John Wiley & Sons Chemical Process Engineering Volume 2 Cover CHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING Written by one of the most prolific and respected chemical engineers i.. Product #: 978-1-119-85399-2 Regular price: $254.21 $254.21 In Stock

Chemical Process Engineering Volume 2

Design, Analysis, Simulation, Integration, and Problem Solving with Microsoft Excel-UniSim Software for Chemical Engineers, Heat Transfer and Integration, Process Safety, and Chemical Kinetics

Coker, A. Kayode / Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Rahmat (Editor)

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1. Edition July 2022
944 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-85399-2
John Wiley & Sons

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CHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING

Written by one of the most prolific and respected chemical engineers in the world and his co-author, also a well-known and respected engineer, this two-volume set is the "new standard" in the industry, offering engineers and students alike the most up-do-date, comprehensive, and state-of-the-art coverage of processes and best practices in the field today.

This new two-volume set explores and describes integrating new tools for engineering education and practice for better utilization of the existing knowledge on process design. Useful not only for students, university professors, and practitioners, especially process, chemical, mechanical and metallurgical engineers, it is also a valuable reference for other engineers, consultants, technicians and scientists concerned about various aspects of industrial design.

The text can be considered as complementary to process design for senior and graduate students as well as a hands-on reference work or refresher for engineers at entry level. The contents of the book can also be taught in intensive workshops in the oil, gas, petrochemical, biochemical and process industries.

The book provides a detailed description and hands-on experience on process design in chemical engineering, and it is an integrated text that focuses on practical design with new tools, such as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and UniSim simulation software.

Written by two of the industry's most trustworthy and well-known authors, this book is the new standard in chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and petroleum refining. Covering design, analysis, simulation, integration, and, perhaps most importantly, the practical application of Microsoft Excel-UniSim software, this is the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of all of the latest developments in the industry. It is a must-have for any engineer or student's library.

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxiii

About the Authors xxv

8 Heat Transfer 505

INTRODUCTION 505

8.1 TYPES OF HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOGY 506

8.2 DETAILS OF EXCHANGE EQUIPMENT 507

Assembly and Arrangement 507

CONSTRUCTION CODES 508

THERMAL RATING STANDARDS 513

DETAILS OF STATIONARY HEADS 513

EXCHANGER SHELL TYPES 524

8.3 FACTORS AFFECTION SHELL SELECTION 528

8.4 COMMON COMBINATIONS OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS 528

AES 528

BEM 530

AEP 540

CFU 541

AKT 543

AJW 546

8.5 THERMAL DESIGN 547

8.5.1 Temperature Difference: Two Fluid Transfer 581

8.5.2 Mean Temperature Difference or Log Mean Temperature Difference 583

8.5.3 Log Mean Temperature Difference Correction Factor, F 593

8.5.4 Correction for Multipass Flow through Heat Exchangers 596

Example 8.1. Calculation of LMTD and Correction 603

Example 8.2. Calculate the LMTD 608

Solution 608

Example 8.3. Heating of Glycerin in a Multipass Heat Exchanger 610

Solution 610

8.6 THE EFFECTIVENESS - NTU METHOD 612

Example 8.4. Heating Water in a Counter-Current Flow Heat Exchanger 616

Solution 616

Example 8.5. LMTD and epsilon-NTU Methods 618

Solution 618

Example 8.6 620

Solution 620

8.7 PRESSURE DROP, Deltap 621

8.7.1 Frictional Pressure Drop 626

8.7.2 Factors Affecting Pressure Drop (Deltap) 630

TUBE-SIDE PRESSURE DROP, Deltapf 631

SHELL-SIDE PRESSURE DROP Deltapf 632

SHELL NOZZLE PRESSURE DROP (Deltapnoz) 633

TOTAL SHELL-SIDE PRESSURE DROP, Deltaptotal 634

8.8 HEAT BALANCE 635

HEAT LOAD OR DUTY 636

8.9 TRANSFER AREA 636

OVER SURFACE AND OVER DESIGN 636

8.10 FOULING OF TUBE SURFACE 636

8.10.1 Prevention and Control of Gas-Side Fouling 643

8.11 EXCHANGER DESIGN 643

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Plain or Bare Tubes 643

Example 8.7. Calculation of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient from Individual Components 646

