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Building an Effective Security Program for Distributed Energy Resources and Systems

Hentea, Mariana

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1. Auflage Juli 2021
608 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-118-94904-7
John Wiley & Sons

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Building an Effective Security Program for Distributed Energy Resources and Systems

Build a critical and effective security program for DERs

Building an Effective Security Program for Distributed Energy Resources and Systems requires a unified approach to establishing a critical security program for DER systems and Smart Grid applications. The methodology provided integrates systems security engineering principles, techniques, standards, and best practices.

This publication introduces engineers on the design, implementation, and maintenance of a security program for distributed energy resources (DERs), smart grid, and industrial control systems. It provides security professionals with understanding the specific requirements of industrial control systems and real-time constrained applications for power systems. This book:
* Describes the cybersecurity needs for DERs and power grid as critical infrastructure
* Introduces the information security principles to assess and manage the security and privacy risks of the emerging Smart Grid technologies
* Outlines the functions of the security program as well as the scope and differences between traditional IT system security requirements and those required for industrial control systems such as SCADA systems
* Offers a full array of resources-- cybersecurity concepts, frameworks, and emerging trends

Security Professionals and Engineers can use Building an Effective Security Program for Distributed Energy Resources and Systems as a reliable resource that is dedicated to the essential topic of security for distributed energy resources and power grids. They will find standards, guidelines, and recommendations from standards organizations, such as ISO, IEC, NIST, IEEE, ENISA, ISA, ISACA, and ISF, conveniently included for reference within chapters.

