John Wiley & Sons Technology and Emergency Management Cover The first book devoted to a critically important aspect of disaster planning, management, and mitiga.. Product #: 978-1-119-23408-1 Regular price: $78.41 $78.41 Auf Lager

Technology and Emergency Management

Pine, John C.

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2. Auflage Oktober 2017
288 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-23408-1
John Wiley & Sons

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The first book devoted to a critically important aspect of disaster planning, management, and mitigation

Technology and Emergency Management, Second Edition describes best practices for technology use in emergency planning, response, recovery, and mitigation. It also describes the key elements that must be in place for technology to enhance the emergency management process. The tools, resources, and strategies discussed have been applied by organizations worldwide tasked with planning for and managing every variety of natural and man-made hazard and disaster. Illustrative case studies based on their experiences appear throughout the book.

This new addition of the critically acclaimed guide has been fully updated and expanded to reflect significant developments occurring in the field over the past decade. It features in-depth coverage of major advances in GIS technologies, including the development of mapping tools and high-resolution remote sensing imaging. Also covered is the increase in computer processing power and mobility and enhanced analytical capabilities for assessing the present conditions of natural systems and extrapolating from them to create accurate models of potential crisis conditions. This second edition also features a new section on cybersecurity and a new chapter on social media and disaster preparedness, response, and recovery has been added.
* Explores the role of technology in emergency planning, response, recovery, and mitigation efforts
* Explores applications of the Internet, telecommunications, and networks to emergency management, as well as geospatial technologies and their applications
* Reviews the elements of hazard models and the relative strengths and weaknesses of modeling programs
* Describes techniques for developing hazard prediction models using direct and remote sensing data
* Includes test questions for each chapter, and a solutions manual and PowerPoint slides are available on a companion website

Technology and Emergency Management, Second Edition is a valuable working resource for practicing emergency managers and an excellent supplementary text for undergraduate and graduate students in emergency management and disaster management programs, urban and regional planning, and related fields.