8.12 APPROXIMATE VALUES FOR OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS 647

SIMPLIFIED EQUATIONS 662

8.12.1 Film Coefficients with Fluids Outside Tubes Forced Convection 668

VISCOSITY CORRECTION FACTOR (mu/muW)0.14 670

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR WATER, hi 670

SHELL-SIDE EQUIVALENT TUBE DIAMETER 672

SHELL-SIDE VELOCITIES 680

8.13 DESIGN AND RATING OF HEAT EXCHANGERS 681

RATING OF A SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER 681

8.13.1 Design of a Heat Exchanger 685

8.13.2 Design Procedure for Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Exchanger Design 686

8.13.3 Design Programs for a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger 689

Example 8.8. Convention Heat Transfer Exchanger Design 691

8.14 SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN PROCEDURE (SI UNITS) 702

TUBES 703

TUBE-SIDE PASS PARTITION PLATE 704

8.14.1 Calculations of Tube-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient 704

Example 8.9. Design of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (SI Units) Kern's Method 707

Solution 707

8.14.2 Pressure Drop for Plain Tube Exchangers 716

TOTAL TUBE-SIDE PRESSURE DROP 718

TUBE-SIDE CONDENSATION PRESSURE DROP 718

SHELL SIDE 718

A CASE STUDY USING UNISIM SHELL-TUBE EXCHANGER (STE) MODELER 718

Solution 719

8.15 BELL-DELAWARE METHOD 734

OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT, U 736

SHELL-SIDE PRESSURE (Deltap) 736

TUBE PATTERN 739

Accuracy of Correlations Between Kern's Method and the Bell-Delaware Method 740

Specification Process Data Sheet, Design and Construction of Heat Exchangers 741

8.16 RAPID DESIGN ALGORITHMS FOR SHELL AND TUBE AND COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS: POLLEY et al. 742

8.17 FLUIDS IN THE ANNULUS OF TUBE-IN-PIPE OR DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER, FORCED CONVECTION 744

FINNED TUBE EXCHANGERS 745

ECONOMICS OF FINNED TUBES 745

LOW-FINNED TUBES, 16 AND 19 FINS/IN. 750

FINNED SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER 751

8.17.1 Pressure Drop Across Finned Tubes 751

DESIGN FOR HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS BY FORCED CONVECTION USING RADIAL LOW-FIN TUBES IN HEAT EXCHANGER BUNDLES 751

