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Sedimentary Petrology

Tucker, Maurice E. / Jones, Stuart J.

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4. Auflage April 2023
448 Seiten, Softcover
Praktikerbuch

ISBN: 978-1-118-78649-9
John Wiley & Sons

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Authoritative, accessible, and updated introduction to sedimentary rocks for undergraduate students

Sedimentary Petrology provides readers with a concise account of sedimentary rock composition, mineralogy, texture, structure, diagenesis, and depositional environments. The new edition of this classic text incorporates the many technological and analytical advances of the last decade, revealing exciting details of processes such as microbial precipitation, how microporosity is created within mudrocks, and the chemical composition of foraminifera deposits, which can be a key indicator for changing seawater temperature.

This fourth edition offers a comprehensive update and expansion of the previous editions with a new set of illustrations, new references, and further reading. The new co-author Stuart Jones has brought his considerable expertise in clastic sedimentology to the rewritten chapters on sandstones and mudrocks. The addition of color images throughout the text will aid students immensely in their studies and petrographic fieldwork.

Sample topics covered in Sedimentary Petrology include:
* Advances in modeling and programming to simulate depositional-diagenetic conditions and controls which support field-lab descriptions and interpretations
* Ocean acidification and the demise of coral reefs, and the role of the oceans in carbon capture and storage
* Sedimentary ironstones and iron-formations, sedimentary phosphate deposits, coal, oil shale and petroleum, and cherts and siliceous sediments
* Limestones, evaporites, volcaniclastic sediments, sandstones, conglomerates, breccias, and the effects of microplastics on marine organisms

Aimed at undergraduates in geology and earth science, Sedimentary Petrology is an excellent teaching and learning resource for introductory courses in sedimentary rocks.

