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Performance of the Jet Transport Airplane

Analysis Methods, Flight Operations and Regulations

Young, Trevor M.

Aerospace Series (PEP)


1. Auflage Dezember 2017
688 Seiten, Softcover

ISBN: 978-1-118-38486-2
John Wiley & Sons

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Performance of the Jet Transport Airplane: Analysis Methods, Flight Operations, and Regulations presents a detailed and comprehensive treatment of performance analysis techniques for jet transport airplanes. Uniquely, the book describes key operational and regulatory procedures and constraints that directly impact the performance of commercial airliners.

Topics include: rigid body dynamics; aerodynamic fundamentals; atmospheric models (including standard and non-standard atmospheres); height scales and altimetry; distance and speed measurement; lift and drag and associated mathematical models; jet engine performance (including thrust and specific fuel consumption models); takeoff and landing performance (with airfield and operational constraints); takeoff climb and obstacle clearance; level, climbing and descending flight (including accelerated climb/descent); cruise and range (including solutions by numerical integration); payload-range; endurance and holding; maneuvering flight (including turning and pitching maneuvers); total energy concepts; trip fuel planning and estimation (including regulatory fuel reserves); en route operations and limitations (e.g. climb-speed schedules, cruise ceiling, ETOPS); cost considerations (e.g. cost index, energy cost, fuel tankering); weight, balance and trim; flight envelopes and limitations (including stall and buffet onset speeds, V-n diagrams); environmental considerations (viz. noise and emissions); aircraft systems and airplane performance (e.g. cabin pressurization and fuel); and performance-related regulatory requirements of the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency).

Key features:
* Describes methods for the analysis of the performance of jet transport airplanes during all phases of flight
* Presents both analytical (closed form) methods and numerical approaches
* Describes key FAA and EASA regulations that impact airplane performance
* Presents equations and examples in both SI (Système International) and British units
* Considers the influence of operational procedures and its impact on airplane performance

Performance of the Jet Transport Airplane: Analysis Methods, Flight Operations, and Regulations provides a comprehensive treatment of the performance of modern jet transport airplanes in an operational context. It is a must-have reference for aerospace engineering students, applied researchers conducting performance-related studies, and flight operations engineers.

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definitions of performance

1.2 Commercial air transportation

1.3 Jet transport airplanes: a short history

1.4 Regulatory framework

1.5 Performance-related activities

1.6 Analysis techniques and idealizations

2 Engineering fundamentals 19

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Notation, units, and conversion factors

2.3 Mass, momentum, weight, and gravity

2.4 Basics of rigid body dynamics

2.5 Basics of fluid dynamics

2.6 Further reading

3 Aerodynamic fundamentals 53

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Standard definitions and notation

3.3 Coordinate systems and conventions

3.4 Aerodynamic forces and moments

3.5 Compressibility

3.6 Boundary layers

3.7 High lift devices

3.8 Controls for pitch, roll, and yaw

3.9 Further reading

4 Atmosphere and weather 91

4.1 Introduction

4.2 International standard atmosphere

4.3 Non-standard and off-standard atmospheres

4.4 The real atmosphere

4.5 Weather

4.6 Stability of the atmosphere

5 Height scales and altimetry 119

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Height scales

5.3 Altimetry

5.4 Flight levels, tracks, and airspace

6 Distance and speed 135

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Distance

6.3 True airspeed, ground speed, and navigation

6.4 Speed of sound and Mach number

6.5 Dynamic pressure and equivalent airspeed

6.6 Calibrated airspeed

6.7 Indicated airspeed

6.8 Relationship between airplane speeds

7 Lift and drag 153

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Airplane lift

7.3 Airplane drag

7.4 Drag polar

7.5 Drag polar corrections

7.6 Lift-to-drag ratio

7.7 Minimum drag condition

7.8 Minimum drag power (required power) condition

7.9 Minimum drag-to-speed ratio condition

7.10 Summary of expressions based on the parabolic drag polar

8 Propulsion 205

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Basic description of the turbofan engine