8.17.2 Pressure Drop in Exchanger Shells Using Bundles of Low-Fin Tubes 753

TUBE-SIDE HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP 755

8.17.3 Double Pipe Finned Tube Heat Exchangers 755

FINNED SIDE HEAT TRANSFER 757

TUBE WALL RESISTANCE 763

TUBE-SIDE HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP 763

FOULING FACTOR 763

FINNED SIDE PRESSURE DROP 764

8.17.4 Design Equations for the Rating of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger 765

Process Conditions Required 765

Inner Pipe 766

Annulus 767

Vapor Service 768

SHELL-SIDE BARE TUBE 768

SHELL SIDE (FINNED TUBE) 769

Annulus 771

8.17.5 CALCULATION OF THE PRESSURE DROP 771

EFFECT OF PRESSURE DROP (Deltap) ON THE ORIGINAL DESIGN 772

NOMENCLATURE 773

Example 8.9 774

Solution 775

HEAT BALANCE 775

PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS 781

Tube Side 781

Tube-Side Deltap 781

Shell-Side Deltap 782

8.18 PLATE AND FRAME HEAT EXCHANGERS 784

Selection 788

8.19 AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS 788

8.19.1 Induced Draft 790

8.19.2 Forced Draft 791

GENERAL APPLICATION 796

Advantages - Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers 798

Disadvantages 799

Mean Temperature Difference 801

8.19.3 Design Procedure for Approximation 801

8.19.4 Tube-Side Fluid Temperature Control 809

8.19.5 Rating Method for Air-Cooler Exchangers 811

THE AIR SIDE PRESSURE DROP, Deltapa (INCH H2O) 816

Example 8.10 817

Solution 817

8.19.6 Operations of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers 818

8.19.7 Monitoring of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers 819

8.20 SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGERS 819

8.21 SPIRAL COILS IN VESSELS 821

8.22 HEAT-LOSS TRACING FOR PROCESS PIPING 821

Example 8.11 826

Solution 826

IN SI UNITS 827

8.23 BOILING AND VAPORIZATION 833

8.23.1 Boiling 833

8.23.2 Vaporization 837

8.23.3 Vaporization During Flow 837

8.24 HEATING MEDIA 837

Heat Fux Limit 840

8.25 BATCH HEATING AND COOLING OF FLUIDS 840

BATCH HEATING: INTERNAL COIL: ISOTHERMAL HEATING MEDIUM 840

Example 8.12. Batch Heating: Internal Coil Isothermal Heating Medium 842

Solution 842

BATCH REACTOR HEATING AND COOLING TEMPERATURE PREDICTION 842

Example 8.13: Batch Reactor Heating and Cooling Temperature Prediction 843

Solution 843

BATCH COOLING: INTERNAL COIL ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIUM 844

Example 8.14 Batch Cooling: Internal Coil, Isothermal Cooling Medium 845

Solution 845

BATCH HEATING: NON-ISOTHERMAL HEATING MEDIUM 846

Example 8.15: Batch Heating with Non-Isothermal Heating Medium 847

Solution 848

BATCH COOLING: NON-ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIUM 849

Example 8.16: Batch Cooling Non-Isothermal Cooling Medium 849

Solution 849

BATCH HEATING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER, ISOTHERMAL HEATING MEDIUM 850

Example 8.17: Batch Heating: External Heat Exchanger Isothermal Heating Medium 853

Solution 853

BATCH COOLING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER, ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIUM 854

Example 8.18: Batch Cooling: External Heat Exchanger, Isothermal Cooling Medium 854

Solution 855

BATCH COOLING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER (COUNTER-CURRENT FLOW), NON-ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIUM 856

Example 8.19: Batch Cooling: External Heat Exchanger (Counter-Current Flow), Non-Isothermal Cooling Medium 856

Solution 856

BATCH HEATING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER AND NON-ISOTHERMAL HEATING MEDIUM 857

Example 8.20: Batch Heating: External Heat Exchanger and Non-Isothermal Heating Medium 858

Solution 858

BATCH HEATING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER (1-2 MULTIPASS HEAT EXCHANGERS), NON-ISOTHERMAL HEATING MEDIUM 859

Example 8.21: External Heat Exchanger (1-2 Multipass Heat Exchangers), Non-Isothermal Heating Medium 861

Solution 861

BATCH COOLING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER (1-2 MULTIPASS), NON-ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIUM 863

Example 8.22: External Heat Exchanger (1-2 Multipass), Non-Isothermal Cooling Medium 863

Solution 864

BATCH HEATING AND COOLING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER (2-4 MULTIPASS HEAT EXCHANGERS NON-ISOTHERMAL HEATING MEDIUM) 865

BATCH HEATING AND COOLING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER (2-4 MULTIPASS HEAT EXCHANGERS NON-ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIUM) 866

Example 8.23: External Heat Exchanger (2-4 Multipass Exchanger), Non-Isothermal Heating Medium 866

Example 8.24: External Heat Exchanger (2-4 Multipass Heat Exchangers), Non-Isothermal Cooling Medium 867

HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN WITH COMPUTERS 868

FUNCTIONALITY 869

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 870

UNISIM HEAT EXCHANGER MODEL FORMULATIONS 870

A CASE STUDY: KETTLE REBOILER SIMULATION USING UNISIM STE 871

NOZZLE DATA 875

PROCESS DATA 877

REFERENCES 894

APPENDIX A 898

HEAT TRANSFER 898

9 Process Integration and Heat Exchanger Network 947

INTRODUCTION 947

APPLICATION OF PROCESS INTEGRATION 953

PINCH TECHNOLOGY 953

HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK DESIGN 954

Energy and Capital Targeting and Optimization 957

OPTIMIZATION VARIABLES 957

OPTIMIZATION OF THE USE OF UTILITIES (UTILITY PLACEMENT) 959

HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK REVAMP 960

HEAT RECOVERY PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 960

THE TEMPERATURE-ENTHALPY DIAGRAM (T-H) 961

ENERGY TARGETS 963

Construction of Composite Curves 963

HEAT RECOVERY FOR MULTIPLE SYSTEMS 964

Example 9.1. Setting Energy Targets and Heat Exchanger Network 964

Solution 965

THE HEAT RECOVERY PINCH AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE 969

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PINCH 970

THE PLUS-MINUS PRINCIPLE FOR PROCESS MODIFICATIONS 972

A TARGETING PROCEDURE: THE PROBLEM TABLE ALGORITHM 973

THE GRAND COMPOSITE CURVE 975

PLACING UTILITIES USING THE GRAND COMPOSITE CURVE 978

STREAM MATCHING AT THE PINCH 979

THE PINCH DESIGN APPROACH TO INVENTING A NETWORK 981

HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK DESIGN (HEN) 981

The Design Grid 981

NETWORK DESIGN ABOVE THE PINCH 984

THE INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURES IN THE STREAMS ARE: 986

NETWORK DESIGN BELOW THE PINCH 986

THE INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURES IN THE STREAMS ARE: 987