Preface to Fourth Edition xiv

Preface to the Third Edition xv

Biographies xvi

1 Introduction: Basic Concepts and Approach 1

1.1 Introduction

1

1.2 Basic

Concepts 1

1.2.1 Classification of Sedimentary Rocks 1

1.2.2 Sedimentary Environments and Facies 2

1.2.2.1 Facies 2

1.2.2.2 Facies Models 2

1.2.3 Controls on Deposition: Tectonics, Climate and Sea Level 3

1.2.3.1 Climate 4

1.2.3.2 Sea Level 4

1.2.4 Stratigraphic Practice 5

1.2.5 Sequence Stratigraphy 7

1.2.5.1 Introduction 7

1.2.5.2 Accommodation and Sedimentation Rates 7

1.2.5.3 Scale and Order 8

1.2.5.4 Stratigraphic Sequences, Key Surfaces, Systems Tracts 8

1.2.5.5 Metre-Scale

Cycles, High-Frequency

Sequences, Parasequences 11

1.2.6 Diagenesis 13

1.3 Methodology

13

1.3.1 In the Field 13

1.3.2 In the Laboratory 15

1.3.3 The Sedimentological Literature 17

Further

Reading 18

2 Siliciclastic Sediments I: Sandstones, Conglomerates and Breccias 19

2.1 Introduction

19

2.2 Sediment

Texture 19

2.2.1 Grain Size and Grain-size

Parameters 21

2.2.1.1 Interpretation and Use of Grain-size

Analyses 26

2.2.2 Grain Morphology 27

2.2.3 Grain-surface

Texture 28

2.2.4 Grain Fabric 29

2.2.5 Textural Maturity 30

2.3 Sedimentary

Structures 31

2.3.1 Erosional Sedimentary Structures 31

2.3.2 Depositional Sedimentary Structures 34

2.3.2.1 Sediment Transport and Aqueous Flows 34

Contents

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viii Contents

2.3.2.2 Bedding and Lamination 39

2.3.2.3 Current Ripples, Dunes and Cross-Stratification 40

2.3.2.4 Flaser and Lenticular Bedding 44

2.3.2.5 Antidunes and Antidune Bedding 45

2.3.2.6 Wave-formed

Ripples and Cross-Lamination

45

2.3.2.7 Hummocky Cross-Stratification (HCS) 46

2.3.2.8 Wind Ripples, Dunes, Draas and Aeolian Cross-bedding

47

2.3.2.9 Graded Bedding 50

2.3.2.10 Mudcracks: Desiccation and Syneresis 51

2.3.3 Post-depositional

Sedimentary Structures 52

2.3.4 Biogenic Sedimentary Structures 56

2.4 Palaeocurrent

Analysis 60

2.4.1 Palaeocurrent Indicators 61

2.5 Detrital

Components of Siliciclastic Sediments 63

2.5.1 Rock Fragments 64

2.5.2 Quartz 65

2.5.3 Feldspars 67

2.5.4 Micas 69

2.5.5 Clay Minerals 69

2.5.6 Heavy Minerals 70

2.5.7 Other Detrital Components 71

2.5.8 Compositional Maturity 71

2.6 Classification

of Siliciclastic Sediments 72

2.6.1 Classification of Sandstones 72

2.6.2 Conglomerates and Breccias 75

2.6.2.1 Composition and Textures of Conglomerates 75

2.7 Petrography

and Origin of Principal Sandstone Types 77

2.7.1 Quartz Arenites 77

2.7.2 Arkoses 79

2.7.3 Litharenites 79

2.7.4 Greywackes 79

2.8 Sandstone

Composition, Provenance and Tectonic Setting 82

2.9 Sandstone

Diagenesis 84

2.9.1 Compaction and Pressure Dissolution 86

2.9.2 Silica Cementation 88

2.9.3 Carbonate Cementation 91

2.9.4 Feldspar Authigenesis 93

2.9.5 Clay-mineral

Authigenesis 93

2.9.6 Hematite Cementation and Pigmentation: Red Beds 97

2.9.7 Diagenetic Environments and Sequences 98

2.9.8 Diagenesis and Sequence Stratigraphy 102

2.9.9 CO2 Sequestration into Sandstone Reservoirs 104

2.10 Porosity

and Permeability 104

2.11 Sediment

Routing Systems 108

2.12 Depositional

Environments of Sandstones and Coarser Clastics 110

2.12.1 Fluvial Systems and Facies 110

2.12.1.1 Alluvial Fan Facies 111

2.12.1.2 Meandering-stream

Facies 117