8.3 Engine thrust

8.4 Fuel flow and thrust specific fuel consumption

8.5 Thrust control, engine design limits, and ratings

8.6 Thrust variation

8.7 Fuel flow and TSFC variation

8.8 Installation losses and engine deterioration

8.9 Further reading

9 Takeoff performance 259

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Takeoff distances

9.3 Forces acting on the airplane during the ground run

9.4 Evaluation of the takeoff distance from brake release to rotation

9.5 Rotation and climb-out to clear the screen height

9.6 Empirical estimation of takeoff distances

9.7 Evaluation of rejected takeoff runway distances

9.8 Wheel braking

9.9 Takeoff on contaminated runways

10 Takeoff field length and takeoff climb considerations 301

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Takeoff reference speeds

10.3 Takeoff weight limitations

10.4 Runway limitations and data

10.5 Operational field length and runway-limited takeoff weight

10.6 Takeoff climb gradient requirements

10.7 Takeoff climb obstacle clearance

10.8 Derated thrust and reduced thrust takeoff

11 Approach and landing 331

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Procedure for approach and landing

11.3 Forces acting on the airplane during the ground run

11.4 Landing distance estimation

11.5 Empirical estimation of the landing distance

11.6 Landing on contaminated runways

11.7 Flight operations

11.8 Rejected landing

12 Mechanics of level, climbing, and descending flight 365

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Basic equations of motion

12.3 Performance in level flight

12.4 Performance in climbing flight

12.5 Performance in descending flight

12.6 Further reading

13 Cruising flight and range performance 399

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Specific air range and still air range determination

13.3 Analytical integration

13.4 Numerical integration

13.5 Cruise optimization based on aerodynamic parameters

13.6 Best cruise speeds and cruise altitudes

13.7 Further details on the use of the Bréguet range equation

13.8 Influence of wind on cruise performance

14 Holding flight and endurance performance 439

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Basic equation for holding/endurance

14.3 Analytical integration

14.4 Numerical integration

14.5 Flight conditions for maximum endurance

14.6 Holding operations

15 Mechanics of maneuvering flight 453

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Turning maneuvers

15.3 Level, coordinated turns

15.4 Climbing or descending turns

15.5 Level, uncoordinated turns

15.6 Limits and constraints in turning maneuvers

15.7 Pitching maneuvers

15.8 Total energy

16 Trip fuel requirements and estimation 483

16.1 Introduction

16.2 ICAO requirements

16.3 FAA requirements

16.4 EASA requirements

16.5 Trip fuel computational procedure

16.6 Payload-range performance

16.7 Trip fuel breakdown and fuel fractions

16.8 Trip fuel estimation

16.9 Estimating trip distances

16.10 Transporting (tankering) fuel

16.11 Reclearance

16.12 Factors that can impact cruise fuel

16.13 Impact of small changes on cruise fuel

17 En route operations and limitations 517

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Climb to initial cruise altitude (en route climb)

17.3 Cruise altitude selection

17.4 En route engine failure

17.5 En route cabin pressurization failure

17.6 Extended operations

17.7 Continuous descent operations

18 Cost considerations 539

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Airplane operating costs

18.3 Cost index

18.4 Unit energy cost

19 Weight, balance, and trim 561

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Airplane weight definitions

19.3 Center of gravity

19.4 Longitudinal static stability and stabilizer trim

19.5 Center of gravity control

19.6 Operational weights and dispatch procedures

19.7 Performance implications

20 Limitations and flight envelope 585

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Stall

20.3 High-speed buffet

20.4 Altitude-speed limitations

20.5 Key regulatory speeds

20.6 Structural design loads and limitations

20.7 V-n diagram (flight load envelope)

21 Noise and emissions 615

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Airplane noise

21.3 Noise regulations and restrictions

21.4 Noise abatement and flight operations

21.5 Airplane emissions

21.6 Mitigating the effects of airplane emissions

22 Airplane systems and performance 639

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Reliability requirements for airplane systems

22.3 Cabin pressurization system

22.4 Environmental control system

22.5 De-icing and anti-icing systems

22.6 Auxiliary power system

22.7 Fuel and fuel systems

23 Authorities, regulations, and documentation 663

23.1 Introduction

23.2 International Civil Aviation Organization

23.3 Aviation authorities

23.4 Regulations, certification, and operations

23.5 Safety investigation authorities

23.6 Non-governmental organizations

23.7 Airplane and flight crew documentation

23.8 Airplane performance data

Appendices 685

Appendix A: International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) tables

Appendix B: SI units and conversion factors

Appendix C: Coordinate systems and conventions

Appendix D: Miscellaneous derivations

Appendix E: Trim and longitudinal static stability

Appendix F: Regulations (fuel policy)

Appendix G: Abbreviations and nomenclature

Index 752