Concept xiii

About the Author xiv

List of Contributors xv

About the Companion Website xvi

1 The Need for Technology in Emergency Management 1

Introduction 2

11 Technology and Disaster Management 2

111 Focus on Current and Emerging Technology 3

12 Technology as a Management Tool 4

121 Response to Complex Disaster Events 5

122 Ease of Use of Technology 5

13 Using Technologies 6

131 Technology in a Changing Environment 8

132 Examples of Technology 8

133 Communicate Quickly 8

134 Develop a Better Understanding of Hazards 9

135 Improve Response 9

136 Increase Coordination 9

137 Improve Efficiency 9

138 Training 9

14 Completing a Needs Assessment 10

141 Nature of a Needs Assessment 10

142 Steps to Complete a Needs Assessment 11

143 Implementing the Needs Assessment 12

144 Impacts of Implementing Innovation 12

Summary 14

Key Terms 14

Assess Your Understanding 14

References 15

2 Computer Networks and Emergency Management 17

Introduction 18

21 What Is a Network? 19

22 Types of Networks 19

221 Local Area Network 19

222 Metropolitan Area Network 20

223 Wide Area Network 20

224 Personal Area Network 21

23 The Internet 21

24 Communication Technologies 24

241 Wired Network Technologies 24

242 Long?]Range Wireless Network Technologies 27

243 Short?]Range Wireless Network Technologies 30

25 The Internet and Emergency Management 32

26 IoT and Emergency Management 35

Summary 38

Key Terms 38

Assess Your Understanding 40

References 40

3 Cyber Security 42

Introduction 43

31 Sources of Attacks 45

32 Attack Vectors 46

321 Vulnerabilities 46

322 Phishing 46

323 Stolen Credentials 47

324 Web Applications 47

325 Point of Sale Intrusions 48

326 Payment Card Skimmers 49

327 Insider and Privilege Misuse 49

328 Physical Theft and Loss 49

329 Denial of Service Attacks 49

33 Overview of Malware 49

331 Malware Propagation 50

332 Malware Payload 51

34 Securing Cyber Systems 52

35 Securing Data 54

36 Cyber Security Attack Recovery 56

Summary 57

Key Terms 57

Assess Your Understanding 59

References 59

4 Social Media and Emergency Management 61

Introduction 62

41 Situational Awareness, Emergency Communications, and the Public Realm 62

42 What Is Social Media? 64

421 The Birth of Web 20 64

43 Types of Social Media Used in Disasters 65

44 Mass Alert Systems 67

45 Mass Media and Social Media Use in Virginia Tech Shooting Response 67

451 Information Communication Technologies 69

46 What Is a Disaster? 69

47 Usage Patterns of Social Media Over Time 70

48 Social Media's Growth and the Role of Traditional Sources 73

481 Role of Social Media in Disasters 74

482 Use of Social Media by People Affected by Crisis 74

49 Use of Social Media for Preparedness and Planning 74

491 Expansion of Communication Networks 75

410 Use of Social Media Before and During Mass Emergencies 75

4101 Emergency Managers' Use of Social Media in Response 76

4102 Emergency Managers in Listening Mode 76

4103 Managing the Use of Twitter or Facebook 76

4104 Information?]Vetting Dynamics 76

4105 Building Resiliency 77

4106 Changing Nature of Social Behaviors 78

411 Issues Arising from the Use of Social Media by Emergency Managers During Events 81

4111 Changing Role of PIO 81

412 Using Social Media to Establish Information on Damages and Recovery 81

4121 Evolving Networks 82

4122 Expanding Information Relevant to a Specific Event 82

4123 Expanded Communication Benefits 83

413 The Advantages and Fallbacks of Geotargeting 83

414 Social Media Companies' Contribution to Emergency Response 84

4141 Information Dissemination and Feedback 84

415 Concerns About and Limitations of Social Media Usage in Disasters 85

4151 Misleading Information 85

4152 Dependable Networks 85

4153 Reliable Information Sources 86

4154 Communicating with a Broad Audience 86

4155 Managing a Large Quantity of Data 86

416 The Future of Social Media in Disasters 87

4161 New Role for the Public in a Crisis 87

4162 Dynamic Nature of Social Media 87

4163 Social Media as a Valuable Resource 88

4164 Self?]correcting Nature of Social Media 88

4165 Accuracy of Information 88

4166 Threats of Technology Failure 88

4167 Case Example: Crowdfunding and Remote Emergency Response: 2010 Haitian Earthquake as a Case Study 89

4168 Examining the Use of Social Media in Haiti 90

417 Looking Forward 91

Key Terms 91

Assess Your Understanding 93

References 94

5 Geospatial Technologies and Emergency Management 97

Introduction 98

51 Geospatial Technologies and Emergency Management 99

511 Elements of GT 99

512 Use of GT to Answer Questions in Emergency Management 100

52 GT Across the Human-Hazard Interface 100

521 Our People 100

522 Limitations of Census Data 101

53 Our Resources 104

531 Understanding Critical Infrastructure 104

532 Understanding Critical Social Infrastructure 105

533 Resources of Social Importance 106

534 Spatial Video Geonarrative 107

54 Understanding Our Hazards 108

541 Natural Hazards Casualties in the United States 108

542 Hazard Zonation 109

543 Our Human-Hazard Interface 110

544 Understanding Overlays and Buffers 110

55 Dissemination and Hazard Communication 112

551 Contribution of Google Earth 113

56 Summary 113

57 Conclusions 115

Key Terms 116

Assess Your Understanding 117

References 117

6 Direct and Remote Sensing Systems: Describing and Detecting Hazards 120

Introduction 121

61 Data Collection 121

62 Weather Stations 124

621 Weather Station Data 125

622 Weather Station Networks 126

623 Geospatial Multi?]agency Coordination Wildfire Application 127

63 Water Data Sensors 128

631 Flood Warning Systems for Local Communities 128

632 Rain and Stream Gauges 130

633 How a USGS Stream Gauge Works 130

634 The USGS Stream Gaging Program 131

