John Wiley & Sons Natural History Collections in the Science of the 21st Century Cover Natural history collections have recently acquired an unprecedented place of importance in scientifi.. Product #: 978-1-78945-049-1 Regular price: $142.06 $142.06 Auf Lager

Natural History Collections in the Science of the 21st Century

A Sustainable Resource for Open Science

Pellens, Roseli (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Januar 2022
416 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-78945-049-1
John Wiley & Sons

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Natural history collections have recently acquired an unprecedented place of importance in scientific research. Originally created in the context of systematics and taxonomy, they are now proving to be fundamental for answering various scientific and societal questions that are as significant as they are current.

Natural History Collections in the Science of the 21st Century presents a wide range of questions and answers raised by the study of collections. The billions of specimens that have been collected from all around the world over more than two centuries provide us with information that is vital in our quest for knowledge about the Earth, the universe, the diversity of life and the history of humankind.

These collections also provide valuable reference points from the past to help us understand the nature and dynamics of global change today. Their physical permanence is the best guarantee we have of a return to data and to information sources in the context of open science.

Foreword xvii
Bruno DAVID

Acknowledgments xxi
Roseli PELLENS

Chapter 1. Natural History Collections: An Essential Resource for Science in the 21st Century 1
Roseli PELLENS

1.1. Collections in early 21st century science 2

1.2. New explorations because of the magnitude and diversity of the collections' data 3

1.3. Research using and driving the constitution of natural history collections 5

1.3.1. Being able to return to the object: one of the major contributions of natural history collections 6

1.3.2. Collections at the heart of highly innovative research thanks to new technologies 7

1.3.3. A resource for global change research 8

1.3.4. Designing the science of the future based on collections 9

1.4. References 11

Chapter 2. Natural History Collections: An Ancient Concept in a Present and Future Perspective 13
Philippe GRANDCOLAS

2.1. Introduction 14

2.2. A tribute to curiosity and coupling with classifications 14

2.3. The structuring of our thoughts and actions by an ancient concept 16

2.4. Collections: more than species catalogues 18

2.5. Big Data collections in space and time 19

2.6. What future is there for the use of collections? 20

2.7. Conclusion 22

2.8. References 22

Chapter 3. Louis XIV's Blue Gems: Exceptional Rediscoveries at the French National Museum of Natural History 27
François FARGES

3.1. Introduction 29

3.2. A scientific investigation of color 31

3.3. The digital decoding of the creative genius of the royal gem cutter 32

3.4. Epilogue: toward a renaissance.. 35

3.5. References 36

Chapter 4. Rediscovering Human Mummies: Unpublished data on the Chachapoya Mummy Exhibited at the Musée de l'Homme 37
Aline THOMAS, Arnaud ANSART, Christophe BOU, Jean-Bernard HUCHET, Véronique LABORDE, Samuel MERIGEAUD and Éloïse QUETEL

4.1. Introduction 38

4.1.1. The Muséum's collection of human mummies 38

4.1.2. Origin, discovery, donation and exhibition: a brief history of the mummy 40

4.2. Materials and methods 43

4.2.1. The MNHN-HA-30187 mummy: position of the body, measurements and external appearance 43

4.2.2. Medical imaging protocol and technique 45

4.2.3. Protocol for experimental reproduction of trepanation 45

4.3. Results 46

4.3.1. Basic biological identity 46

4.3.2. Osteo-dental status 47

4.3.3. Internal organs 48

4.3.4. Archeoentomology 50

4.3.5. Cranial trepanation: location, size and mode of operation 52

4.4. Discussion 54

4.4.1. Identity of the deceased and health status 54

4.4.2. Treatment of the corpse and embalming 55

4.4.3. Chronology of mortuary gestures 56

4.5. Conclusion 58

4.6. References 59

Chapter 5. Reconstructing the History of Human Populations: A Challenge for Biological Anthropology 63
Martin FRIESS and Manon GALLAND

