Elbashir and Hanif A. Choudhury

2.1 Introduction 40

2.2 Principles of Ultrasound and Cavitation 43

2.3 Intensification of Biodiesel Production Processes Through Cavitational Reactors 45

2.3.1 Acoustic Cavitation (or Ultrasound Irradiation) Assisted Processes 46

2.3.2 Acoustic or Ultrasonic Cavitation Assisted Processes 46

2.4 Designing the Cavitation Reactors 59

2.5 Scale-Up of Cavitational Reactors 63

2.6 Application of Cavitational Reactors for Large-Scale Biodiesel Production 66

2.7 Future Prospects and Challenges 67

References 67

3 Heterogeneous Catalyst for Pyrolysis and Biodiesel Production 77
Anjana P Anantharaman and Niju Subramania Pillai

3.1 Biodiesel Production 78

3.1.1 Homogeneous Catalyst 79

3.1.2 Heterogeneous Catalyst 80

3.1.3 Natural Catalyst 84

3.1.4 Catalyst Characterization 88

3.1.4.1 Morphology and Surface Property 88

3.1.4.2 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) 88

3.1.4.3 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy 90

3.1.4.4 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 91

3.1.4.5 Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) 91

3.1.4.6 X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) 92

3.1.5 Kinetics of Biodiesel 93

3.2 Plastic Pyrolysis 97

3.2.1 Zeolite 99

3.2.2 Activated Carbon (AC) 103

3.2.3 Natural Catalyst 104

3.2.4 Characterization of Catalyst 107

3.2.4.1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 107

3.2.4.2 Surface Characteristics 107

3.2.4.3 NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (NH3-TPD) 107

3.2.5 Pyrolysis Kinetics 111

3.3 Conclusion 113

References 114

4 Algal Biofuel: Emergent Applications in Next-Generation Biofuel Technology 119
Bidhu Bhusan Makut

4.1 Introduction 120

4.2 Burgeoning of Biofuel Resources 120

4.2.1 Potential Role of Microalgae Towards Biofuel Production 121

4.3 Common Steps Adopted for Microalgal Biofuel Production 122

4.3.1 Screening and Development of Robust Microalgal Strain 122

4.3.2 Cultivation for Algal Biomass Production 123

4.3.3 Harvesting of Microalgae Biomass 127

4.3.4 Dewatering and Drying Process 127

4.3.5 Extraction and Purification of Lipids from Microalgal Biomass for Biodiesel Production 130

4.3.6 Microalgal Biomass Conversion Technology Towards Different Types of Biofuel Production 130

4.3.6.1 Chemical Conversion 131

4.3.6.2 Biochemical Conversion 132

4.3.6.3 Thermochemical Conversion 134

4.3.6.4 Direct Conversion 136

4.4 Types of Microalgal Biofuels and their Emerging Applications 137

4.4.1 Biodiesel 137

4.4.2 Bioethanol 139

4.4.3 Biogas 140

4.4.4 Bio-Oil 140

4.5 Conclusion 141

References 141

5 Co-Liquefaction of Biomass to Biofuels 145
Gerardo Martínez-Narro and Anh N. Phan

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) 147

5.2.1 Background 147

5.2.2 Operating Parameters Affecting HTL Process 149

5.3 Co-Liquefaction of Biomass 151

5.3.1 Food Waste with Others 151

5.3.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass with Others 162

5.3.3 Biomass with Crude Glycerol 163

5.3.4 Algal Biomass with Others 164

5.3.5 Sludge with Others 168

5.3.6 Biomass with Plastic Waste 169

5.4 Current Development, Challenges and Future Perspectives 171

5.5 Conclusions 174

Acknowledgments 174

References 174

6 Biomass to Bio Jet Fuels: A Take Off to the Aviation Industry 183
Anjani R K Gollakota, Anil Kumar Thandlam and Chi-Min Shu