2.12.1.3 Anastomosing-stream

Facies 119

2.12.2 Desert Environments and Aeolian Sand Facies 121

2.12.3 Lacustrine Environments and Sandy Facies 122

2.12.4 Deltaic Environments and Facies 124

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Contents ix

2.12.4.1 River-dominated

Deltas 127

2.12.4.2 Wave-dominated

Deltas 128

2.12.4.3 Tide-dominated

Deltas 129

2.12.4.4 Ancient Deltas 130

2.12.4.5 Fan Deltas 130

2.12.5 Marine Shoreline Environments and Facies 131

2.12.5.1 Beach-barrier

Island and Strandplain Systems 131

2.12.5.2 Tidal Flats 135

2.12.5.3 Estuaries and Incised Valleys 135

2.12.6 Shallow-marine

Shelves, Epeiric Seas and Their Facies 136

2.12.6.1 Tidal Bedforms and Sand Sheets 136

2.12.6.2 Tidal Sand Banks 138

2.12.6.3 Non-tidal

Offshore Sand Bodies 138

2.12.7 Continental Margins and Deep-water

Basins 139

2.12.8 Glacial Environments 146

2.13 Facies

Sequences, Controls and Sequence Stratigraphy 148

2.13.1 Facies Sequences and Controls 148

2.13.2 Sequence Stratigraphy 149

References 151

Further Reading 164

3 Siliciclastic Sediments II: Mudrocks 166

3.1 Introduction

166

3.2 Textures

and Structures of Mudrocks 166

3.2.1 Nodules and Concretions 169

3.3 The

Colour of Mudrocks 173

3.4 Mineral

Constituents of Mudrocks 173

3.4.1 Clay Minerals 174

3.4.2 Quartz 177

3.4.3 Organic Matter 177

3.4.4 Other Constituents 177

3.5 The

Formation and Distribution of Clay Minerals in Modern Sediments 179

3.6 Diagenesis

of Clay Minerals and Mudrocks 181

3.6.1 Early (Shallow) Diagenesis 181

3.6.2 Burial (Deeper) Diagenesis 184

3.7 Mudrocks

and Their Depositional Environments 186

3.7.1 Residual Mudrocks and Soils 187

3.7.2 Detrital Mudrocks 189

3.7.2.1 Non-marine

Mudrocks 189

3.7.2.2 Marine Mudrocks 190

3.7.2.3 Organic-rich

Mudrocks and Black Shales 192

3.7.2.4 Shale Gas 193

3.7.2.5 Mud Diapirism and Mud Volcanoes 194

3.7.2.6 Loess and Loessite 195

3.7.3 Mudrocks of Volcaniclastic Origin 197

3.7.4 Temporal (and Spatial) Variations in Mudrock Sequences 197

References 198

Further Reading 203

4 Carbonate Sediments: Limestones and Dolomites 204

4.1 Introduction

204

4.2 Techniques

for the Study of Carbonate Sediments 205

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x Contents

4.2.1 In the Field 205

4.2.2 The Petrographic Study of Carbonates 205

4.2.3 Isotopes and Trace Elements 207

4.3 Mineralogy

of Carbonate Sediments 209

4.4 Carbonate

Production and Factories 210

4.4.1 Carbonate Factories 211

4.4.2 Controls on Carbonate Production and Deposition 212

4.5 Components

of Carbonate Rocks 214

4.5.1 Non-skeletal

Grains 214

4.5.1.1 Ooids and Pisoids 214

4.5.1.2 Ancient Marine Ooids 217

4.5.1.3 Origin of Ooids and Seawater Chemistry Through Time 217

4.5.1.4 Peloids 219

4.5.1.5 Aggregates and Intraclasts 220

4.5.2 Skeletal Components (excluding Algae and Microbes) 220

4.5.2.1 Mollusca 221

4.5.2.2 Brachiopods 224

4.5.2.3 Cnidaria (especially Corals) 225

4.5.2.4 Echinodermata 226

4.5.2.5 Bryozoa 226

4.5.2.6 Foraminifera 227

4.5.2.7 Other Carbonate-forming

Organisms 228

4.5.3 The Contribution of Microbes to Carbonates 230

4.5.3.1 Rhodophyta (Red Algae) 230

4.5.3.2 Chlorophyta (Green Algae) 231

4.5.3.3 Chrysophyta (Yellow-green

Algae, Coccoliths) 232

4.5.3.4 Calcified Cyanobacteria and Algae (Calcimicrobes) 232

4.5.3.5 Micrite Envelopes and Microbial Micritisation 233