5.1. Introduction 63

5.1.1. How human remains have also become scientific objects 63

5.1.2. The MNHN biological anthropology collection 64

5.1.3. Cranial morphology as an indication of biocultural processes 65

5.2. Cranial morphology and settlement history 66

5.2.1. A new look at the diversity of Native Americans 69

5.3. Cranial morphology and adaptation to the environment 71

5.3.1. Cranial diversity beyond randomness 73

5.4. The importance of cranial collection for the advancement of research in biological anthropology 75

5.5. References 76

Chapter 6. The Discovery of New Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Species in Herbaria 79
Vanessa R. INVERNÓN, Romane TISSERAND, Pierre JOUANNAIS, Dulce M. NAVARRETE GUTIÉRREZ, Serge MULLER, Yohan PILLON, Guillaume ECHEVARRIA and Sylvain MERLOT

6.1. Metal-hyperaccumulating plants 80

6.2. The screening of herbarium collections: from atomic absorption to X-ray fluorescence 83

6.3. The discovery of new metal-hyperaccumulating plants at the MNHN herbarium 85

6.3.1. The interest of the MNHN herbarium for the research of metal-hyperaccumulating plants 85

6.3.2. From the herbarium to the field: new nickel hyperaccumulators in the genus Orthion 87

6.3.3. Rinorea multivenosa, the first zinc hyperaccumulating species discovered in the Amazon basin 88

6.3.4. A large number of manganese hyperaccumulating species to be discovered 90

6.4. Conclusion 91

6.5. Acknowledgments 92

6.6. References 92

Chapter 7. Fossil Crustaceans in the Light of New Technologies 95
Sylvain CHARBONNIER and Marie-Béatrice FOREL

7.1. Introduction 96

7.2. Fossil crustaceans 96

7.3. The radiation of fossil crustaceans 98

7.3.1. Revealing characters with UV light (yellow fluorescence) 98

7.3.2. Revealing characters with green light (green-orange fluorescence) 99

7.3.3. X-ray radiography 100

7.4. Exceptional preservation of fossil crustaceans 102

7.5. Ostracods and paleogeography at the end of the Paleozoic 105

7.6. References 105

Chapter 8. The "Cyanobacteria and Microalgae" Collection in the Time of "-omics" 109
Sébastien DUPERRON, Charlotte DUVAL, Sahima HAMLAOUI, Katia COMTE, Claude YÉPRÉMIAN and Cécile BERNARD

8.1. Introduction 109

8.2. A living collection supported by research 111

8.3. New uses of the collection in basic research 114

8.3.1. Polyphasic identification and taxonomy of cyanobacteria and microalgae 114

8.3.2. Contribution to the evolutionary sciences 114

8.3.3. Contribution to the study of interactions between organisms 115

8.4. Enhancing the value of biological resources through the search for innovative bioactive molecules 116

8.5. Expertise in environmental diagnosis 118

8.6. The living collection of cyanobacteria and microalgae of today and tomorrow 119

8.7. References 121

Chapter 9. The Collection of Cryopreserved Cells and Tissues of Vertebrates: Methods and Application 125
Michèle GERBAULT-SEUREAU and Bernard DUTRILLAUX

9.1. Introduction 126

9.2. History of the collection 126

9.3. Can all living beings be cryopreserved? 127

9.3.1. Collection, culture and freezing 128

9.4. Current applications 130

9.5. Current composition of the bank 133

9.6. Perspectives 136

9.7. References 137

Chapter 10. Herbaria, the Last Resort for Extinct Plant Species 139
Serge MULLER, Valérie PRIOLET, Éric BADEL and Stéphane BUORD

10.1. Context and objectives 140

10.2. Proposed approach and protocol 141

10.3. First results 142

10.3.1. Selection of target species and identification of affine species 142

10.3.2. Assessment of the viability of available seeds 145

10.3.3. Cultivation experiments on affine species of the target species 149

10.4. Discussion and conclusion 152

10.5. Acknowledgments 154

10.6. References 154

Chapter 11. Ocean Cores, Climate Archives 159
Eva MORENO and Annachiara BARTOLINI

11.1. Introduction 160

11.2. The MNHN's oceanic collection 160

11.3. Development of core drilling techniques 161

11.4. Ocean cores: archives of past climate variability 163

11.5. Climate proxies 164

11.5.1. Temperature proxies 165

11.5.2. Proxies of salinity 169

11.5.3. Paleo-pH proxies and carbonate ion concentration 170

11.6. Analytical techniques 171

11.7. Conclusion 172

11.8. References 173

Chapter 12. Clarifying the Radiocarbon Calibration Curve for Ancient Egypt: The Wager of Herbaria 177
Anita QUILES, Vanessa R. INVERNÓN, Lucile BECK, Emmanuelle DELQUE-KOLIC, Myriam GAUDEUL, Serge MULLER and Germinal ROUHAN