6.1 Introduction 184

6.2 The Transition of Biomass to Biofuels 185

6.3 Properties of Aviation Jet Fuel (Bio-Jet Fuel) 187

6.4 Fuel Specification for Civil Aviation 188

6.5 Choice of Feedstock (Renewable Sources) 192

6.5.1 Camelina 192

6.5.2 Jatropha 192

6.5.3 Wastes 193

6.5.4 Algae 193

6.5.5 Halophytes 193

6.5.6 Fiber Feedstock 193

6.6 Pathways of Biomass to Bio-Jet Fuels 194

6.6.1 Hydrogenated Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) 194

6.6.2 Catalytic Hydrothermolysis (CH) 195

6.6.3 Hydro Processed Depolymerized Cellulosic Jet (HDCJ) 195

6.6.4 Fischer-Tropsch Process (FT) 196

6.6.5 Lignin to Jet 197

6.6.6 Direct Sugars to Hydrocarbons (DSHC) 202

6.6.7 Aqueous Phase Reforming (APR) 203

6.6.8 Alcohol to Bio-Jet 203

6.7 Challenges Associates with the Future of Bio-Jet Fuel Development 204

6.7.1 Ecological Challenges 204

6.7.2 Feedstock Availability and Sustainability 205

6.7.3 Production Challenge 205

6.7.4 Distribution Challenge 205

6.7.5 Compatibility Issues 206

6.8 Future Perspective 206

6.9 Conclusion 207

Acknowledgements 209

References 209

7 Advance in Bioethanol Technology: Production and Characterization 215
Soumya Sasmal and Kaustubha Mohanty

7.1 Introduction 216

7.2 Production Technology of Ethanol and Global Players 218

7.3 Microbiology of Bioethanol Production 220

7.4 Fermentation Technology 222

7.5 Downstream Process 224

7.5.1 Distillation 224

7.5.2 Molecular Sieves 225

7.6 Ethanol Analysis 225

7.6.1 Gas Chromatography 225

7.6.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 226

7.6.3 Infrared Spectroscopy 226

7.6.4 Olfactometry 226

7.7 Conclusion 227

References 228

8 Effect of Process Parameters on the Production of Pyrolytic Products from Biomass Through Pyrolysis 231
Ranjeet Kumar Mishra and Kaustubha Mohanty

8.1 Introduction 232

8.2 Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies 233

8.2.1 Biochemical Conversion of Biomass 233

8.2.2 Thermochemical Conversion (TCC) of Biomass 234

8.2.2.1 Combustion 235

8.2.2.2 Gasification 235

8.2.2.3 Pyrolysis 236

8.2.2.4 Liquefaction 236

8.2.2.5 Carbonization and Co-Firing 240

8.2.3 Comparison of Thermochemical Conversion Techniques 240

8.3 Advantages of Pyrolysis 241

8.4 Effect of Processing Parameters on Liquid Oil Yield 242

8.4.1 Temperature 242

8.4.2 Effect of Catalysts on Pyrolytic End Products 243

8.4.3 Vapour Residence Times 249

8.4.4 Size of Feed Particles 255

8.4.5 Effect of Heating Rates 256

8.4.6 Effect of Atmospheric Gas 257

8.4.7 Effect of Biomass Type 262

8.4.8 Effect of Mineral 262

8.4.9 Effect of Moisture Contents 264

8.4.10 Effect of Bed Height and Bed Thickness 264

8.5 Types of Reactors 266

8.5.1 Fixed Bed Reactor 266

8.5.2 Fluidized Bed Reactor 266

8.5.3 Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Reactor 267

8.5.4 Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Reactors 267

8.5.5 Ablative Reactor 268

8.5.6 Vacuum Pyrolysis Reactor 268

8.5.7 Rotating Cone Reactor 269

8.5.8 PyRos Reactor 270

8.5.9 Auger Reactor 270

8.5.10 Plasma Reactor 271

8.5.11 Microwave Reactor 272

8.5.12 Solar Reactor 272

8.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Reactors 272

8.7 Conclusion 274

Acknowledgements 275

References 275

9 Thermo-Catalytic Conversion of Non-Edible Seeds (Extractive-Rich Biomass) to Fuel Oil 285
Nilutpal Bhuyan, Neelam Bora, Rumi Narzari, Kabita Boruah and Rupam Kataki

