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The ESD Control Program Handbook

Smallwood, Jeremy M.

Wiley - IEEE

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1. Auflage November 2020
544 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-118-31103-5
John Wiley & Sons

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Provides the understanding and practical skills needed to develop and maintain an effective ESD control program for manufacturing, storage, and handling of ESD sensitive components

This essential guide to ESD control programs explains the principles and practice of ESD control in an easily accessible way whilst also providing more depth and a wealth of references for those who want to gain a deeper knowledge of the subject. It describes static electricity and ESD principles such as triboelectrification, electrostatic fields, and induced voltages, with the minimum of theory or mathematics. It is designed for the reader to "dip into" as required, rather than need to read cover to cover.

The ESD Control Program Handbook begins with definitions and commonly used terminology, followed by the principles of static electricity and ESD control. Chapter 3 discusses ESD susceptible electronic devices, and how ESD susceptibility of a component is measured. This is followed by the "Seven habits of a highly effective ESD program", explaining the essential activities of an effective ESD control program. While most texts mainly address manual handling of ESD susceptible devices, Chapter 5 extends the discussion to ESD control in automated systems, processes and handling, which form a major part of modern electronic manufacture.

Chapter 6 deals with requirements for compliance given by the IEC 61340-5-1 and ANSI/ESD S20.20 ESD control standards.

Chapter 7 gives an overview of the selection, use, care and maintenance of equipment and furniture commonly used to control ESD risks. The chapter explains how these often work together as part of a system and must be specified with that in mind.

ESD protective packaging is available in an extraordinary range of forms from bags, boxes and bubble wrap to tape and reel packaging for automated processes. The principles and practice of this widely misunderstood area of ESD control are introduced in Chapter 8. The thorny question of how to evaluate an ESD control program is addressed in Chapter 9 with a goal of compliance with a standard as well as effective control of ESD risks and possible customer perceptions.

Whilst evaluating an existing ESD control program provides challenges, developing an ESD control program from scratch provides others. Chapter 10 gives an approach to this.

Standard test methods used in compliance with ESD control standards are explained and simple test procedures given in Chapter 11.

ESD Training has long been recognised as essential in maintaining effective ESD control. Chapter 12 discusses ways of covering essential topics and how to demonstrate static electricity in action. The book ends with a look at where ESD control may go in the near future.


The ESD Control Program Handbook:

* Gives readers a sound understanding of the subject to analyze the ESD control requirements of manufacturing processes, and develop an effective ESD control program
* Provides practical knowledge, as well as sufficient theory and background to understand the principles of ESD control
* Teaches how to track and identify how ESD risks arise, and how to identify fitting means for minimizing or eliminating them
* Emphasizes working with modern ESD control program standards IEC 61340-5-1 and ESD S20:20

The ESD Control Program Handbook is an invaluable reference for anyone tasked with setting up, evaluating, or maintaining an effective ESD control program, training personnel, or making ESD control related measurements. It would form an excellent basis for a University course on the subject as well as a guide and resource for industry professionals.

Introduction

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

1 Definitions and Terminology

1.1 Scientific notation and SI unit prefixes

1.2 Charge, electrostatic fields and voltage

1.2.1 Charge

1.2.2 Ions

1.2.3 Dissipation and neutralization of electrostatic charge

1.2.4 Voltage (potential)

1.2.5 Electric or electrostatic field

1.2.6 Gauss's Law

1.2.7 Electrostatic attraction (ESA)

1.2.8 Permittivity

1.3 Electric current

1.4 Electrostatic discharge (ESD)

1.4.1 ESD Models

1.4.2 ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI)

