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Green Chemistry for Sustainable Water Purification

Ul-Islam, Shahid / Shalla, Aabid Hussain / Shahadat, Mohammad (Editor)


1. Edition January 2023
304 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-85229-2
John Wiley & Sons

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GREEN CHEMISTRY for Sustainable Water Purification

Green Chemistry for Sustainable Water Purification provides systematic coverage of the most recent research and development in clean water treatment technologies based on green materials and nanocomposites.

Providing safe drinking water is one of the top priorities for scientists and industrialists working on projects, and one particular problem is the contamination of groundwater with toxic organic and inorganic compounds released by various industries. The presence of contaminants or industrial effluents in drinking water systems has increasingly become a major environmental challenge. To address the problem, several methods, including ion exchange, membrane filtration, advanced oxidation, biological degradation, photocatalytic degradation, electro-coagulation, and adsorption, are in operation for removing or minimizing these wastes. The purification process of wastewater using conventional methods, however, has proved to be markedly ineffective, very difficult, and highly expensive.

On the other hand, for the remediation of water resources, a concept like green chemistry, based on the application of biological agents including polymers, bacteria, and fungi, has received great scientific attention as it helps to avoid the toxic by-products of conventional techniques and enhances eco-friendly wastewater treatment approaches.

This book discusses the different treatment technologies with a special focus on the green adsorption approach, using biological and hybrid biochemical treatment technologies to prevent water contamination and maintain the ecosystem. It discusses the analysis of organic and inorganic pollutants from industrial wastewater. It also focuses on the removal and recovery of organic and inorganic contaminants from the environment and several case studies describing the removal and recovery of environmental pollutants using green technology are given. The recycling of low-cost along with green adsorbent technology is explained in detail. Finally, the book highlights treatment technologies with effective pollutant removal capacities that are used in modern water treatment units.


The book will serve as an important resource for materials scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, biotechnologists, textile engineers and environmental scientists. It will also be valuable to industrial organizations, consulting engineering companies, etc. for the selection and implementation of the most sustainable wastewater treatment technologies.

Preface xiii

1 Green Chemistry for Water Remediation 1
Syed Wazed Ali, Satyaranjan Bairagi and Swagata Banerjee

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Challenges in Water Remediation 3

1.3 Green Chemistry as a Novel Alternative to Conventional Wastewater Treatment 4

1.3.1 Green Chemistry 4

1.3.2 Applications of Green Chemistry in Water Remediation 9

1.4 Conclusion 14

Acknowledgment 15

References 15

2 Advances in Wastewater Treatment Using Natural and Modified Zeolites 21
Sheikh A. Majid, Gowher Jan and Aabid H. Shalla

2.1 Global Impact of Wastewater Treatment 21

2.2 Different Wastewater Treatments 22

2.3 Technologies to Treat Chemical Industry Effluents 23

2.4 Oil-Water Separator--Treatment of Oily Effluent 23

2.5 Coagulation-Flocculation 24

2.6 Techniques for Treating Wastewater Using Adsorption 25

2.7 Adsorption of Dyes 26

2.8 Zeolite in Wastewater Treatment 27

2.9 Negative Impact of Heavy Metals on Health 28

2.9.1 Origin of Heavy Metal Exposure to Humans 29 Arsenic 30 Lead 31 Mercury 31

2.10 Wastewater Treatment Using Different Zeolites 32

2.10.1 Natural Zeolites 32

2.11 Treatment of Surface Waters, Ground, and Underground Waters 33

2.12 Drinking and Greywater Treatment 33

2.13 Heavy Metal Removal Comparison by Zeolites 34

2.13.1 Different Adsorbents Used to Remove Cr³+ 34

2.13.2 Different Adsorbents Employed for the Removal of Cd³+ 34

2.13.3 Removal of Cu²+ by Different Adsorbents 37

2.13.4 Different Adsorbents Used to Remove Pb²+ 37

2.13.5 Removal of Zn²+ by Different Adsorbents 37

2.14 Adsorption Kinetics and Thermodynamics 40

2.15 Conclusion 40

References 41

3 Sustainable Green Synergistic Emulsion Liquid Membrane Formulation for Metal Removal from Aqueous Waste Solution 49
Norasikin Othman, Norela Jusoh, Raja Norimie Raja Sulaiman and Norul Fatiha Mohamed Noah