9.1 Introduction 286

9.2 Thermochemical Technologies for Liquid Biofuel Production 289

9.2.1 Hydrothermal Liquefaction 289

9.2.2 Pyrolysis and Its Classification 292

9.3 Feedstock Classification for Biofuel Production 293

9.3.1 Agricultural Crops and Residues 294

9.3.2 Municipal and Industrial Wastes 294

9.3.3 Animal Wastes 295

9.3.4 Undesirable Plants or Weeds 295

9.3.5 Forest Wood and Residues 296

9.3.5.1 Non-Edible Oil Seeds: A Potential Feedstock for Liquid Fuel Production 296

9.3.5.2 Non-Edible Oil Seeds and Worldwide Availability 297

9.4 Characterization of Non-Edible Oil Seeds 310

9.5 Thermal Degradation Profile of Different Non-Edible Seeds 320

9.6 Preparation of Raw Materials for Pyrolysis 322

9.7 Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Thermal Conversion for Liquid Fuel Production 323

9.7.1 Non-Catalytic Pyrolysis 323

9.7.1.1 CHNSO Analysis of Seed Pyrolytic Oil 326

9.7.1.2 FTIR Analysis of Seed Pyrolytic Oil 326

9.8 Need for Up-Gradation of Pyrolytic Oil 329

9.8.1 Catalytic Pyrolysis 329

9.9 Application of Catalyst in Pyrolysis of Non-Edible Biomass 330

9.10 Effect of Parameters on Liquid Fuel Production 330

9.10.1 Effect of Operating Parameters on Yield 330

9.10.2 Effect of Temperature 339

9.10.3 Heating Rates 340

9.10.4 Effect of Flow of Sweeping Gas 340

9.10.5 Effect of Particle Size 341

9.10.6 Effect of Catalyst on Yield 341

9.10.7 Influence of Catalysts on Oil Composition 342

9.10.8 Effect of Catalyst Bed on Yield 343

9.10.9 Effect of Catalyst on Fuel Properties of Pyrolytic Oil 343

9.11 Fuel Properties of Thermal and Catalytic Pyrolytic Oil 343

9.12 Challenges in Utilization of Nonedible Oil Seed in Themocatalytic Conversion Process 345

9.13 Advantages and Drawbacks of Seed Pyrolytic Oils 346

9.14 Precautions Associated with the Application of Biofuel 347

9.15 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 348

References 350

10 Suitability of Oil Seed Residues as a Potential Source of Bio-Fuels and Bioenergy 361
Vikranth Volli, Randeep Singh, Krushna Prasad Shadangi and Chi-Min Shu

10.1 Introduction 362

10.2 Biomass Conversion Processes 363

10.3 Biomass to Bioenergy via Thermal Pyrolysis 367

10.3.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis 367

10.3.2 Thermal Pyrolysis 368

10.4 Physicochemical Characterization of Bio-Oil 370

10.4.1 Physical Properties 370

10.4.2 FTIR Analysis 371

10.4.3 GC-MS Analysis 372

10.5 Engine Performance Analysis 384

10.5.1 Break Thermal Efficiency (BTE) 384

10.5.2 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) 384

10.5.3 Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) 385

10.6 Future Prospects and Recommendations 386

10.7 Conclusion 387

Acknowledgments 387

References 387

11 Co-Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuel 391
Abhishek Walia, Chayanika Putatunda, Preeti Solanki, Shruti Pathania and Ravi Kant Bhatia