1.5 Earthing, grounding and equipotential bonding

1.6 Power and Energy

1.7 Resistance, resistivity and conductivity

1.7.1 Resistance

1.7.2 Resistivity and conductivity

1.7.2.1 Surface resistivity and surface resistance

1.7.2.2 Volume resistance, volume resistivity and conductivity

1.7.3 Insulators, conductors, conductive, dissipative and antistatic materials

1.7.4 Point to point resistance

1.7.5 Resistance to ground

1.7.6 Combination of resistances

1.8 Capacitance

1.9 Shielding

1.10 Dielectric breakdown strength

1.11 Relative humidity and dew point

References

2 The principles of static electricity and electrostatic discharge (ESD) control

2.1 Overview

2.2 Contact charge generation (triboelectrification)

2.2.1 The polarity and magnitude of charging

2.3 Electrostatic charge build-up and dissipation

2.3.1 A simple electrical model of electrostatic charge build-up

2.3.2 Capacitance is variable

2.3.3 Charge decay time

2.3.4 Conductors and insulators revisited

2.3.5 The effect of relative humidity

2.4 Conductors in electrostatic fields

2.4.1 Voltage on conducting and insulating bodies and surfaces

2.4.2 Electrostatic field in practical situations

2.4.3 Faraday cage

2.4.4 Induction: An isolated conductive object attains a voltage when in an electric field

2.4.1 Induction charging: An object can become charged by grounding it

2.4.2 Faraday pail and shielding of charges within a closed object

2.5 Electrostatic discharges

2.5.1 ESD (sparks) between conducting objects

2.5.2 ESD from insulating surfaces

2.5.3 Corona discharge

2.5.4 Other types of discharge

2.6 Common electrostatic discharge sources

2.6.1 ESD from the human body

2.6.2 ESD from charged conductive objects

2.6.3 Charged device ESD

2.6.4 ESD from a charged board

2.6.5 ESD from a charged module

2.6.6 ESD from charged cables

2.7 Electronic models of ESD

2.8 Electrostatic attraction (ESA)

2.8.1 ESA and particle contamination

2.8.2 Neutralisation of surface voltages by air ions

2.8.3 Ionisers

2.8.4 Rate of charge neutralisation

2.8.5 The region of effective charge neutralisation around an ioniser

2.8.6 Ioniser balance and charging of a surface by an unbalanced ioniser

2.9 Electromagnetic interference (EMI)

2.10 How to avoid ESD damage of components

2.10.1 The circumstances leading to ESD damage of a component

2.10.2 Risk of ESD damage

2.10.3 The principles of ESD control

References

Bibliography

3 ESD sensitive devices (ESDS)

3.1 What are ESD sensitive devices?

3.2 Measuring ESD Susceptibility

3.2.1 Modelling electrostatic discharges

3.2.2 Standard ESD susceptibility tests

3.2.3 ESD withstand voltage

3.2.4 Human Body Model component susceptibility test

3.2.5 System level Human Body ESD susceptibility test

3.2.6 Machine Model component susceptibility test

3.2.7 Charged Device Model component susceptibility test

3.2.8 Comparison of test methods

3.2.9 Failure criteria used in ESD susceptibility test

3.2.10 Transmission line pulse techniques

3.2.11 The relation between ESD withstand voltage and ESD damage

3.2.12 Trends in component ESD test

3.3 ESD susceptibility of components

3.3.1 Introduction

3.3.2 Latent failures

3.3.3 Built-in on-chip ESD protection and ESD protection targets

3.3.4 ESD sensitivity of typical components

3.3.5 Discrete devices

3.3.6 The effect of scaling

3.3.7 Package effects

3.4 Some common types of ESD damage

3.4.1 Failure mechanisms

3.4.2 Breakdown of thin dielectric layers

3.4.3 MOSFETs

3.4.4 Susceptibility to electrostatic fields and breakdown between closely spaced conductors

3.4.5 Semiconductor junctions

3.4.6 Field effect structures and non-conductive device lids

3.4.7 Piezoelectric crystals

3.4.8 Light emitting diodes

3.4.9 Magnetoresistive heads

3.4.10 MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)

3.4.11 Burnout of device conductors or resistors

3.4.12 Passive components

3.4.13 Printed circuit boards and assemblies

3.4.14 Modules and system components

3.5 System level ESD

3.5.1 Introduction

3.5.2 The relationship between system level immunity and component ESD withstand

3.5.3 Charged cable ESD (Cable Discharge Events)

3.5.4 System-Efficient ESD Design (SEED)

References

Bibliography

4.1 Why habits?

4.2 The basis of ESD protection

4.3 What is an ESDS?