ABOVE THE PINCH 987

BELOW THE PINCH 988

EXAMPLE 9.2 988

SOLUTION 989

DESIGN FOR THRESHOLD PROBLEMS 991

STREAM SPLITTING 993

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STREAM SPLITTING 994

EXAMPLE 9.3 994

SOLUTION 994

EXAMPLE 9.4 1002

STREAM DATA EXTRACTION 1003

SOLUTION 1003

HEAT EXCHANGER AREA TARGETS 1005

EXAMPLE 9.5 1010

SOLUTION 1010

EXAMPLE 9.6 1017

SOLUTION 1017

HEN SIMPLIFICATION 1018

HEAT LOAD LOOPS 1018

EXAMPLE 9.7. TEST CASE 3, TC3 LINNHOFF AND HINDMARCH 1019

SOLUTION 1019

HEAT LOAD PATHS 1024

NUMBER OF SHELLS TARGET 1025

IMPLICATIONS FOR HEN DESIGN 1027

CAPITAL COST TARGETS 1027

CAPITAL COST 1028

NETWORK CAPITAL COST (CC) 1028

TOTAL COST TARGETING 1028

ENERGY TARGETING 1029

SUPERTARGETING OR DeltaTmin OPTIMIZATION 1030

EXAMPLE 9.8. HEN FOR MAXIMUM ENERGY RECOVERY 1030

SOLUTION 1030

SUMMARY: NEW HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK DESIGN 1032

TARGETING AND DESIGN FOR CONSTRAINED MATCHES 1033

Process Constraints 1033

TARGETING FOR CONSTRAINTS 1033

HEAT ENGINES AND HEAT PUMPS FOR OPTIMUM INTEGRATION 1034

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 1034

HEAT PUMP EVALUATION 1036

APPLICATION OF A HEAT PUMP 1037

APPROPRIATE INTEGRATION OF HEAT ENGINES 1037

OPPORTUNITIES FOR PLACEMENT OF HEAT ENGINES 1038

APPROPRIATE INTEGRATION OF HEAT PUMPS 1038

OPPORTUNITIES FOR PLACEMENT OF HEAT PUMPS 1039

APPROPRIATE PLACEMENT OF COMPRESSION AND EXPANSION IN HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS 1040

PRESSURE DROP AND HEAT TRANSFER IN PROCESS INTEGRATION 1040

TOTAL SITE ANALYSIS 1040

APPLICATIONS OF PROCESS INTEGRATION 1045

Hydrogen Pinch Studies 1045

OXYGEN PINCH 1047

CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) MANAGEMENT 1047

MASS AND WATER PINCH 1048

SITE-WIDE INTEGRATION 1049

FLUE GAS EMISSIONS 1050

PITFALLS IN PROCESS INTEGRATION 1053

PINCH TO TARGET CO2 EMISSIONS 1053

PINCH TECHNOLOGY IN PETROLEUM AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 1055

CONCLUSIONS 1056

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS: CASE STUDIES 1059

Case Study-1: (From Gary Smith And Ajit Patel, The Chemical Engineer, P. 26, November 1987) 1059

SOLUTION 1060

Case Study-2: Crude Preheat Train 1067

Introduction 1067

Process Description 1073

Solution 1073

Above the Pinch 1076

Below the Pinch 1076

CASE STUDY-3: NETWORK FOR AROMATICS PLANT (G. T. POLLEY, AND M.H. PANJEH SHAHI, TRANS. INST. CHEME., VOL. 69, PART A, NOVEMBER 1991) 1081

Introduction 1081

Process Description 1081

STREAM DATA EXTRACTION 1081

SOLUTION 1082

GLOSSARY OF TERMS 1082

SUMMARY AND HEURISTICS 1086

HEURISTICS 1086

NOMENCLATURE 1087

REFERENCES 1087

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1091

10 Process Safety and Pressure-Relieving Devices 1093

INTRODUCTION 1093

10.1 TYPES OF POSITIVE PRESSURE-RELIEVING DEVICES 1094

(See Manufacturers' Catalogs for Design Details) 1094

Pressure Relief Valve 1094

Pilot-Operated Safety Valves 1096

10.2 TYPES OF VALVES/RELIEF DEVICES 1096

Conventional Safety Relief Valve 1096

Balanced Safety Relief Valve 1097

Special Valves 1097

10.3 RUPTURE DISK 1098

EXAMPLE 10.1 1101

Hypothetical Vessel Design, Carbon Steel Grade A-285, Gr C 1101

10.4 DESIGN PRESSURE OF A VESSEL 1107

10.5 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 1107

Safety and Relief Valves; Pressure-Vacuum Relief Values 1107

10.6 RUPTURE DISKS 1108

GENERAL CODE REQUIREMENTS 1109

RELIEF MECHANISMS 1109

Reclosing Devices, Spring Loaded 1109

NON-RECLOSING PRESSURE-RELIEVING DEVICES 1110

PRESSURE SETTINGS AND DESIGN BASIS 1110

10.7 UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS ONLY, BUT NOT FIRED OR UNFIRED STEAM BOILERS 1110

EXTERNAL FIRE OR HEAT EXPOSURE ONLY AND PROCESS RELIEF 1112

10.8 RELIEVING CAPACITY OF COMBINATIONS OF SAFETY RELIEF VALVES AND RUPTURE DISKS OR NON-RECLOSURE DEVICES (REFERENCE ASME CODE, PAR. UG-127, U-132) 1113

Primary Relief 1113

Selected Portions of ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Quoted by Permission 1117