Part I Understanding Security and Privacy Problem

1 Security

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Smart Grid

1.2.1 Traditional Power Grid Architecture

1.2.2 Smart Grid Definitions

1.2.3 Drivers for Change

1.2.4 Smart Grid Communication Infrastructure

1.3 Distributed Energy Resources

1.3.1 DER Characteristics

1.3.2 DER Uses

1.3.3 DER Systems

1.3.4 Microgrid

1.3.5 Virtual Power Plant

1.4 Scope of Security and Privacy

1.4.1 Security for the Smart Grid

1.4.2 Privacy

1.4.3 The Need for Security and Privacy

1.5 Computing and Information Systems for Business and Industrial Applications

1.5.1 Information Systems Classification

1.5.2 Information Systems in Power Grids

1.5.3 DER Information Systems

1.6 Integrated Systems in a Smart Grid

1.6.1 Trends

1.6.2 Characteristics

1.7 Critical Smart Grid Systems

1.7.1 Industrial Control Systems

1.7.2 SCADA Systems

1.7.3 Energy Management Systems

1.7.4 Advanced Meter Systems

1.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

1.8.1 Overview of Various Standards

1.8.2 Key Standard Attributes and Conformance

1.8.3 Smart Grid Standards

1.8.3.1 Key Players in Smart Grid Standards Development

1.8.3.2 How to Use Standards

1.8.4 Cybersecurity Standards

2 Advancing Security

2.1 Emerging Technologies

2.1.1 Internet of Things

2.1.1.1 Characteristics of Objects

2.1.1.2 Technologies

2.1.1.3 IoT Applications

2.1.1.4 IoT Security and Privacy

2.1.1.5 Challenges

2.1.2 Internet of Everything (IoE)

2.1.3 Cyber-Physical Systems

2.1.4 Cyber-Physical Systems Applications

2.2 Cybersecurity

2.2.1 Cybersecurity Definitions

2.2.2 Understanding Cybersecurity Terms

2.2.3 Cybersecurity Evolution

2.3 Advancing Cybersecurity

2.3.1 Contributing Factors to Cybersecurity Success

2.3.2 Advancing Cybersecurity and Privacy Design

2.4 Smart Grid Cybersecurity: A Perspective on Comprehensive Characterization

2.4.1 Forces Shaping Cybersecurity

2.4.2 Smart Grid Trends

2.5 Security as a Personal, Organizational, National, and Global Priority

2.5.1 Security as Personal Priority

2.5.2 Protection of Private Information

2.5.3 Protecting Cyberspace as a National Asset

2.6 Cybersecurity for Electrical Sector as a National Priority

2.6.1 Need for Cybersecurity Solutions

2.6.2 The US Plans

2.7 The Need for Security and Privacy Programs

2.7.1 Security Program

2.7.2 Privacy Program

2.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

2.8.1 Electricity Sector Guidance

2.8.2 International Collaboration

References-Part1

Part II Applying Security Principles to Smart Grid

3 Principles of Cybersecurity

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Information Security

3.2.1 Terminology

3.2.2 Information Security Components

3.2.3 Security Principles

3.3 Security Related Concepts

3.3.1 Basic Security Concepts

3.3.2 The Basis for Security

3.4 Characteristics of Information

3.4.1 Data Transformation

3.4.2 Data Characteristics

3.4.3 Data Quality

3.4.4 Information Quality

3.4.5 System Quality

3.4.6 Data Quality Characteristics Assigned to Systems

3.5 Information Systems Characteristics

3.5.1 Software Quality

3.5.2 System Quality Attributes

3.6 Critical Information Systems

3.6.1 Critical Systems Characteristics

3.6.2 Information Life Cycle

3.6.3 Information Assurance

3.6.4 Critical Security Characteristics of Information

3.7 Information Security Models

3.7.1 Evolving Models

3.7.2 RMIAS Model

3.7.3 Information Security Goals

3.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

3.8.1 SGIP Catalog of Standards

3.8.2 Cybersecurity Standards for Smart Grid

4 Applying Security Principles to Smart Grid

4.1 Smart Grid Security Goals

4.2 DERs Information Security Characteristics

4.2.1 Information Classification

4.2.2 Information Classification Levels

4.2.3 Information Evaluation Criteria

4.3 Infrastructure

4.3.1 Information Infrastructure

4.3.2 Information Assurance Infrastructure

4.3.3 Information Management Infrastructure

4.3.4 Outsourced Services

4.3.5 Information Security Management Infrastructure

4.3.6 Cloud Infrastructure

4.4 Smart Grid Infrastructure

4.4.1 Hierarchical Structures

4.4.2 Smart Grid Needs

4.4.3 Cyber Infrastructure

4.4.4 Smart Grid Technologies

4.5 Building an Information Infrastructure for Smart Grid

4.5.1 Various Perspectives

4.5.2 Challenges and Relevant Approaches

4.5.3 Common Employed Infrastructures

4.6 IT Systems versus Industrial Control Systems Infrastructure

4.6.1 Industrial Control Systems General Concepts

4.6.2 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA)