4.4 Habit 1: Always handle ESD sensitive components within an ESD Protected Area (EPA)

4.4.1 What is an EPA?

4.4.2 Defining the EPA boundary

4.4.3 Marking the EPA boundary

4.4.4 What is an insignificant level of ESD risk?

4.4.5 What are the sources of ESD risk?

4.4.6 What ESD protection measures are needed in the EPA?

4.4.7 Who will decide what ESD protection measures are required?

4.5 Habit 2: Where possible avoid use of insulators near ESDS

4.5.1 What is an insulator?

4.5.2 Essential and non-essential insulators

4.5.3 Remove non-essential insulators from the vicinity of ESDS

4.6 Habit 3: Reduce ESD risks from essential insulators

4.6.1 What is an insulator?

4.6.1 Insulators cannot be grounded

4.6.2 What to do about ESD risk from essential insulators

4.6.3 Using ionisers to reduce charge levels on insulators

4.7 Habit 4: Ground conductors, especially people

4.7.1 What is a conductor?

4.7.2 Conductive, dissipative or insulative?

4.7.3 Properties of a conductor

4.7.4 Charge and voltage decay time

4.7.5 The importance of material contact resistance in protecting ESDS

4.7.6 Safety considerations

4.7.7 Elimination of ESD by grounding and equipotential bonding

4.7.8 Understanding the grounding (earth) system

4.7.9 Grounding personnel handling ESDS

4.7.10 Grounding ESD control equipment

4.7.11 What if a conductor cannot be grounded?

4.8 Habit 5: Protect ESDS using ESD packaging

4.8.1 Don't take ordinary packaging materials into an EPA

4.8.2 The basic functions of ESD packaging

4.8.3 Only open ESD packaging within an EPA

4.8.4 Don't put papers or other unsuitable material in a package with an ESDS

4.9 Habit 6: Train personnel to know how to use ESD control equipment and procedures

4.9.1 Why train people?

4.9.2 Who needs ESD training?

4.9.3 What training do they need?

4.9.4 Refresher training

4.10 Habit 7: Check and test to make sure everything's working

4.10.1 Why do we need to check and test?

4.10.2 What needs to be tested?

4.10.3 ESD control product qualification

4.10.4 ESD control product or system compliance verification

4.10.5 Test methods and pass criteria

4.10.6 How often should ESD control items be tested?

4.11 The seven habits and ESD standards

4.12 Handling very sensitive devices

4.13 Controlling other ESD sources

References

Bibliography

5 Automated systems

5.1 What makes automated handling and assembly different?

5.2 Conductive, static dissipative and insulative materials

5.3 Safety and AHE

5.4 Understanding ESD sources and risks

5.5 A strategy for ESD control

5.5.1 General principles of ESD control in AHE

5.5.2 The conditions leading to ESD damage

5.5.3 Strategies for ESD control in automated equipment

5.5.4 Qualification of ESD control measures

5.5.5 Compliance verification of ESD control measures

5.5.6 ESD training implications

5.5.7 Modification of existing AHE

5.6 Determination and implementation of ESD control measures in AHE

5.6.1 Define the critical path of ESDS

5.6.2 Examine the critical path and identify ESD risks

5.6.3 Determine appropriate ESD control measures

5.6.4 Include ESD control in new equipment specification

5.6.5 Document the ESD control measures used in the machine

5.6.6 Implement maintenance and compliance verification of ESD control measures

5.7 Materials, techniques and equipment used for ESD control in AHE

5.7.1 Grounding all conductors that make contact with ESDS

5.7.2 Isolated conductors

5.7.3 Preventing induced voltages on ESDS

5.7.4 Reducing tribocharging of ESDS

5.7.5 Using resistive contact materials to limit charged device ESD current

5.7.6 Anodisation

5.7.7 Bearings

5.7.8 Conveyor belts

5.7.9 Using ionisers to reduce charge levels on ESDS, essential insulators and isolated conductors

5.7.10 Vacuum pickers

5.8 ESD protective packaging

5.9 Measurements in AHE

5.9.1 Overview of measurements in AHE

5.9.2 Resistance measurements

5.9.3 Electrostatic field and voltage measurements

5.9.4 Charge measurements

5.9.5 Measurement of the voltage decay time and offset voltage due to neutralization by an ionizer

5.9.6 ESD current measurements

5.9.7 Detection of ESD using EMI detectors

5.1 Handling very sensitive components

References

Bibliography

6 ESD control standards

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The development of ESD control standards