3.1 Introduction 50

3.2 Theoretical 51

3.2.1 Mass Transfer Mechanism in the ELM Process 53

3.2.2 Component Selection in the ELM 55

3.3 Experimental 58

3.3.1 Materials 58

3.3.2 Reactive Extraction Procedure 58

3.3.3 Determination and Calculations 60

3.4 Results and Discussion 60

3.4.1 Extraction of Metal Ions Using Single Carrier 60

3.4.2 Extraction of Metal Ions Using Mixed of Carriers 61

3.4.3 Approach to a Sustainable ELM Process 68

3.4.4 Prospect and Future Challenges in ELM Technology 69

3.5 Conclusion 73

Acknowledgment 73

References 73

4 Chemical Activation of Carbonized Neem Seed as an Effective Adsorbent for Rhodamine B Dye Adsorption 79
Edwin Andrew Ofudje, Samson O. Alayande, Abimbola A. Ogundiran, Ezekiel Folorunso Sodiya, Oyesolape Basirat Akinsipo-Oyelaja, Godswill Akhigbe and Olugbenga Bowale Oladeji

4.1 Introduction 80

4.2 Materials and Methods 81

4.2.1 Chemicals 81

4.2.2 Preparation of Adsorbent 81

4.2.3 Magnetic Activation Carbonized Neem Seed 82

4.2.4 Adsorbent Characterizations 82

4.2.5 Batch Adsorption Experiments 83

4.3 Results and Discussion 83

4.3.1 Adsorption Studies 87

4.3.2 Adsorption Kinetics of RB Dye Removal 90

4.3.3 Adsorption Isotherms of RB Dye Removal 95

4.3.4 Thermodynamic of RB Dye Removal 97

4.4 Conclusions 102

References 102

5 Green Water Treatment for Organic Pollutions: Photocatalytic Degradation Approach 107
Yahiya Kadaf Manea, Amjad Mumtaz Khan, Ajaz Ahmad Wani, Adel A. M. Saeed, Shaif M. Kasim and Ashrf Mashrai

5.1 Introduction 108

5.2 Solar Energy 109

5.3 Green Photocatalysis 109

5.4 Organic Pollutants 110

5.5 Reactive Species Responsible for Green Photocatalysis Treatment 111

5.6 Advancements in Photocatalysts 112

5.6.1 Titanium/Tin-Based Nanocomposite-Mediated Photocatalysis 112

5.6.2 Synthesis of Various Nanocomposites as Photocatalysts 114

5.6.3 Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants 116

5.7 Green Treatment of Pollutants 118

5.7.1 Photodegradation of Toxic Dyes 118

5.7.2 Photodegradation of Antibiotics 120

5.7.3 Photodegradation of Bisphenol BPA 121

5.8 Conclusion 124

References 125

6 Treatment of Textile-Wastewater Using Green Technologies 129
Shuchita Tomar, Mohammad Shahadat, S. Wazed Ali, Mangala Joshi and B.S. Butola

6.1 Introduction 130

6.1.1 Textile Industries: Causes of Water Pollution 131

6.1.2 The Effect of Polluted Water Discharged From Textile Industries on the Environment 133

6.1.3 Various Techniques for Effluent Treatment 135

6.1.4 Physical Treatment Technique 136 Adsorption Method 136 Ion-Exchange Method 137 Floatation 137

6.1.5 Chemical Treatment Technique 138 Chemical Precipitation Method 138 Coagulation and Sedimentation Method 138

6.1.6 Chemical Oxidation 138 Ozonation Method 139 Fenton Oxidation Method 139 Evaporation 139 Solar Evaporation Method 141

6.1.7 Mechanical Evaporation Method 141

6.2 Green Water Treatment Technique for Textile Effluents 142

6.2.1 Electrocoagulation (EC) 142

6.2.2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) 144

6.2.3 Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) 144

6.2.4 Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) 145

6.2.5 Effluent Treatment Using Enzymes 145

6.2.6 Membrane Filtration 146

6.2.7 Bioadsorbents Process for Effluent Treatment 146 Citrus Fruits 150 Coir Fiber 150 Coconut Shell-Activated Carbon 151

6.3 Conclusions 151

References 151

7 Photocatalytic Activity of Green Mixed Matrix Membranes for Degradation of Anionic Dye 157
Oladipo, Gabriel Opeoluwa, Alayande, Samson Oluwagbemiga, Ogunyinka Opeyemi O., Akinsiku, Anuoluwa Abimbola, Akinsipo-Oyelaja, Oyesolape Basirat, Ofudje Edwin Andrew, Bolarinwa Hakeem S., Akinlabi, Akinola Kehinde and Msagati, Titus, A.M.