4.6.3 Differences and Similarities

4.7 Convergence Trends

4.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

5 Planning Security Protection

5.1 Threats and Vulnerabilities

5.1.1 Threats Characterization

5.1.2 Vulnerabilities Characteristics

5.2 Attacks

5.2.1 Attacks Categories

5.2.2 Reasons for Attack

5.3 Energy Sector: Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Attacks Overview

5.3.1 Threats

5.3.2 Vulnerabilities

5.3.3 Energy Sector Attacks

5.3.4 Smart Grid Cybersecurity Challenges

5.4 Security Controls

5.4.1 Security Controls Categories

5.4.2 Common Security Controls

5.4.3 Applying Security Controls to Smart Grid

5.5 Security Training and Skills

5.5.1 Education, Training, and Awareness

5.5.2 Security Awareness Program

5.6 Planning for Security and Privacy

5.6.1 Plan Structure

5.6.2 Security Team

5.7 Legal and Ethical Issues

5.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

References-Part2

Part III Security of Critical Infrastructure

6 Critical Infrastructure

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 Critical Infrastructure

6.1.2 Critical Information Infrastructure

6.2 Associated Industries with Critical Infrastructure

6.2.1 US Critical Sectors

6.2.2 Other Countries

6.3 Critical Infrastructure Components

6.4 Energy Sector

6.4.1 Electrical Subsector

6.4.2 Smart Grid Infrastructure

6.5 Critical Infrastructures Interdependencies

6.5.1 Interdependency Dimensions

6.5.2 Dependencies

6.6 Electrical Power System

6.6.1 Electrical Power System Components

6.6.2 Electrical Power System Evolution and Challenges

6.6.3 Needs

6.7 Recent Threats and Vulnerabilities

6.7.1 Reported Cyber Attacks

6.7.2 ICS/SCADA Incidents and Challenges

6.7.2.1 Stuxnet Exploitation

6.7.2.2 Exposure to Post Stuxnet Malware in Rise

6.7.2.3 Inappropriate Design and Lack of Management

6.7.2.4 Safety

6.7.3 Equipment Failure

6.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

7 Critical Infrastructure Protection

7.1 Critical Infrastructure Attacks and Challenges

7.1.1 Power Grid

7.1.2 Attacks on Information Technology and Telecommunications

7.1.3 Attacks in Manufacturing

7.1.4 Defense

7.2 The Internet as a Critical Infrastructure

7.3 Critical Infrastructure Protection

7.3.1 Policies, Laws, and Regulations

7.3.2 Protection Issues

7.4 Information Security Frameworks

7.4.1 NIST Cybersecurity Framework

7.4.2 NIST Updated Cybersecurity Framework

7.4.3 Generic Framework

7.5 NIST Privacy Framework

7.6 Addressing Security of Control Systems

7.6.1 Challenges

7.6.2 Terrorism Challenges

7.7 Emerging Technologies and Impacts

7.7.1 Control Systems Open to Internet

7.7.2 Wireless and Mobile

7.7.3 Internet of Things and Internet of Everything

7.7.4 WEB Technologies

7.7.5 Embedded Systems

7.7.6 Cloud Computing

7.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

7.8.1 Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

7.8.2 Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

7.8.3 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

7.8.4 North American Energy Reliability Corporation (NERC)

7.8.5 Federal Regulatory Energy Commission

7.8.6 DOE Critical Infrastructure Guidance

7.8.7 US-CERT

References-Part3

Part IV The Characteristics of Smart Grid and DER Systems

8 Smart Power Grid

8.1 Electric Power System

8.1.1 Power System Services

8.1.2 Power System Operations

8.1.3 Energy Management System Overview

8.1.4 Electrical Utilities Evolution

8.2 Smart Grid - What it Is?

8.2.1 Definitions

8.2.2 Vision of the Future Smart Grid

8.2.3 Tomorrow's Utility

8.2.4 EMS Upgrades

8.2.5 Electricity Trade

8.2.6 Trading Capabilities

8.3 Smart Grid Characteristics

8.3.1 Relevant Characteristics

8.3.2 Electrical Infrastructure Evolution

8.4 Smart Grid Conceptual Models

8.4.1 NIST Conceptual Model

8.4.2 IEEE Model

8.4.3 European Conceptual Model

8.5 Power and Smart Devices

8.5.1 Smart Meters

8.5.2 Intelligent Electronic Devices

8.5.3 Phasor Measurement Units

8.5.4 Intelligent Universal Transformers

8.6 Examples of Key Technologies and Solutions

8.6.1 Communications Networks

8.6.2 Integrated Communications

8.6.3 Sensor Networks

8.6.4 Infrastructure for Transmission and Substations

8.6.5 Wireless Technologies

8.6.6 Advanced Metering Infrastructure

8.7 Networking Challenges

8.7.1 Architecture

8.7.2 Protocols

8.7.2 Constraints

8.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

8.8.1 Smart Grid Interoperability

8.8.2 Representative Standards

9 Power Systems Characteristics

9.1 Analysis of Power Systems

9.1.1 Analysis of Basic Characteristics

9.1.2 Stability

9.1.3 Partial Stability

9.2 Analysis of Impacts

9.2.1 DERs Impacts

9.2.2 Interconnectivity

9.3 Reliability

9.3.1 Reliable System Characteristics

9.3.2 Addressing Reliability

9.3.3 Evaluating Reliability

9.3.4 ICT Reliability Issues

9.3.5 DERs Impacts

9.4 Resiliency

9.4.1 Increasing Resiliency

9.4.2 DERs Opportunities

9.5 Addressing Various Issues

9.5.1 Addressing Cybersecurity

9.5.2 Cyber-Physical System

9.5.3 Cyber-Physical Resilience

9.5.4 Related Characteristics, Relationships, Differences and Similarities

9.6 Power Systems Interoperability

9.6.1 Interoperability Dimensions

9.6.2 Smart Grid Interoperability

9.6.3 Interoperability Framework

9.6.6 Addressing Cross-Cutting Issues

9.7 Smart Grid Interoperability Challenges

9.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

9.8.1 ISO/IEC Standards

9.8.2 IEEE Standards

10 Distributed Energy Systems