6.3 Who writes the standards?

6.4 The IEC and ESDA standards

6.4.1 Standards numbering

6.4.2 The language of standards

6.4.3 Definitions used in standards

6.5 Requirements of IEC61340-5-1 and ANSI/ESD S20.20 standards

6.5.1 Background

6.5.2 Documentation and planning

6.5.3 Technical basis of the ESD control program

6.5.4 Personal safety

6.5.5 ESD Coordinator

6.5.6 Tailoring the ESD program

6.5.7 The ESD Program Plan

6.5.8 Training Plan

6.5.9 Product Qualification Plan

6.5.10 Compliance Verification Plan

6.5.11 Test methods

6.5.12 ESD Control Program Plan technical requirements

6.5.13 ESD Packaging

6.5.14 Marking

References

Bibliography

7 Selection, use, care and maintenance of equipment and materials for ESD control

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Selection and qualification of equipment

7.1.2 Use

7.1.3 Cleaning, care and maintenance of equipment

7.1.4 Compliance verification

7.2 ESD control earth (ground)

7.2.1 What does the ESD control earth do?

7.2.2 Choosing an ESD control earth

7.2.3 Qualification of ESD control earth

7.2.4 Compliance verification of ESD control earth

7.2.5 Common problems with ground connections

7.3 The ESD control floor

7.3.1 What does an ESD control floor do?

7.3.2 Permanent ESD control floor material

7.3.3 Semi-permanent or non-permanent ESD control floor materials

7.3.4 Selection of floor materials

7.3.5 Floor material qualification test

7.3.6 Acceptance of a floor installation

7.3.7 Use of floor materials

7.3.8 Care and maintenance of floors

7.3.9 Compliance verification test

7.3.10 Common problems

7.4 Earth bonding

7.4.1 The role of earth bonding points

7.4.2 Selection of earth bonding points

7.4.3 Qualification of earth bonding points

7.4.4 Use of earth bonding points

7.4.5 Compliance verification of earth bonding points

7.5 Personal grounding

7.5.1 What is the purpose of personal grounding?

7.5.2 Personal grounding and electrical safety

7.5.3 Wrist straps

7.5.4 Footwear and flooring grounding

7.5.5 Grounding via ESD control seating

7.5.1 Personal grounding via an ESD garment

7.6 Work surfaces

7.6.1 What does a work surface do?

7.6.2 Types of work surfaces

7.6.3 Selection of a work surface

7.6.4 Workstation qualification test

7.6.5 Acceptance of work surfaces

7.6.6 Cleaning and maintenance of work surfaces

7.6.7 Compliance verification test of work surfaces

7.6.8 Common problems

7.7 Storage racks and shelves

7.7.1 Should it be an EPA rack or shelf?

7.7.2 Selection, care and maintenance of racks and shelves

7.7.3 Qualification test of EPA shelves and racks

7.7.4 Acceptance of shelves and racks

7.7.5 Cleaning and maintenance of shelves and racks

7.7.6 Compliance verification test of shelves and racks

7.7.7 Common problems

7.8 Trolleys, carts and mobile equipment

7.8.1 Types of trolleys, carts and mobile equipment

7.8.2 Selection, care and maintenance of trolleys, carts and mobile equipment

7.8.3 Qualification of trolleys, carts and mobile equipment

7.8.4 Compliance verification of trolleys, carts and mobile equipment

7.8.5 Common problems

7.9 Seats

7.9.1 What is an ESD control seat for?

7.9.2 Types of ESD seating

7.9.3 Selection of seating

7.9.4 Qualification test of seating

7.9.5 Cleaning and maintenance of seating

7.9.6 Compliance verification test of seating

7.9.7 Common problems

7.9.8 Personal grounding via ESD control seating

7.10 Ionisers

7.10.1 What does an ioniser do?

7.10.2 Ion sources

7.10.3 Types of ioniser system

7.10.4 Selection of ionisers

7.10.5 Qualification test of ionisers

7.10.6 Cleaning and maintenance of ionisers

7.10.7 Compliance verification test of ionisers

7.10.8 Common problems

7.11 ESD control garments

7.11.1 What does an ESD control garment do?

7.11.2 Types of ESD control garments

7.11.3 Selection of ESD control garments

7.11.4 Qualification test of ESD control garments

7.11.5 Use of ESD control garments

7.11.6 Cleaning and maintenance of ESD control garments

7.11.7 Compliance verification of ESD control garments

7.11.8 Personal grounding via an ESD garment

7.12 Hand tools

7.12.1 Why have ESD hand tools?

7.12.2 Types of hand tool

7.12.3 Qualification test of hand tools

7.12.4 Use of hand tools

7.12.5 Compliance verification test of hand tools

7.12.6 Common problems with ESD control hand tools

7.13 Soldering or desoldering irons

7.13.1 ESD control issues with soldering or desoldering irons

7.13.2 Qualification of soldering irons

7.13.3 Compliance verification of soldering irons

7.14 Gloves and finger cots

7.14.1 Why have gloves and finger cots?

7.14.2 Types of gloves and finger cots

7.14.3 Selection of gloves or finger cots for ESD control

7.14.4 Qualification test of gloves and finger cots

7.14.5 Cleaning and maintenance of gloves

7.14.6 Compliance verification test of gloves and finger cots

7.14.7 Common problems with gloves and finger cots

7.15 Marking of ESD control equipment

References

Bibliography

8 ESD control packaging

8.1 Why is packaging important in ESD control?

8.2 Packaging functions

8.3 ESD control packaging terminology

8.3.1 Terminology in general usage

8.1 ESD packaging properties

8.1.1 Triboelectric charging

8.1.2 Surface resistance

8.1.3 Volume resistance

8.1.4 Electrostatic field shielding

8.1.5 ESD shielding

8.2 Use of ESD protective packaging

8.2.1 The importance of ESD packaging properties

8.2.2 Packaging used within the EPA

8.2.3 Packaging used to protect ESDS outside the EPA

8.2.4 Packaging used for non-ESD susceptible items

8.2.5 Avoiding charged cables and modules

8.3 Materials and processes used in ESD protective packaging

8.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2 Antistats, pink polythene and low charging materials