12.1. Introduction 178

12.2. Carbon-14 (14C) dating and Egyptian chronology 179

12.2.1. The challenge of calibration 179

12.2.2. Chronology of ancient Egypt: contribution of 14C and historic debates 181

12.3. Specificities of the Egyptian landscape and the objective of the project 182

12.4. The flora of Egypt in the MNHN Herbarium 184

12.5. Analytical and statistical challenges 186

12.5.1. Selection of herbarium specimens 187

12.5.2. Preliminary results of 14C dating 187

12.6. Conclusion 190

12.7. References 191

Chapter 13. Herbaria, a Window into the Evolutionary History of Crop Pathogens 195
Lionel GAGNEVIN, Adrien RIEUX, Jean-Michel LETT, Philippe ROUMAGNAC, Boris SZUREK, Paola CAMPOS, Claudia BAIDER, Myriam GAUDEUL and Nathalie BECKER

13.1. Epidemics, emergences and re-emergences 196

13.2. Development of agriculture, domestication of cultivated plants and their diseases 197

13.3. Molecular biology and genomics as a tool for studying phytopathogenic micro-organisms 199

13.4. Contributions of the herbarium samples 199

13.4.1. Direct evidence 200

13.4.2. Molecular analyses 201

13.5. How to explore a herbarium 203

13.6. Characteristics of old nucleic acids and their treatment 205

13.6.1. The particular case of viral nucleic acids 206

13.7. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and its emergence in the Indian Ocean 208

13.8. Emergence and evolutionary history of plant pathogenic viruses: the geminivirus model 209

13.8.1. Case of a species complex responsible for an emerging disease 210

13.8.2. Case of a cryptic geminivirus 211

13.9. Discussion 212

13.10. Acknowledgments and funding 213

13.11. References 213

Chapter 14. The Yellow-Legged Asian Hornet: Prediction of the Risk of Invasion and the Study of its Color Variations 219
Claire VILLEMANT, Quentin ROME and Adrien PERRARD

14.1. Introduction 220

14.2. Vespa velutina: some elements of taxonomy and biology 222

14.2.1. A species: 13 colored forms 222

14.2.2. One nest per year 223

14.2.3. Insectivore, but not exclusively 223

14.3. Sampling of specimens 224

14.4. The origin of invasive lineages of V. velutina in France and Korea 225

14.4.1. The history of the invasion explained by genetics 225

14.4.2. A single queen at the origin of the invasive lineage in France 226

14.5. Expansion risks in Europe and worldwide 226

14.5.1. Data and methods for inferring range and predicting invasion risk 226

14.5.2. Strong expansion in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere 227

14.6. Origin of color and shape variations 229

14.6.1. The importance of collection specimens 229

14.6.2. Discordance between genetic lineages and colored forms 231

14.7. Conclusion 232

14.8. References 233

Chapter 15. Exploring Temporal Changes in the Composition of Macroalgal Communities by Using Collections 235
Marine ROBUCHON, Éric FEUNTEUN, Romain JULLIARD, Florence ROUSSEAU and Line Le GALL

15.1. On the constitution of macroalgal collections 236

15.1.1. Large seaweeds 236

15.1.2. Algal herbaria 236

15.1.3. Data associated with the herbaria 237

15.1.4. Specimens and scientific evidence 237

15.1.5. The herbarium of the Dinard maritime laboratory 239

15.2. Exploring temporal changes in species distribution 239

15.2.1. Perspectives for exploring temporal changes in species distribution 245

15.3. Exploring temporal changes in community composition 246

15.3.1. Example of the study of the Dinard Herbarium 246

15.3.2. Perspectives for exploring temporal changes in community composition 247

15.4. Conclusion: sampling and analysis strategies for the future 248

15.5. References 249

Chapter 16. Herbaria, Witnesses of the Stakes of Biodiversity Conservation and the Impacts of Global Changes 251
Serge MULLER, Vanessa R. INVERNÓN and Germinal ROUHAN