10.9 ESTABLISHING RELIEVING OR SET PRESSURES 1120

SAFETY AND SAFETY RELIEF VALVES FOR STEAM SERVICE 1120

10.10 SELECTION AND APPLICATION 1121

10.11 CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION FOR PROCESS OPERATION (NON-FIRE) 1121

INSTALLATION 1125

10.12 SELECTION FEATURES: SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES, AND RUPTURE DISKS 1134

10.13 CALCULATIONS OF RELIEVING AREAS: SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES 1136

10.14 STANDARD PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES RELIEF AREA DISCHARGE OPENINGS 1136

10.15 SIZING SAFETY RELIEF TYPE DEVICES FOR REQUIRED FLOW AREA AT TIME OF RELIEF 1137

10.16 EFFECTS OF TWO-PHASE VAPOR-LIQUID MIXTURE ON RELIEF VALVE CAPACITY 1137

10.17 SIZING FOR GASES OR VAPORS OR LIQUIDS FOR CONVENTIONAL VALVES WITH CONSTANT BACKPRESSURE ONLY 1137

PROCEDURE 1141

ESTABLISH CRITICAL FLOW FOR GASES AND VAPORS 1141

EXAMPLE 10.2 1144

Flow through Sharp Edged Vent Orifice 1144

10.18 ORIFICE AREA CALCULATIONS 1144

10.19 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID RELIEF: PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES REQUIRING CAPACITY CERTIFICATION [5d] 1148

10.20 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID RELIEF: PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES NOT REQUIRING CAPACITY CERTIFICATION [5d] 1149

10.21 REACTION FORCES 1152

EXAMPLE 10.3 1154

SOLUTION 1154

EXAMPLE 10.4 1156

SOLUTION 1156

10.22 CALCULATIONS OF ORIFICE FLOW AREA USING PRESSURE-RELIEVING BALANCED BELLOWS VALVES, WITH VARIABLE OR CONSTANT BACK PRESSURE 1158

10.23 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID EXPANSION (HYDRAULIC EXPANSION OF LIQUID-FILLED SYSTEMS/EQUIPMENT/PIPING) 1163