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1 Distributed Energy

10.2 Distributed Energy Resources

10.2.1 Energy Storage Technologies

10.2.2 Electric Vehicles

10.2.3 Distributed Energy Resource Systems

10.2.4 Electrical Energy Storage Systems

10.2.5 Virtual Power Plant

10.3 DER Applications and Security

10.3.1 Energy Storage Applications

10.3.2 Microgrid

10.4 Smart Grid Security Goals

10.4.1 Cybersecurity

10.4.2 Reliability and Security

10.4.3 DER Security Challenges

10.5 Security Governance in Energy Industry

10.5.1 Security Governance Overview

10.5.2 Information Governance

10.5.3 EAC Recommendations

10.5.4 Establishing Information Security Governance

10.5.5 Governance for Building Security In

10.6 What Kind of Threats and Vulnerabilities?

10.6.1 Threats

10.6.2 Reported Cyber Incidents

10.6.3 Vulnerabilities

10.6.4 ICS Reported Vulnerabilities

10.6.5 Addressing Privacy Issues

10.7 Examples of Smart Grid Applications

10.7.1 Smart Grid Expectations

10.7.2 Demand Response Management Systems (DRMS)

10.7.3 Distribution Automation

10.7.4 Advanced Distribution Management System

10.7.5 Smart Home

10.7.6 Smart Microgrid

10.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

10.8.1 NIST Roadmap, Standards, and Guidelines

10.8.2 NERC CIP Standards

10.8.3 Security Standards Governance

References-Part4

Part V Security Program Management

11 Security Management

11.1 Security Management Overview

11.1.1 Information Security

11.1.2 Security Management Components

11.1.3 Management Tasks

11.2 Security Program

11.2.1 Security Program Functions

11.2.2 Building a Security Program: Which Approach?

11.2.3 Security Management Process

11.3 Asset Management

11.3.1 Asset Management for Power System

11.3.2 Asset Management Perspectives

11.3.3 Benefits of Asset Management

11.3.3.1 DER Assets Classification

11.3.3.2 DER Asset Data

11.3.3.3 Asset Management Analytics

11.3.3.4 Applications

11.3.3.5 Asset Management Metrics

11.3.3.6 Asset Management Services

11.4 Physical Security and Safety

11.4.1 Physical Security Measures

11.4.2 Physical Security Evolution

11.4.3 Human Resources and Public Safety

11.5 Human and Technology Relationship

11.5.1 Use Impacts

11.5.2 DER Systems Challenges

11.5.3 Security vs. Safety

11.6 Information Security Management

11.6.1 Information Security Management Infrastructure

11.6.2 Enterprise Security Model

11.6.3 Cycle of the Continuous Information Security Process

11.6.4 Information Security Process for Smart Grid

11.6.5 Systems Engineering and Processes

11.7 Models and Frameworks for Information Security Management

11.7.1 ISMS Models

11.7.2 Information Security Management Maturity Model (ISM3) Model

11.7.3 BMIS Model

11.7.4 Systems Security Engineering - Capability Maturity Model (SSE-CMM)

11.7.5 Standard of Good Practice (SoGP)

11.7.6 Examples of Other Frameworks

11.7.7 Combining Models, Frameworks, Standards, and Best Practices

11.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

12 Security Management for Smart Grid Systems

12.1 Strategic, Tactical, and Operational Security Management

12.1.1 Unified View of Smart Grid Systems

12.1.2 Organizational Security Model

12.2 Security as Business Issue

12.2.1 Strategic Management

12.2.2 Tactical Management

12.2.3 Operational Management

12.3 Systemic Security Management

12.3.1 Comparison and Discussion of Models

12.3.2 Efficient and Effective Management Solutions

12.3.3 Means for Improvement

12.4 Security Model for Electrical Sector

12.4.1 Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (ES-C2M2)

12.4.2 Which Guidance and Recommendations Apply to Electrical Sector?

12.4.3 Implementing ISMS

12.4.4 NIST Framework

12.4.5 Blueprints

12.4.6 Control Systems

12.5 Achieving Security Governance

12.5.1 Security Strategy Principles

12.5.2 Governance Definitions and Developments

12.5.3 Information Security Governance

12.5.4 Implementation Challenges

12.5.5 Responsibilities and Roles

12.5.6 Governance Model

12.6 Ensuring Information Assurance

12.6.1 NIST SP800-55

12.6.2 ISO/IEC 27004

12.7 Certification and Accreditation

12.7.1 Common Criteria

12.7.2 ISO/IEC 27001

12.7.3 ISMS Accreditation

12.8 Standards, Guidelines, and Recommendations

12.8.1 ISO/IEC Standards

12.8.2 ISA Standards

12.8.3 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

12.8.4 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

12.8.5 ISF Standards

12.8.6 European Union Agency for Network and Information Security Guidelines

12.8.7 Information Assurance for Small Medium Enterprise (IASME)

References-Part5

Appendix A Cybersecurity

Appendix B Power

Appendix C Critical Infrastructures and Energy Infrastructure

Appendix D Smart Grid - Policy, Concepts, and Technologies

Appendix J Acronyms

Index
Mariana Hentea earned her PhD and MS in Computer Science , MS in Computer Engineering, and BS in Electrical Engineering. Her research is focused on Smart Grid and DER systems, real-time systems security and performance, network security design and architecture, and use of Artificial Intelligence techniques for information security management, security risk management, network management, and process control. As a member of IEEE Standards Association, she promotes Security and Privacy awareness to Engineers, managers, regulators, and consumers. She is a member of IEEE Smart Grid, IEEE Power & Energy Society, IEEE Computer Society, ISC2 and ISSA organizations. Dr. Hentea holds a CISSP certification from ISC2.