4.5.3.6 Microbialites: Stromatolites, Thrombolites and Oncoids 233

4.5.4 Lime Mud and Micrite 238

4.6 Classification

of Limestones 239

4.6.1 Classification Schemes 239

4.6.2 Carbonate Microfacies and Standard Microfacies Types (SMF) 241

4.7 Limestone

Grain Size and Texture 243

4.8 Sedimentary

Structures of Limestones 244

4.8.1 Bedding Planes, Hardgrounds, Tepees and Palaeokarstic Surfaces 244

4.8.2 Current and Wave Structures 247

4.8.3 Cavity Structures 248

4.9 Carbonate

Diagenesis 251

4.9.1 Marine Diagenesis 252

4.9.1.1 Marine Diagenesis in Recent Carbonate Sediments 252

4.9.1.2 Marine Diagenesis in Ancient Limestones 256

4.9.1.3 Discussion of Marine Cements 259

4.9.2 Meteoric Diagenesis 260

4.9.2.1 Ancient Meteoric Calcite Cements 262

4.9.3 Calcite Spar: A Meteoric and Burial Cement 263

4.9.3.1 Origin of Calcite Spar 264

4.9.4 Neomorphism (Recrystallisation) 264

4.9.4.1 Microspar-pseudospar; Aggrading Neomorphism 265

4.9.4.2 Calcitisation of Aragonite Grains and Cements 266

4.9.4.3 Degrading Neomorphism 266

4.9.5 Modelling Limestone Diagenesis 266

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Contents xi

4.9.6 Compaction 266

4.9.6.1 Differential Compaction 268

4.10 Dolomitisation

and Dedolomitisation 269

4.10.1 Dolomites: Nature and Occurrence 269

4.10.2 Origin of Dolomites and Dolomitisation Models 274

4.10.2.1 Modern Dolomites 274

4.10.2.2 Ancient Dolomites 275

4.10.2.3 Seawater Dolomitisation 276

4.10.2.4 Burial Dolomitisation and Hydrothermal Dolomite (HTD) 277

4.10.3 Modelling Dolomitisation 278

4.10.4 Dedolomitisation (Calcitisation of Dolomite) 279

4.11 Silicification

of Limestones 281

4.12 Porosity

in Carbonate Sediments 281

4.12.1 Carbonate Paragenesis and Burial History Plots 283

4.13 Carbonate

Depositional Environments and Facies 283

4.13.1 Non-marine

Carbonate Sediments 283

4.13.1.1 Lacustrine Limestones 284

4.13.1.2 Pedogenic Carbonates: Calcrete and Dolocrete 286

4.13.1.3 Spring Carbonates: Tufa and Travertine 289

4.13.2 Marine Carbonates and Carbonate Platforms 291

4.13.3 Shelf and Ramp Systems: Facies Belts and Standard Microfacies 293

4.13.4 Intertidal-supratidal Carbonates 293

4.13.5 Lagoonal Limestones 294

4.13.6 Intertidal-subtidal Carbonate Sand Bodies and Storm Deposits 295

4.13.7 Offshore Shelf-ramp

Carbonates: Storm Deposits, Internalites, Limestone-Mud/

Marl Alternations

(Ribbon Rocks) 297

4.13.7.1 Storm Beds and Banks 297

4.13.8 Reefs and Carbonate Buildups 298

4.13.8.1 Reefs as Hydrocarbon Reservoirs 301

4.13.9 Pelagic Limestones 301

4.13.10 Resedimented Deeper-water

Limestones 303

4.14 Carbonate

Sequence Stratigraphy and Forward Modelling 306

4.14.1 Sequence Stratigraphy of Carbonate Shelves 306

4.14.2 Sequence Stratigraphy of Carbonate Ramps 308

4.14.3 Sequence Stratigraphy of Mixed Siliciclastic-Carbonate Successions 309

4.14.4 Metre-scale

Cycles (Parasequences) and their Stacking Patterns 309

4.14.5 Diagenesis and Sequence Stratigraphy 311

4.14.6 Modelling Carbonate Stratigraphy, Sequences and Cycles 311

References 312

Further Reading 325

Websites 325

5 Evaporites 326

5.1 Introduction

326

5.1.1 Techniques for Studying Evaporites 326

5.1.2 Early Geochemical Work 326

5.2 Evaporite

Deposits and Depositional Environments 328

5.3 Gypsum

and Anhydrite 331