11.1 Introduction 392

11.2 Mechanism of Co-Pyrolysis Process 394

11.2.1 Major Types of Pyrolysis and Co-Pyrolysis 396

11.3 Factors Impacting Co-Pyrolysis 398

11.3.1 Composition of Co-Pyrolysis Substrates and the Products Obtained in Co-Pyrolysis 398

11.3.2 Main Reactor Types Used During Biomass Co-Pyrolysis and the Process Conditions/Parameters 399

11.3.2.1 Classification of Biomass (Co) Pyrolysis Bioreactors 401

11.3.3 The Role of Catalysts in Biomass Co-Pyrolysis 405

11.3.3.1 Catalytic Hydrotreating 405

11.3.3.2 Types of Catalysts Available 407

11.3.3.3 Factors Affecting the Performance of Catalysts 409

11.3.3.4 Mechanisms of Deactivation of Catalysts 410

11.3.3.5 Catalytic Upgradation of Bio-Oil with Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) 410

11.4 Recent Advances and Studies on Co-Pyrolysis of Biomass and Different Substrates 411

11.5 Effect between Biomass and Different Substrates in Co-Pyrolysis 412

11.5.1 Increased Bio-Oil Yield 413

11.5.1.1 Type of Substrate 413

11.5.1.2 Particle Size 414

11.5.1.3 Temperature 415

11.5.1.4 Substrate to Biomass Ratio 416

11.5.1.5 Residence Time 417

11.5.2 Improved Oil Quality 417

11.5.2.1 Influence of Bioreactor 417

11.5.2.2 Influence of Catalyst 418

11.5.3 Effect of Biomass-Different Substrates Co-Pyrolysis on By-Products 420

11.5.3.1 Microalgae and Plastic Waste 420

11.5.3.2 Microalgae and Coal 423

11.5.3.3 Microalgae and Tires 424

11.6 Future Perspectives 425

11.7 Conclusion 427

References 428

12 Pyrolysis of Caryota Urens Seeds: Fuel Properties and Compositional Analysis 441
Midhun Prasad Kothandaraman and Murugavelh Somasundaram

12.1 Introduction 442

12.2 Types of Pyrolysis Reactor 443

12.2.1 Fluidized Bed Reactor 443

12.2.2 Fixed Bed Reactor 444

12.2.3 Auger Reactor 445

12.2.4 Rotating Cone Pyrolysis Reactor 446

12.3 Materials and Methods 447

12.3.1 Feedstock Preparation and Collection 447

12.3.2 Tubular Reactor for Conversion of Caryota Ures Seeds to Bio Oil 447

12.4 Product Analysis 448

12.4.1 Characterization of Feedstock and Oil Yield 448

12.5 Kinetic Modelling 449

12.5.1 Kissinger Method for Activation Energy Calculation 450

12.5.2 Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) Method for Activation Energy Calculation 450

12.5.3 Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) Method for Activation Energy Calculation 450