8.3.1 Static dissipative and conductive polymers

8.3.2 Intrinsically conductive or dissipative polymers

8.3.3 Metallised film

8.3.4 Anodised aluminium

8.3.5 Vacuum forming of filled polymers

8.3.6 Injection moulding

8.3.7 Embossing

8.3.8 Vapour deposition

8.3.9 Surface coating

8.3.10 Lamination

8.4 Types and forms of ESD protective packaging

8.4.1 Bags

8.4.2 Bubble wrap

8.4.3 Foam

8.4.4 Boxes, trays and PCB racks

8.4.5 Tape and reel

8.4.1 Sticks (tubes)

8.4.2 Self-adhesive tapes and labels

8.5 Packaging standards

8.5.1 ESD control and protection packaging standards

8.5.2 Moisture barrier packaging standards

8.5.3 ESD control packaging measurements

8.6 How to select an appropriate packaging system

8.6.1 Introduction

8.6.2 Customer requirements

8.6.3 What is the form of the ESDS?

8.6.4 ESD threats and ESD susceptibility

8.6.5 The intended packaging task

8.6.6 Evaluate the operational environment for the packaging

8.6.7 Selecting the ESD packaging type and ESD protective functions

8.6.8 Testing the packaging system

8.7 Marking of ESD protective packaging

References

Bibliography

9 How to evaluate an ESD Control Program

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Evaluation of ESD risks

9.2.1 Sources of ESD risk

9.2.2 Evaluation of ESD susceptibility of components and assemblies 2

9.3 Evaluating process capability based on HBM, MM and CDM data

9.3.1 Process capability evaluation

9.3.2 Human body ESD and manual handling processes

9.3.3 ESD risk due to ungrounded conductors

9.3.4 Charged device ESD risks

9.3.5 Damage to voltage sensitive structures such as a capacitor or a MOSFET gate

9.3.6 Evaluating ESD risk from electrostatic fields

9.3.7 Troubleshooting

9.4 Evaluating ESD protection needs

9.4.1 Standard ESD control precautions do not necessarily address all ESD risks

9.4.2 Evaluating return on investment for ESD protection measures

9.4.3 What is the maximum acceptable resistance to ground?

9.4.4 Should there be a minimum resistance to ground?

9.4.5 ESD from charged tools

9.4.6 Use of gloves or finger cots

9.4.7 Charged cable ESD

9.4.8 Charged board ESD

9.4.9 Charged module or assembly ESD

9.5 Evaluation of cost effectiveness of the ESD control program

9.5.1 The cost of an inadequate ESD control program

9.5.2 The benefit arising from of the ESD control program

9.5.3 Evaluation of the cost of an ESD control program

9.5.4 Return on investment (ROI) in ESD control

9.5.5 Optimising an ESD control program

9.6 Evaluation of compliance of an ESD control program with a standard

9.6.1 Two steps to compliance evaluation

9.6.2 Using checklists to evaluate compliance of documentation with a standard

9.6.3 Evaluation of compliance of a facility with the ESD control program

9.6.4 Common Problems

References

10 How to develop an ESD control program

10.1 What do we need for a successful ESD control program?

10.1.1 The ESD control strategy

10.1.2 How to develop an ESD control program

10.1.3 Safety and ESD control

10.2 The EPA

10.2.1 Where do I need an EPA?

10.2.2 Boundaries and signage