7.1 Introduction 158

7.2 Materials and Methods 160

7.2.1 Materials 160

7.2.2 Methods 160 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles 160 Preparation of Natural Rubber Composites 160

7.2.3 Analysis 161 Micrograph Analysis 161 Structural Analysis 161 Thermal Analysis 161 Wetting Analysis 161 Photocatalytic Performance 161

7.3 Results and Discussion 162

7.3.1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Composites Membranes 162

7.3.2 SEM-EDX of Composite Membranes 163

7.3.3 Thermogravimetric Analysis of Composite Membranes 167

7.3.4 Contact Angle Measurement of Composite Membranes 167

7.3.5 Photodegradation of Composite Membranes 169

7.4 Conclusion 175

References 175

8 Advanced Technologies for Wastewater Treatment 179
Asim Ali Yaqoob, Claudia Guerrero-Barajas, Akil Ahmad, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim and Mohammed B. Alshammari

8.1 Introduction 180

8.2 Advanced Approaches for Wastewater Treatment 182

8.2.1 Photocatalytic Method 182 Mechanism of Photocatalysis 184

8.2.2 Nanomembranes Technology 185 Limitations and Future of the Nanomembranes Technology 187

8.2.3 Utilization of Nanosorbent for Wastewater Treatment 188

8.2.4 Microbial Fuel Cells as a Sustainable Technique 190 Mechanism and Application of MFCs in Wastewater Treatment 191

8.3 Conclusion and Future Recommendations 194

Acknowledgments 195

References 195

9 PDMS-Supported Composite Materials as Oil Absorbent 203
Nur Anis Syazmin, Mohammad Shahadat, Mohd Rizal Razali and Rohana Adnan

9.1 Introduction 203

9.2 Fabrications Techniques of PDMS Sponges as Oil Absorbent 205

9.2.1 Sacrificial Templates 205

9.2.2 Emulsion Templating Method 207

9.2.3 Phase Separation Method 210

9.2.4 3D Printing Techniques 211

9.2.5 Gas-Forming Technique 213

9.3 PDMS Sponges as an Oil/Water Separation 216

9.4 Conclusion 217

References 218

10 Polymer Nanocomposite-Based Anode for Bioelectrochemical Systems: A Review 223
Mohammad Danish Khan, Abdul Hakeem Anwer and Mohammad Zain Khan

10.1 Introduction 224

10.2 Conventional Anode Materials Based on Carbon 226

10.3 Modification of Anode with Nanomaterials Based on Carbon 226

10.4 Metal or Metal Oxide-Based Modified Anode 228

10.5 Polymer-Based Modified Anode 230

10.6 Polymer Nanocomposites for Anode Modification 231

10.7 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 235

References 236

11 Electrospinning Setup Design and Modification for Fabrication of Photocatalytic Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Water Treatment 243
N. Awang, A.M. Nasir, S.J. Fatihhi, A. Johari, S. Shaharuddin, A.H. Bakri, M.F.M. Alkbir, M.A.M. Yajid and J. Jaafar

11.1 Introduction 244

11.2 Application of Electrospun Nanofibers Polymeric Membranes (ENPM) on Wastewater Treatments 247

11.3 Improvements in Morphology and Physical Structure of ENPM 251

11.3.1 Surface Modification 252

11.3.2 Chemical Modification 254

11.4 Setup and Configurations of Electrospinning for Core-Sheath Structures of EPNM for Photocatalytic Membranes 256

11.4.1 Impacts of Electrospinning Set Up on EPNM Structures 256 Coaxial Electrospinning 257 Electrospinning and Electrospraying 259 Separation of the Melt Phase Technique 262 Process of Electrospinning and Precipitation 263

11.5 Future Directions and Challenges 265

11.6 Conclusion 267

11.7 Acknowledgment 267

References 268

Index 271
Shahid-ul-Islam, PhD, is a Research Scientist at the Department of Textile & Fiber Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT). His area of interests are antimicrobial coatings, green chemistry, fibers & polymers, polymeric composites and nanocomoposites and nano-biotechnology. He has published numerous peer-reviewed research articles in journals of high repute including contributions to several internationally recognized books published by the Wiley-Scrivener imprint, Springer, and Elsevier.

Aabid Hussain Shalla, PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Chemistry at Islamic University of Science and Technology, J&K, India. He has more than 35 publications in international journals, three books, and many book chapters to his credit. His research interests include the synthesis of hybrid ion exchange materials/ion-selective electrodes/synthesis of smart responsive hydrogels to envisage their application in the removal and identification of toxic heavy metal ions, dyes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewaters.

Mohammad Shahadat, PhD, is a senior lecturer at the School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia. He has published over 60 research papers and 8 review articles in international journals as well as edited one book and 25 book chapters. His research interests include synthesis, characterization, green technologies, chitosan/polyaniline-supported biodegradable nanocomposite materials, and their significant applications in various fields, including drug delivery systems.