12.6 Result and Discussion 451

12.6.1 Characterization of Feedstock 451

12.6.2 Product Yield 452

12.6.3 FTIR of Bio Oil 452

12.6.4 GCMS of Bio Oil 453

12.6.5 Thermogravimetric Analysis of Caryota Urens 456

12.6.6 Activation Energy Calculation Using Isoconversional Models 459

12.6.6.1 Kissinger Method for Estimation of Activation Energy 459

12.6.6.2 KAS Method for Estimation of Activation Energy 460

12.6.6.3 The OFW Method 460

12.7 Conclusion 462

Acknowledgements 463

Nomenclature 463

References 463

13 Bio-Butanol as Biofuels: The Present and Future Scope 467
Seim Timung, Harsimranpreet Singh and Anshika Annu

13.1 Introduction 467

13.2 Butanol Global Market 469

13.3 History of ABE Fermentation 469

13.4 Feedstocks 470

13.4.1 Non-Lignocellulosic Feedstock 470

13.4.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass 471

13.4.3 Algae 472

13.4.4 Waste Sources 474

13.4.5 Glycerol 475

13.5 Pretreatment Techniques 476

13.5.1 Acid Pretreatment 476

13.5.2 Alkali Pretreatment 477

13.5.3 Organosolvent Pretreatment 477

13.5.4 Other Pretreatment 478

13.6 Fermentation Techniques 478

13.7 Conclusion 479

References 480

14 Application of Nanotechnology in the Production of Biofuel 487
Trinath Biswal and Krushna Prasad Shadangi

14.1 Introduction 488

14.2 Various Nanoparticles Used for Production of Biofuel 489

14.2.1 Magnetic Nanoparticles 489

14.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 491

14.2.3 Graphene and Graphene Derived Nanomaterial for Biofuel 493

14.2.4 Other Nanoparticles Applied in Heterogeneous Catalysis for Biofuel Production 495

14.3 Factors Affecting the Performance of Nanoparticles in the Manufacturing Process of Biofuel 495

14.3.1 Nanoparticle Synthesis Temperature 496

14.3.2 Pressure During Synthesis of Nanoparticle 496

14.3.3 pH Influencing Synthesis of Nanoparticles 496

14.3.4 Size of Nanoparticles 496

14.4 Role of Nanomaterials in the Synthesis of Biofuels 496

14.5 Utilization of Nanomaterials for the Production of Biofuel 497

14.5.1 Production of Biodiesel Using Nanocatalysts 497

14.5.2 Application of Nanomaterials for the Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass 500

14.5.3 Application of Nanomaterials in Synthesis of Cellulase and Stability 501

14.5.4 Application of Nano-Materials in the Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass 501

14.5.5 Bio-Ethanol Production by Using Nanotechnology 502

14.5.6 Application of Nanotechnology in the Production of Bio-Ethanol or Cellulosic Ethanol 506

14.5.7 Up-Gradation of Biofuel by Using Nanotechnology 508

14.5.8 Use of Nanoparticles in Biorefinery 509

14.6 Conclusion 510

References 511

15 Experimental Investigation of Long Run Viability of Engine Oil Properties in DI Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel, Bioethanol and Biodiesel Blend 517
Dulari Hansdah and S. Murugan

15.1 Introduction 518

15.2 Materials and Method 519

15.2.1 Fuel Properties 520

15.3 Test Procedure 522

15.3.1 Engine Experimental Set Up 522

15.3.2 Methodology 525

15.4 Result Analysis 528

15.4.1 Wear Measurements of Different Components 528

15.4.2 Deposits of Carbon on the Various Engine Components 532

15.4.2.1 Cylinder Head and Piston Crown 532

15.4.2.2 Analysis Deposits on Fuel Injector 533

15.4.3 Analysis of Lubricating Oil 533

15.4.3.1 Effect of Crankcase Dilution 533

15.4.3.2 Analysis of Wear of Metals from Different Components 537

15.5 Conclusion 541

References 541

16 Studies on the Diesel Blends Oxidative Stability in Mixture with TBHQ Antioxidant and Soft Computation Approach Using ANN and RSM at Varying Blend Ratio 543
Ramesh Kasimani

16.1 Introduction 544

16.2 Materials and Methodology 545

16.2.1 Bio-Diesel Preparation and its Properties 545

16.2.2 Antioxidant Reagent 547

16.2.3 GC-MS Analysis 547

16.2.4 Oxidation Stability Determination 547

16.2.5 Uncertainty Analysis 548

16.2.6 Experimental Setup and Test Procedure 552

16.2.7 Response Surface Methodology 552

16.2.8 Artificial Neural Network 554

16.3 Results and Discussion 555

16.3.1 Oxidation Stability Analysis 555

16.3.2 Performance and Emission Characteristics of CIB Diesel Blends 556

16.3.3 Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption 556

16.3.4 Brake Thermal Efficiency 559

16.3.5 Carbon Monoxide 560

16.3.6 Hydrocarbon 561

16.3.7 Nitrogen Oxides 561

16.3.8 Carbon Dioxide 562

16.3.9 Performance and Emission Characteristics of CIB Diesel Blends + TBHQ 563

16.3.10 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption 563

16.3.11 Brake Thermal Efficiency 567

16.3.12 Carbon Monoxide 567

16.3.13 Hydrocarbon 568

16.3.14 Nitrogen Oxides 568

16.3.15 Carbon Dioxide 569

16.4 Response Surface Methodology for Performance Parameter 570

16.4.1 Non-Linear Regression Model for Performance Parameter 570

16.4.2 Fit Summary for BSFC 571

16.4.3 ANOVA for Performance Parameters 571

16.4.4 Response Surface Plot and Contour Plot for BSFC 571

16.4.5 Response Surface Plot and Contour Plot for BTE 576

16.4.6 Non-Linear Regression Model for Emission Parameter 578

16.4.7 Fit Summary for Emission Parameters 578

16.4.8 ANOVA for Emission Parameters 580

16.4.9 Response Surface Plot and Contour Plot for CO 586

16.4.10 Response Surface Plot and Contour Plot for HC 591

16.4.11 Response Surface Plot and Contour Plot for NOx 591

16.4.12 Response Surface Plot and Contour Plot for CO2 592

16.5 Modelling of ANN 593

16.5.1 Prediction of Performance Characteristics 596

16.5.2 Prediction of Emission Characteristics 597

16.6 Validation of RSM and ANN 599

16.7 Conclusion 606

References 608

17 Effect of Nanoparticles in Bio-Oil on the Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine 613
V.Dhana Raju, S.Rami Reddy, Harish Venu, Lingesan Subramani and Manzoore Elahi M. Soudagar