10.3 What are the sources of ESD risk in the EPA?

10.4 How to determine appropriate ESD measures

10.4.1 ESD control principles

10.4.2 Select convenient ways of working

10.5 Documentation of ESD procedures

10.5.1 What should the documentation cover?

10.5.2 Writing an ESD Control Program Plan that is compliant with a standard

10.5.3 Introduction section

10.5.4 Scope

10.5.5 Terms and definitions

10.5.6 Personal safety

10.5.7 ESD Control Program

10.5.8 ESD Program Plan

10.5.9 ESD Training Plan

10.5.10 ESD control product qualification

10.5.11 Compliance verification plan

10.5.12 ESD Program Technical requirements

10.5.13 ESD Protected areas

10.5.14 ESD protective packaging

10.5.15 Marking of ESD related items

10.5.16 References

10.6 Evaluating ESD protection needs

10.7 Optimising the ESD control program

10.7.1 Costs and benefits of ESD control

10.7.2 Strategies for optimisation

10.8 Considerations for specific areas of the facility

10.8.1 The varying ESD control requirements of different areas

10.8.2 Goods In and Stores

10.8.3 Kitting

10.8.4 Despatch

10.8.5 Test

10.8.6 Research and development

10.9 Update and improvement

11 ESD Measurements

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Standard measurements

11.3 Product qualification or compliance verification?

11.3.1 Measurement methods for Product Qualification

11.3.2 Measurement methods for Compliance Verification

11.4 Environmental conditions

11.5 Summary of the standard test methods and their applications

11.6 Measurement equipment

11.6.1 Choosing a resistance meter for high resistance measurements

11.6.2 Low resistance meter for soldering iron grounding test

11.6.3 Resistance measurement electrodes

11.6.4 Concentric ring electrodes for packaging surface and volume resistance measurement

11.6.5 Two-point probe for packaging surface resistance measurements

11.6.6 Footwear test electrode

11.6.7 Hand-held electrode

11.6.8 Tool test electrode

11.6.9 Metal plate electrode for volume resistance measurements

11.6.10 Insulating supports

11.6.11 ESD ground connectors

11.6.12 Electrostatic field meters and voltmeters

11.6.13 Charge Plate Monitors (CPM)

11.7 Common problems with measurements

11.7.1 Humidity

11.7.2 Accidental measurement of parallel paths

11.8 Standard measurements specified by IEC 61340-5-1 and ANSI/ESD S20.20

11.8.1 Resistance to ground

11.8.2 Point to point resistance

11.8.3 Personal grounding equipment tests

11.8.4 Surface resistance of packaging materials

11.8.5 Volume resistance of packaging materials

11.8.6 ESD Shielding of bags

11.8.7 Evaluation of ESD Shielding of packaging systems

11.8.8 Measurement of ioniser decay time and offset voltage

11.8.9 Walk test of footwear and flooring

11.9 Useful measurements not specified by IEC 61340-5-1 and ESD S20.20

11.9.1 Electrostatic fields and voltages

11.9.2 Measurement of electric fields at the position of the ESDS

11.9.3 Measurement of surface voltages on large objects using an electrostatic field meter calibrated as a surface voltmeter