5.3.1 Sabkha Sulphate and Nodular Anhydrite 332

5.3.2 Bottom-growth

Gypsum 332

5.3.3 Laminated Gypsum/Anhydrite 333

5.3.4 Resedimented Gypsum-Anhydrite

336

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xii Contents

5.3.5 Secondary and Fibrous Gypsum 336

5.3.6 Burial Anhydrite 337

5.4 Halite

337

5.5 Other

Evaporite Minerals and Their Occurrence 341

5.5.1 Potassium and Magnesium Salts 341

5.5.2 Lacustrine Evaporites 342

5.6 Evaporite

Dissolution and Replacement 343

5.7 Evaporite

Sequences and Discussion 345

5.8 Evaporites

Through Time 349

5.9 Evaporites,

Diapirism, Deformation and Decollement 350

References 350

Further Reading 353

6 Sedimentary Ironstones and Iron Formations 354

6.1 Introduction

354

6.1.1 Techniques for the Study of Ironstones and Iron Formations 354

6.2 Source

and Transportation of Iron 355

6.3 Formation

of the Principal Iron Minerals 356

6.4 Occurrence

and Petrography of Iron Minerals 359

6.4.1 Iron Oxides 359

6.4.2 Iron Carbonates 360

6.4.3 Iron Sulphides 361

6.4.4 Iron Silicates 361

6.5 Precambrian

Iron Formations and Phanerozoic Ironstones 364

6.5.1 Precambrian Iron Formations 365

6.5.2 Phanerozoic Ironstones 368

6.6 Bog

Iron Ores 370

6.7 Ferromanganese

Nodules and Crusts, and Metalliferous Sediments 370

References 372

Further Reading 374

7 Sedimentary Phosphate Deposits 375

7.1 Introduction

375

7.1.1 Techniques for Studying Phosphorites 375

7.2 Mineralogy

375

7.3 Nodular

and Bedded Phosphorites 376

7.3.1 Recent-Subrecent Occurrences 376

7.3.2 Origin of Marine Phosphorites 376

7.3.3 Ancient Phosphorite Sequences 379

7.4 Bioclastic

and Pebble-Bed

Phosphorites 381

7.5 Guano

and Ocean-Island

Phosphorites 382

References 382

Further Reading 383

8 Coal and Petroleum 384

8.1 Introduction

384

8.2 Modern

Organic Deposits 384

8.3 Ancient

Organic Deposits 385

8.4 Coals

and the Coal Series 386

8.4.1 Humic Coals 388

8.4.2 Sapropelic Coals 388

8.5 Coal

Petrology 388

8.5.1 Organic Constituents 388

8.5.2 Inorganic Constituents 390

8.5.3 Gas in Coal 391

8.5.4 Coal Balls 391

8.6 Coal

Formation and Rank 391

8.6.1 Chemical Considerations 391

8.6.2 Rank, Depth and Temperature 392

8.7 Occurrence

of Coal 392

8.8 Formation

of Kerogen 394

8.9 Petroleum

395

8.9.1 Composition and Occurrence 395

8.9.2 Formation of Petroleum 397

References

399

Further

Reading 400

9 Cherts and Siliceous Sediments 401

9.1 Introduction

401

9.1.1 Techniques for Studying Chert 401

9.2 Chert

Petrology 402

9.3 Bedded

Chert 404

9.3.1 Siliceous Ooze and Bedded Chert 404

9.3.1.1 Modern and Phanerozoic 404

9.3.1.2 Precambrian Cherts 406

9.3.2 The Origin of Chert 407

9.4 Nodular

Chert 410

9.5 Non-

Marine

Siliceous Sediment and Chert 413

References 415

Further Reading 417

Index 418
Maurice E. Tucker graduated from Durham University and obtained his PhD from the University of Reading. He spent nearly 30 years at Durham University and is now a Visiting Professor at the University of Bristol.

Stuart J. Jones graduated in Geology from Aberystwyth University and received his PhD from the University of Reading. He is currently an Associate Professor of Sedimentology at Durham University.

M. E. Tucker, Durham University; University of Reading; University of Bristol; S. J. Jones, Aberystwyth University; University of Reading; Durham University