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Books | Electrical & Electronics Engineering | November 2012 | Vehicle Safety Communications
 

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Zhang, Tao / Delgrossi, Luca
Vehicle Safety Communications
Protocols, Security, and Privacy
Information and Communication Technology

1. Edition November 2012
95.90 Euro
2012. 400 Pages, Hardcover
ISBN 978-1-118-13272-2 - John Wiley & Sons




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Short description
Owing to their safety applications, cooperative vehicle systems, which use sensors and wireless technologies to reduce traffic accidents, continue to be the focus of heavy research and development efforts around the world. Written by industry professionals, this book provides a systematic description of cooperative vehicle systems, discussing key technical issues in such systems, the latest advances in enabling technologies, and cutting-edge research trends. Coverage includes important technologies such as 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), on-board equipment (OBE), and roadside equipment (RSE).

From the contents
Foreword xv
Ralf G. Herrtwich

Foreword xvii
Flavio Bonomi

Foreword xix
Adam Drobot

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxv

1 Traffic Safety 1

1.1 Traffic Safety Facts 1

1.2 European Union 5

1.3 Japan 7

1.4 Developing Countries 7

References 8

2 Automotive Safety Evolution 10

2.1 Passive Safety 10

2.2 Active Safety 12

2.3 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems 14

2.4 Cooperative Safety 17

References 18

3 Vehicle Architectures 20

3.1 Electronic Control Units 20

3.2 Vehicle Sensors 21

3.3 Onboard Communication Networks 22

3.4 Vehicle Data 25

3.5 Vehicle Data Security 26

3.6 Vehicle Positioning 27

References 30

4 Connected Vehicles 32

4.1 Connected Vehicle Applications 32

4.2 Uniqueness in Consumer Vehicle Networks 34

4.3 Vehicle Communication Modes 36

4.4 Wireless Communications Technology for Vehicles 39

References 42

5 Dedicated Short-Range Communications 44

5.1 The 5.9 GHz Spectrum 44

5.2 DSRC in the European Union 46

5.3 DSRC in Japan 47

5.4 DSRC Standards 48

References 50

6 WAVE Physical Layer 52

6.1 Physical Layer Operations 52

6.2 PHY Amendments 55

6.3 PHY Layer Modeling 57

References 62

7 WAVE Media Access Control Layer 64

7.1 Media Access Control Layer Operations 64

7.2 MAC Layer Amendments 66

7.3 MAC Layer Modeling 67

7.4 Overhauled ns-2 Implementation 72

References 74

8 DSRC Data Rates 75

8.1 Introduction 75

8.2 Communication Density 76

8.3 Optimal Data Rate 85

References 91

9 WAVE Upper Layers 93

9.1 Introduction 93

9.2 DSRC Multichannel Operations 94

9.3 Protocol Evaluation 97

9.4 WAVE Short Message Protocol 103

References 104

10 Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications 106

10.1 Intersection Crashes 106

10.2 Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations 107

10.3 Integrated Safety Demonstration 118

References 124

11 Vehicle-to-Vehicle Safety Applications 126

11.1 Cooperation among Vehicles 126

11.2 V2V Safety Applications 127

11.3 V2V Safety Applications Design 128

11.4 System Implementation 135

11.5 System Testing 138

References 140

12 DSRC Scalability 141

12.1 Introduction 141

12.2 DSRC Data Traffic 142

12.3 Congestion Control Algorithms 145

12.4 Conclusions 148

References 149

13 Security and Privacy Threats and Requirements 151

13.1 Introduction 151

13.2 Adversaries 151

13.3 Security Threats 152

13.4 Privacy Threats 155

13.5 Basic Security Capabilities 159

13.6 Privacy Protections Capabilities 161

13.7 Design and Performance Considerations 161

References 165

14 Cryptographic Mechanisms 167

14.1 Introduction 167

14.2 Categories of Cryptographic Mechanisms 167

14.3 Digital Signature Algorithms 172

14.4 Message Authentication and Message Integrity Verifi cation 196

14.5 Diffi e-Hellman Key Establishment Protocol 200

14.6 Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) 202

References 206

15 Public Key Infrastructure for Vehicle Networks 209

15.1 Introduction 209

15.2 Public Key Certificates 210

15.3 Message Authentication with Certificates 211

15.4 Certifi cate Revocation List 212

15.5 A Baseline Reference Vehicular PKI Model 213

15.6 Confi gure Initial Security Parameters and Assign Initial Certificates 215

15.7 Acquire New Keys and Certifi cates 217

15.8 Distribute Certifi cates to Vehicles for Signature Verifications 220

15.9 Detect Misused Certifi cates and Misbehaving Vehicles 222

15.10 Ways for Vehicles to Acquire CRLs 226

15.11 How Often CRLs should be Distributed to Vehicles? 228

15.12 PKI Hierarchy 230

15.13 Privacy-Preserving Vehicular PKI 233

References 235

16 Privacy Protection with Shared Certificates 237

16.1 Shared Certificates 237

16.2 The Combinatorial Certificate Scheme 237

16.3 Certificate Revocation Collateral Damage 239

16.4 Certified Intervals 242

16.5 Reduce Collateral Damage and Improve Certified Interval 244

16.6 Privacy in Low Vehicle Density Areas 253

References 259

17 Privacy Protection with Short-Lived Unique Certificates 260

17.1 Short-Lived Unique Certificates 260

17.2 The Basic Short-Lived Certificate Scheme 261

17.3 The Problem of Large CRL 263

17.4 Anonymously Linked Certificates to Reduce CRL Size 264

17.5 Reduce CRL Search Time 268

17.6 Unlinked Short-Lived Certificates 269

17.7 Reduce the Volume of Certificate Request and Response Messages 270

17.8 Determine the Number of Certificates for Each Vehicle 270

References 273

18 Privacy Protection with Group Signatures 274

18.1 Group Signatures 274

18.2 Zero-Knowledge Proof of Knowledge 275

18.3 The ACJT Group Signature Scheme and its Extensions 277

18.4 The CG Group Signature Scheme with Revocation 286

18.5 The Short Group Signatures Scheme 288

18.6 Group Signature Schemes with Verifier-Local Revocation 292

References 293

19 Privacy Protection against Certificate Authorities 295

19.1 Introduction 295

19.2 Basic Idea 295

19.3 Baseline Split CA Architecture, Protocol, and Message Processing 297

19.4 Split CA Architecture for Shared Certifi cates 301

19.5 Split CA Architecture for Unlinked Short-Lived Certificates 302

19.6 Split CA Architecture for Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificates 308

References 314

20 Comparison of Privacy-Preserving Certificate Management Schemes 315

20.1 Introduction 315

20.2 Comparison of Main Characteristics 316

20.3 Misbehavior Detection 320

20.4 Abilities to Prevent Privacy Abuse by CA and MDS Operators 321

20.5 Summary 322

21 IEEE 1609.2 Security Services 323

21.1 Introduction 323

21.2 The IEEE 1609.2 Standard 323

21.3 Certificates and Certificate Authority Hierarchy 325

21.4 Formats for Public Key, Signature, Certificate, and CRL 327

21.5 Message Formats and Processing for Generating Encrypted Messages 333

21.6 Sending Messages 335

21.7 Request Certifi cates from the CA 336

21.8 Request and Processing CRL 343

21.9 What the Current IEEE 1609.2 Standard Does Not Cover 344

References 346

22 4G for Vehicle Safety Communications 347

22.1 Introduction 347

22.2 Long-Term Revolution (LTE) 347

22.3 LTE for Vehicle Safety Communications/ 353

References 358

Glossary 360

Index 367

 





 

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