10.24 SIZING VALVES FOR SUBCRITICAL FLOW: GAS OR VAPOR BUT NOT STEAM [5D] 1168

10.25 EMERGENCY PRESSURE RELIEF: FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS RUPTURE DISKS 1171

10.26 EXTERNAL FIRES 1171

10.27 SET PRESSURES FOR EXTERNAL FIRES 1171

10.28 HEAT ABSORBED 1172

THE SEVERE CASE 1172

10.29 SURFACE AREA EXPOSED TO FIRE 1173

10.30 RELIEF CAPACITY FOR FIRE EXPOSURE 1175

10.31 CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERNAL FIRE CONDITIONS 1175

10.32 DESIGN PROCEDURE 1175

EXAMPLE 10.5 1176

SOLUTION 1176

10.33 RUNAWAY REACTIONS: DIERS 1179

10.34 HAZARD EVALUATION IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES 1180

10.35 HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES 1181

10.36 EXOTHERMS 1182

10.37 ACCUMULATION 1182

10.38 THERMAL RUNAWAY CHEMICAL REACTION HAZARDS 1183

10.39 HEAT CONSUMED HEATING THE VESSEL. THE Phi-FACTOR 1183

10.40 ONSET TEMPERATURE 1185

10.41 TIME-TO-MAXIMUM RATE 1185

10.42 MAXIMUM REACTION TEMPERATURE 1185

10.43 VENT SIZING PACKAGE (VSP) 1186

10.44 VENT SIZING PACKAGE 2TM (VSP2TM) 1189

10.45 ADVANCED REACTIVE SYSTEM SCREENING TOOL (ARSST) 1191

10.46 TWO-PHASE FLOW RELIEF SIZING FOR RUNAWAY REACTION 1191

10.47 RUNAWAY REACTIONS 1192

10.48 VAPOR PRESSURE SYSTEMS 1192

10.49 GASSY SYSTEMS 1192

10.50 HYBRID SYSTEMS 1193

10.51 SIMPLIFIED NOMOGRAPH METHOD 1193

10.52 VENT SIZING METHODS 1199

10.53 VAPOR PRESSURE SYSTEMS 1199

10.54 FAUSKE'S METHOD 1201

10.55 GASSY SYSTEMS 1202

10.56 HOMOGENEOUS TWO-PHASE VENTING UNTIL DISENGAGEMENT 1203

10.57 TWO-PHASE FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE 1204

10.58 CONDITIONS OF USE 1205

10.59 DISCHARGE SYSTEM 1206

Design of the Vent Pipe 1206

10.60 SAFE DISCHARGE 1206

10.61 DIRECT DISCHARGE TO THE ATMOSPHERE 1206

EXAMPLE 10.6 1207

Tempered Reaction 1207

SOLUTION 1207

EXAMPLE 10.7 1209

SOLUTION 1209

EXAMPLE 10.8 1210

SOLUTION 1210

EXAMPLE 10.9 1211

SOLUTION 1212

10.62 DIERS FINAL REPORTS 1215

10.63 SIZING FOR TWO-PHASE FLUIDS 1215

Step 1. Calculate the Saturated Omega Parameter, omegas 1215

Step 2. Determine the Subcooling Region 1216

Step 3. Determine if the Flow is Critical or Subcritical 1217

Step 4. Calculate the Mass Flux 1217

Step 5. Calculate the Required Area of the PRV 1218

SI UNITS 1218

EXAMPLE 10.10 1219

SOLUTION 1220

EXAMPLE 10.11 1222

SOLUTION 1222

TYPE 2. (OMEGA METHOD): SIZING FOR TWO-PHASE FLASHING FLOW WITH A NONCONDENSABLE GAS THROUGH A PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE 1226

EXAMPLE 10.12 1230

SI UNITS 1232

EXAMPLE 10.13 1235

SOLUTION 1235

TYPE 3 INTEGRAL METHOD 1237

EXAMPLE 10.14 1238

SOLUTION 1238

GLOSSARY 1239

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 1245

NOMENCLATURE 1246

Subscripts 1249

Greek Symbols 1249

REFERENCES 1249

LISTING OF FINAL REPORTS FROM THE DIERS RESEARCH PROGRAM (DESIGN INSTITUTE FOR EMERGENCY RELIEF SYSTEMS) 1249

PROJECT MANUAL 1249

TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY 1249

SM 540 ALL/LARGE-SCALE EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND ANALYSIS 1250