635 Using USGS Stream?]flow Data for Emergency Management 131

64 Air Sensors 132

641 Outdoor Air Quality Sensors 132

642 Chemical Sensors 133

65 Evaluating the Technology 133

66 Remote Sensing 134

661 An Overview of Remote Sensing 135

662 Optical Satellite Remote Sensing 136

663 Satellite Remote Sensing of Weather 145

664 Radar Imaging 147

665 Manned and Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing 147

67 Using and Assessing Data 150

68 Trends in Remote and Direct Sensing

Technology 151

Summary 151

Key Terms 152

Online Resources 154

Assess Your Understanding 155

References 155

7 Emergency Management Decision Support Systems: Using Data to Manage Disasters 157

Introduction 158

71 Emergency Management Information Systems and Networks 158

72 Evaluating Information Systems 161

721 Quality 161

722 Timeliness 161

723 Completeness 162

724 Performance 162

73 Federal, State, and Local Information Systems 163

731 Management Information Systems 163

732 The National Emergency Management Information System 163

733 Computer Aided Management of Emergency Operations 164

74 Using Data 165

741 Databases 166

742 Data Dictionary (Meta?]data) 166

75 Evaluating Databases 168

76 Using Emergency Management Databases 169

761 HAZUS?]MH Datasets 171

77 Management Roles in Decision Support Systems 171

78 Obtaining Data from Public Federal Data Sources 172

79 The Future of Decision Support Systems: The Intelligent Community 173

Summary 174

Key Terms 174

Assess Your Understanding 174

References 175

8 Warning Systems: Alerting the Public to Danger 177

Introduction 178

81 Warning Systems 178

811 Key Information 178

812 Key Components of Warning Systems 178

813 Warning Subsystems 179

82 Detection and Management 180

821 Case Study: Detection at a Local Level 180

822 National Weather Service 182

823 Case Study: Detection at a National Level 184

83 Issuing Warnings 185

831 Technical Issues 185

832 Organizational Issues 185

833 Societal Issues 187

84 Types of Warning Systems 187

841 Sirens 188

842 The Emergency Alert System 188

843 Phone Alert Systems: Reverse 911 190

844 Disadvantages of Phone Notification Systems 190

845 Communicating with Those with Disabilities 190

846 Barriers to Warnings 191

847 Case Example: A Nuclear Disaster 191

85 Response 193

851 Case Study: Response to Hurricane Katrina 194

Summary 194

Key Terms 195

Assess Your Understanding 195

References 195

9 Hazards Analysis and Modeling: Predicting the Impact of Disasters197

Introduction 198

91 Modeling and Emergency Management 198

911 The Technology behind Modeling 199

912 Mathematical Models 201

913 Understanding the Results of Modeling 202

914 Fast Exchange of Model Results to Users 203

92 Using a Hurricane Model (SLOSH) 203

921 SLOSH for Planning, Response, Recovery, and Mitigation 205

922 SLOSH Display Program 206

923 Strengths of SLOSH 206

924 Limitations of SLOSH 206

925 Saffir-Simpson Scale 208

93 Using the ALOHA Chemical Dispersion Model 209

931 How ALOHA Works 210

932 Model Outputs 210

933 Threat Zone Estimates and Threat at a Point 210

934 Strengths of ALOHA 211

935 Limitations of ALOHA 212

936 Terms Used in ALOHA 213

937 Concentration Patchiness, Particularly Near the Source 215

94 Hazards United States--Multi Hazard Model 216

941 Strengths of HAZUS?]MH 219

942 Limitations of HAZUS?]MH 220

943 Multirisk Assessment 220

95 Evacuation Modeling 220

96 Centralized Hazard Modeling Initiatives 221

961 Fire Potential Modeling 221

962 Drought Modeling 223

97 Evaluating Hazard Models 224

Summary 225

Key Terms 225

Assess Your Understanding 226

References 226

10 Operational Problems and Technology: Making Technology Work for You228

Introduction 229

101 Barriers in Implementing Technology in Emergency Management 229

102 The Role of the Emergency Manager in Using

Technology 231

1021 Managing an Organization 233

103 Using Technology to Overcome Organizational Boundaries 234

104 Pitfalls of Technology 235

1041 Reliance on Technology 235

1042 Obsolescence 236

1043 Information Overload 236

1044 Data Integration 236

1045 Real?]Time Response Data 237

1046 Security 237

105 Managing the Technology 237

Summary 240

Key Terms 240

Assess Your Understanding 240

References 240

11 Trends in Technology: New Tools for Challenges to Emergency Management242

Introduction 243

111 Using Technology for Information Exchange 243

1111 Emergency Preparedness Information

Exchange 244

1112 Television and Internet Information 244

1113 Digital Libraries and Publications 244

112 Distance Learning 246

1121 Using Remote Technology 246

1122 Disaster Situational Maps 247

1123 Federal Agency Situational Mapping Programs 249

1124 Innovative Visualization Efforts 252

1125 Updating Outputs 252

113 Managing the Technology 253

1131 Organizational Coordination and Collaboration Strategies 254

1132 Technology Life Cycles 254

1133 Engaging Stakeholders 255

1134 Information Exchange 255

1135 Dealing with Information Overload 256

Summary 257

Key Terms 257

Assess Your Understanding 257

References 257

Figure Credits260

Index 261
John C. Pine, Ed.D, is a professor in the Department of Geography and Planning at Appalachian State University, and formerly Director of the Research Institute for Environment, Energy & Economics at Appalachian. He joined the Appalachian faculty in 2009 after serving thirty years at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge where he directed a graduate and undergraduate Disaster Science and Management Program and served as a Professor with the Department of Environmental Science in the School of the Coast and Environment.

J. C. Pine, Louisiana State University