11.9.4 Measurement of voltage on devices or small conductors

11.9.5 Resistance of tools

11.9.6 Resistance of soldering irons

11.9.7 Resistance of gloves or finger cots

11.9.8 Charge decay measurements

11.9.9 Faraday pail measurement of charge on an object

11.9.10 ESD event detection

References

Bibliography

12 ESD Training

12.1 Why do we need ESD training?

12.2 Training planning

12.3 Who needs training?

12.4 Training form and content

12.4.1 Training goals

12.4.2 Initial training

12.4.3 Refresher training

12.4.4 Training methods

12.4.5 Supporting information

12.4.6 Training considerations

12.4.7 Public tutorials and courses

12.4.8 Qualifications and Certification

12.4.9 National and International ESD groups and electrostatics interest organisations

12.4.10 Conferences

12.4.11 Books, articles and online resources

12.5 Electrostatic and ESD theory

12.5.1 The pro's and con's of theory

12.5.2 A technical and non-technical explanation of electrostatic charging

12.6 Demonstrations of ESD control related issues

12.6.1 The role of demonstrations

12.6.2 Demonstrating real ESD damage

12.6.3 The cost of ESD damage

12.7 Electrostatic demonstrations

12.7.1 The value of electrostatic demonstrations

12.7.2 The pro's and con's of demonstrations

12.7.3 Useful equipment for demonstrations

12.7.4 Showing how easy it is to generate electrostatic charge

12.7.5 Understanding electrostatic fields

12.7.6 Understanding charge and voltage

12.7.7 Tribocharging

12.7.8 Production of ESD

12.7.9 Equipotential bonding and grounding

12.7.10 Induction charging

12.7.11 ESD on demand - the "perpetual ESD generator"

12.7.12 Body voltage and personal grounding

12.7.13 Charge generation and electrostatic field shielding of bags

12.7.14 Insulators cannot be grounded

12.7.15 Neutralising charge - Charge decay and voltage offset of ionisers

12.8 Evaluation

12.8.1 The need for evaluation

12.8.2 Practical test

12.8.3 Written tests

12.8.4 Pass criteria

References

Bibliography

13 The future

13.1 General trends

13.2 ESD withstand voltage trends

13.2.1 Integrated circuit ESD withstand voltage trends

13.2.2 Other component ESD withstand voltage trends

13.2.3 Availability of ESD withstand voltage data

13.2.4 Device ESD withstand test

13.3 ESD control programs and process controls

13.3.1 ESD control program development strategies

13.3.2 Human body ESD

13.3.3 ESD between ESDS and conductive items

13.3.4 Charged board, module and cable discharge events

13.3.5 Optimisation

13.4 Standards

13.5 ESD control equipment and materials

13.5.1 ESD control materials

13.5.2 ESD protective packaging

13.6 ESD related measurements

13.6.1 ESD protective packaging measurements

13.6.2 Voltage measurement on ESDS and ungrounded conductors

13.6.3 Measurements related to ESD risk in automated handling equipment

13.7 System ESD immunity

13.8 Education and training

References

Bibliography

Appendix A. An example draft ESD control program

A. ESD program plan at XXX LTD

A.1 Introduction

A.2 Scope

A.3 Terms and definitions

A.4 Personal safety

A.5 ESD control program

A.5.1 ESD control program requirements

A.5.2 ESD Coordinator

A.5.3 Tailoring ESD control requirements

A.6 ESD control program technical requirements

A.6.1 ESD ground

A.6.2 Personal grounding

A.6.3 ESD Protected Areas (EPA)

A.6.4 ESD protective packaging

A.6.5 Marking of ESD related items

A.7 Compliance verification plan

A.8 ESD training plan

A.8.1 General requirements of the ESD Training Plan

A.8.2 Training records

A.8.3 Training content and frequency

A.9 ESD control product qualification

A.10 ESD control program references

References
JEREMY M SMALLWOOD is Director, Trainer and Consultant at Electrostatic Solutions Ltd. He started consultancy work in 1987 while doing electrostatic research into ESD ignition of pyrotechnic materials at Southampton University. He has provided ESD Training and Consulting for many electronics system manufacturers and regularly collaborates with international experts on ESD related research. He has also been an invited speaker at many conferences internationally on the topic of ESD control and is a regular conference presenter. Dr. Smallwood is a past Chairman and current UK expert working with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee Electrostatics and helped write British and international standards on ESD control, such as the IEC 61340-5-1.