BENCH-SCALE APPARATUS DESIGN AND TEST RESULTS 1250

11 Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design 1253

INTRODUCTION 1253

INDUSTRIAL REACTION PROCESSES 1255

Conventional Reactors 1255

Membrane Reactors 1259

Spherical Reactors 1261

Bioreactors 1262

CHEMICAL REACTIONS 1265

Conversion Type 1265

Equilibrium Type 1265

Kinetic Type 1266

IDEAL REACTORS 1268

Conversion Reactor 1269

Adiabatic Flame Temperature 1269

Heats of Reaction 1270

Equilibrium Reactor 1271

Gibbs Reactor 1272

CSTR Reactor 1272

PFR Reactor 1272

NON-IDEAL REACTORS 1272

Modular Analysis 1272

Multiscale Analysis 1273

BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS 1275

Models of Enzyme Kinetics 1275

Constant Volume Batch Reactor 1277

CHEMICAL REACTION HAZARDS INCIDENTS 1278

Reactive Hazards Incidents 1278

Chemical Reactivity Worksheet (CRW) 1280

Protective Measures for Runaway Reactions 1280

PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 1288

REFERENCES 1331

12 Engineering Economics 1335

INTRODUCTION 1335

GROSS PROFIT ANALYSIS 1335

CAPITAL COST ESTIMATION 1337

Equipment/Plant Cost Estimations by Capacity Exponents 1339

Factored Cost Estimate 1342

Functional-Unit Estimate 1342

Percentage of Delivered Equipment Cost 1342

PROJECT EVALUATION 1342

Cash Flow 1343

Cumulated Cash Flow 1343

Return on Investment (ROI) 1343

Payback Period (PBP) 1344

Present Worth (or Present Value) 1344

Net Present Value (NPV) 1344

Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return (DCFRR) 1346

Net Return Rate (NRR) 1346

Depreciation 1346

Double Declining Balance (DDB) Depreciation 1347

Capitalized Cost 1347

Average Rate of Return (ARR) 1348

Present Value Ratio (Present Worth Ratio) 1348

Profitability 1348

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 1349

Inflation 1351

EXAMPLES AND SOLUTIONS 1351

Nomenclature 1360

CARBON TAX 1362

References 1362

13 Optimization in Chemical/Petroleum Engineering 1363

OPTIMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS OF A BOILER 1364

OPTIMUM DISTILLATION REFLUX 1366

FEATURES OF OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS 1366

Objective Functions for Reactors 1367

LINEAR PROGRAMMING (LP) FOR BLENDING 1369

LP SOFTWARE 1371

THE EXCEL SOLVER 1372

PROBLEM SOLUTION 1373

Example 13.1 1375

Solution 1375

Example 13.2 1375

Solution 1377

Example 13.3 1377

Solution 1378

A CASE STUDY: OPTIMUM REACTOR TEMPERATURE 1379

Solution 1380

Optimization of Product Blending Using Linear Programming 1384

INTRODUCTION 1384

BLENDING PROCESSES 1386

NON-LINEAR OCTANE BLENDING FORMULA 1387

GASOLINE BLENDING 1388

Gasoline Blending Example - 3 Blend Stocks, 2 Specifications 1388

Non-Linear Programming 1389

Example 13.4 1391

SOLUTION 1391

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION 1393

Problem Solution 1394

Example 13.5 1394

Solution 1394

Ethyl Corporation Model 1394

A CASE STUDY 1396

Solution 1397

NOTATION 1402

REFERENCES 1403

FURTHER REFERENCE 1403

Epilogue 1405

Index 1415
A. Kayode Coker, PhD, is an engineering consultant for AKC Technology, an honorary research fellow at the University of Wolverhampton, UK, a former engineering coordinator at Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Company, and chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering Technology at Jubail Industrial College, Saudi Arabia. He has been a chartered chemical engineer for more than 30 years. He is a fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, UK, and a senior member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He holds a BSc honors degree in chemical engineering, a master of science degree in process analysis and development and PhD in chemical engineering, all from Aston University, Birmingham, UK, and a Teacher's Certificate in Education at the University of London, UK. He has directed and conducted short courses extensively throughout the world and has been a lecturer at the university level. His articles have been published in several international journals. He is an author of seven books in chemical engineering, a contributor to the Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Vol 61 and a certified train-the-mentor trainer. He is also a technical report assessor and interviewer for chartered chemical engineers (IChemE) in the U.K. He is a member of the International Biographical Centre in Cambridge, UK, is in "Leading Engineers of the World for 2008." He is also a member of "International Who's Who of ProfessionalsTM" and "Madison Who's Who in the U.S."

Rahmat Sotudeh-Gharebaagh, PhD, is a full professor of chemical engineering at the University of Tehran. He teaches process modeling and simulation, transport phenomena, plant design and economics and soft skills. His research interests include computer-aided process design and simulation, fluidization, and engineering education. He holds a BEng degree in chemical engineering from Iran's Sharif University of Technology, plus a MSc and a PhD in fluidization engineering from Canada's Polytechnique. He has been an invited Professor at Qatar University and Polytechnique de Montréal. Professor Sotudeh has more than 300 publications in major international journals and conferences, plus four books and four book chapters. He is the co-founder and editor-in-chief of the journal, Chemical Product and Process Modeling, a member of the Iranian Elite Foundation, and an official expert (OE) on the oil industry with the Iranian Official Expert Organization.