16.1. Introduction 252

16.2. Evaluation of the floristic richness and conservation issues of territories 254

16.3. Studies of introduction pathways and colonization of invasive exotic plants and pathogens 257

16.4. Analysis of the impact of pollution and changes in air quality 259

16.5. Study of phenological changes in flora as a result of climate change 260

16.6. Conclusion 262

16.7. References 263

Chapter 17. Digital Photography In Natura in Zoology: More Biology in Natural History Collections? 271
Romain GARROUSTE

17.1. Images and collections... for comparative biology 272

17.2. Accelerating the process of the incomplete inventory of life 274

17.3. Why more biology in natural history collections? 277

17.4. Images in the natural sciences: a collection like any other? 280

17.5. The Hemiptera of France: an exemplary iconography 282

17.6. Trait databases, query automation and bio-inspiration 282

17.7. Conclusion: a new challenge for natural history 284

17.8. References 285

Chapter 18. The Use of Large Natural History Datasets to Respond to Current Scientific and Societal Issues 289
Anne-Christine MONNET, Thomas HAEVERMANS, Anne-Sophie ARCHAMBEAU, Philippe GRANDCOLAS and Roseli PELLENS

18.1. Introduction 289

18.2. Making data available: a revolution 290

18.3. Challenges for data providers 293

18.3.1. Reading labels or directories 293

18.3.2. Structure of the information related to the specimens 294

18.3.3. The taxonomic framework: moving information 295

18.3.4. The importance of tracing the source of data 296

18.4. The role of access portals 296

18.4.1. The provision standards 297

18.5. The importance of scientific analysis design in appropriating the specificities of data from collections 299

18.5.1. Detecting the biases in collection data: advantages and opportunities for scientific analyses 299

18.5.2. Toward a good balance between the question and the available data 300

18.5.3. Playing the advantage of multiple spatial scales 301

18.6. Moving from raw data to sorted data that can be used for scientific analyses 301

18.6.1. From open data to open science, a responsibility for the traceability of data and operations 303

18.6.2. Toward a necessary reorganization of collaborative work 304

18.7. Conclusion 306

18.8. References 307

Chapter 19. Is There a Need for Biocultural Collections? State of the Art and Perspectives 311
Serge BAHUCHET

19.1. Introduction 311

19.2. Origin of these collections 312

19.2.1. Ethnobotany 312

19.2.2. Ethnology 313

19.3. Collection principles and the function of collections 313

19.3.1. The role of objects in "Maussian" ethnology 313

19.3.2. Ethnobotanical collections 315

19.3.3. Biocultural collections 317

19.4. Principles for the articulation of sets 319

19.5. Description of the collections 324

19.5.1. Ethnobiological specimens 325

19.5.2. Objects and artifacts 329

19.6. What changes? 332

19.7. References 334

Chapter 20. Why Preserve? 337
Véronique ROUCHON

20.1. The museum's collections: between study and heritage 338

20.2. Disrupting the equilibrium 339

20.3. Preparation and storage 342

20.4. The main principles of conservation 346

20.5. The main principles of conservation being undermined 347

20.6. Multiple values 349

20.7. The scientific value of the collections 351

20.8. Conclusion 357

20.9. References 357

Chapter 21. Collections for Scientific Research in the 21st Century and Beyond 359
Roseli PELLENS

21.1. Collections in the quest for knowledge 359

21.2. Three main kinds of new uses for collections 360

21.2.1. Enriching the life sciences, human sciences and the sciences of the universe with new technologies 360

21.2.2. A pool of information on the environment 360

21.2.3. The era of digital data 362

21.3. Lessons from these new uses 362

21.3.1. The importance of richness and diversity 363

21.3.2. Information at the heart of new research 363

21.3.3. Good conservation and good practices 365

21.3.4. The importance of sets 366

21.4. Collections in 21st century science and beyond 367

21.5. Conclusion 367

21.6. References 369

List of Authors 373

Index 381
Roseli Pellens is a researcher in macroecology and systematics for conservation at the Institute of Systematics, Evolution and Biodiversity, France. Her research interests include openness and sharing in science, and the contribution of natural history collections as a sustainable source of data and inspiration.