17.1 Introduction 614

17.2 Materials and Methods 618

17.2.1 Waste Mango Seed Oil Extraction 618

17.2.2 Transesterification Process 619

17.2.3 Preparation of Alumina Nanoparticles 621

17.3 Experimental Setup 621

17.3.1 Error and Uncertainty Analysis 622

17.4 Results and Discussion 623

17.4.1 Mango Seed Biodiesel Yield 623

17.4.2 Characterization of Alumina Nanoparticles 624

17.4.3 Diverse Characteristics of Diesel Engine 625

17.4.3.1 Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) 626

17.4.3.2 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) 627

17.4.3.3 Cylinder Pressure (CP) 628

17.4.3.4 Heat Release Rate (HRR) 629

17.4.3.5 Carbon Monoxide Emissions (CO) 629

17.4.3.6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions (CO2) 630

17.4.3.7 Hydrocarbons Emissions (HC) 630

17.4.3.8 Nitrogen Oxides Emissions (NOX) 632

17.4.3.9 Smoke Opacity (SO) 632

17.5 Conclusions 633

Abbreviations 634

Nomenclature 634

References 635

18 Use of Optimization Techniques to Study the Engine Performance and Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine 639
Sakthivel R, Mohanraj T, Abbhijith H and Ganesh Kumar P

18.1 Introduction 640

18.1.1 Engine Performance Optimization 644

18.2 Engine Parameter Optimization Using Taguchi's S/N 645

18.3 Engine Parameter Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology 649

18.3.1 Analysis of Variance 652

18.4 Artificial Neural Networks 653

18.5 Genetic Algorithm 659

18.6 TOPSIS Algorithm 662

18.6.1 TOPSIS Method for Optimizing Engine Parameters 666

18.7 Grey Relational Analysis 669

18.8 Fuzzy Optimization 674

18.9 Conclusion 675

Abbreviations 676

References 676

19 Engine Performance and Emission Analysis of Biodiesel-Diesel and Biomass Pyrolytic Oil-Diesel Blended Oil: A Comparative Study 681
K. Adithya, C.M Jagadesh Kumar, C.G. Mohan, R. Prakash and N. Gunasekar

19.1 Introduction 682

19.2 Experimental Analysis 683

19.2.1 Production of Coconut Shell Pyrolysis Oil 683

19.2.2 Production of JME 685

19.3 Experimental Set-Up 685

19.3.1 Engine Specifications 686

19.3.2 Error Analysis 686

19.4 Results and Discussion 687

19.4.1 Performance Parameters 687

19.4.1.1 Brake Thermal Efficiency 687

19.4.1.2 BSFC 688

19.4.1.3 Exhaust Gas Temperature 688

19.4.2 Emission Parameters 689

19.4.2.1 Carbon Monoxide 689

19.4.2.2 Hydrocarbons 689

19.4.2.3 NOx Emissions 691

19.4.2.4 Smoke Opacity 691

19.5 Conclusion 692

References 693

20 Agro-Waste for Second-Generation Biofuels 697
Prakash Kumar Sarangi and Mousumi Meghamala Nayak

20.1 Introduction 697

20.2 Agro-Wastes 699

20.3 Value-Addition of Agro-Wastes 700

20.4 Production of Second-Generation Biofuels 702

20.4.1 Biogas 702

20.4.2 Biohydrogen 702

20.4.3 Bioethanol 703

20.4.4 Biobutanol 703

20.4.5 Biomethanol 704

20.4.6 Conclusion 705

References 706

Index 711
Krushna Prasad Shadangi, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Odisha, India. He earned his doctorate in chemical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India. He has ten years of research experience in the field of biofuel technologies and has contributed eight book chapters in edited books. He has published 22 papers in peer reviewed SCI journals and is an editorial board member on five international journals.