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Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

Nichols, Gary

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3. Auflage Juni 2023
544 Seiten, Softcover
Lehrbuch

ISBN: 978-1-119-41728-6
John Wiley & Sons

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Umfassendes Lehrwerk über sämtliche Aspekte der Sedimentologie und der grundlegenden Stratigraphie

Das Buch Sedimentology and Stratigraphy führt in die Thematik ein und gibt den Leserinnen und Lesern Werkzeuge zur Interpretation von Sedimenten und Sedimentgesteinen an die Hand. Dabei werden die Prozesse der Bildung, des Transports und der Ablagerung von Sedimenten behandelt und auf die Entwicklung konzeptioneller Modelle für sämtliche Sedimentumgebungen ? von Wüsten über die Tiefsee und Riffe bis zu Flüssen ? angewandt. Für einen umfassenden Überblick über sämtliche Aspekte der Sedimentologie und Stratigraphie werden außerdem verschiedene Ansätze zur Nutzung stratigraphischer Prinzipien bei der Datierung und Korrelierung von Schichten betrachtet.

Die 3. Auflage wurde gründlich überarbeitet und aktualisiert. Dabei wurde die Kapitelgliederung so geändert, dass nun separate Abschnitte zur Geomorphologie und zur Stratigraphie für jede Sedimentumgebung vorhanden sind. Außerdem enthält die neue Ausgabe zusätzliche farbige Abbildungen.

Die wesentlichen Konzepte, die in Sedimentology and Stratigraphy eingeführt werden, umfassen u.a.:
* Die Bedeutung von Veränderungen in der Pflanzen- und Tierwelt im Zeitverlauf und die Auswirkungen auf die Charakteristik des Sedimentumfelds im Meer und an Land
* Die Unterscheidung zwischen modernen Umgebungen und dem, was in den Sedimentabfolgen erhalten geblieben ist, mit einer Betrachtung glazialerosionaler und von Ablagerungen geprägter Landformen
* Heutige Wüstenumgebungen und äolische Ablagerungen in der stratigraphischen Abfolge
* Fluviale Prozesse mit Mustern von Neben- und Verteilerkanälen unterschiedlicher Größenordnung und in verschiedenen Umgebungen

Das Werk Sedimentology and Stratigraphy wurde von einem kenntnisreichen Autor mit umfangreicher Erfahrung auf dem Fachgebiet verfasst. Es ist ein gut verständliches Lehrwerk für Studierende der Geologie und verwandter Fachgebiete, die sich Kenntnisse über die Bildung, Eigenschaften und Bedeutung von Sedimentgesteinen aneignen möchten.

Preface xi

Acknowledgements xiii

About the Companion Website xv

Part A Sedimentary Materials, Processes and Products 1

1 Introduction to Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 3

1.1 Overview 4

1.2 Sedimentology 5

1.3 Stratigraphy 6

1.4 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 7

Further Reading 8

2 Clastic Sediments: Gravel, Sand and Mud 9

2.1 Classification of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks 10

2.2 Gravel and Conglomerate 12

2.3 Sand and Sandstone 15

2.4 Clay, Silt and Mudrock 26

2.5 Textures and Analysis of Clastic Sedimentary Rocks 29

2.6 Clastic Sediments: Summary 34

Further Reading 34

3 Biogenic, Chemical and Volcanogenic Sediments 35

3.1 Limestone 36

3.2 Evaporite Minerals 44

3.3 Cherts 46

3.4 Sedimentary Phosphates 47

3.5 Sedimentary Ironstone 47

3.6 Carbonaceous (Organic) Deposits 49

3.7 Volcaniclastic Sedimentary Rocks 51

Further Reading 52

4 Processes of Transport and Sedimentary Structures 53

4.1 Transport Media 54

4.2 The Behaviour of Fluids and Particles in Fluids 55

4.3 Flows, Sediment and Bedforms 60

4.4 Waves 70

4.5 Sediment Gravity Flows 73

4.6 Mudcracks 77

4.7 Erosional Sedimentary Structures 78

4.8 Terminology for Sedimentary Structures and Beds 79

4.9 Sedimentary Structures and Sedimentary Environments 81

Further Reading 82

5 Field Sedimentology, Facies and Environments 83

5.1 Field Sedimentology 84

5.2 Graphic Sedimentary Logs 85

5.3 Palaeocurrents 91

5.4 Sampling Sedimentary Rocks 94

5.5 Description of Core 96

5.6 Interpreting Past Depositional Environments 97

5.7 Reconstructing Palaeoenvironments 101

5.8 Summary: Facies and Environments 105

Further Reading 105

Part B Continental Environments 107

6 Continental Environments and Sources of Sediment 109

6.1 From Source of Sediment to Formation of Strata 110

6.2 Tectonic Uplift 110

6.3 Global Climate 111

6.4 Weathering Processes 112

6.5 Erosion and Transport 115

6.6 Denudation and Landscape Evolution 118

6.7 Continental Environments of Deposition 124

Further Reading 126

7 Glacial Environments 127

7.1 Distribution of Glacial Environments 128

7.2 Glacial Ice 129

7.3 Continental Glacial Environments 131

7.4 Continental Glacial Deposition 136

7.5 Marine Glacial Environments 138

7.6 Glacial Deposits in the Stratigraphic Record 140

7.7 Glacial Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 141

Further Reading 142

8 Aeolian Environments 143

8.1 Aeolian Transport 144

8.2 Characteristics of Wind- blown Particles 145

8.3 Desert Environments 146

8.4 Aeolian Bedforms 148

8.5 Stratigraphic Record of Aeolian Deposits 152

8.6 Aeolian Deposits Outside Deserts 155

8.7 Summary 157

Further Reading 158

9 Rivers and Alluvial Fans 159

9.1 Fluvial and Alluvial Systems 160

9.2 River Channels 162

9.3 Floodplain Deposition 170

9.4 Alluvial Fans 171

9.5 Fossils in Fluvial and Alluvial Environments 175

9.6 Soils and Palaeosols 176

9.7 Fluvial and Alluvial Stratigraphy 179

Further Reading 184

10 Lakes 185

10.1 Lakes and Lacustrine Environments 186

10.2 Freshwater Lakes 187

10.3 Freshwater Lake Clastic Deposits 190

10.4 Saline Lakes 193

10.5 Ephemeral Lakes 194

10.6 Lacustrine Carbonates 197

10.7 Lacustrine Stratigraphy 198

10.8 Recognition of Lacustrine Facies in the Stratigraphic Record 199

Further Reading 200

11 Volcanic Rocks and Sediments 201

11.1 Volcanic Rocks and Sediment 202

11.2 Transport and Deposition of Volcaniclastic Material 205

11.3 Eruption Styles 209

11.4 Facies Associations in Volcanic Successions 210

11.5 Volcanic Material in Other Environments 213

11.6 Volcanic Rocks in Earth History 214

Further Reading 215

Part C Marine Environments 217

12 The Marine Realm: Morphology and Processes 219

12.1 Oceans and Seas 220

12.2 Oceanic Currents 222

12.3 Wave and Storm Processes 222

12.4 Tides 223

12.5 Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentation in Oceans 228

12.6 Marine Fossils 230

12.7 Trace Fossils 231

Further Reading 235

13 Deltas 237

13.1 Modern Deltas 238

13.2 Variations in Delta Morphology 241

13.3 Syndepositional Deformation in Deltas 249

13.4 Deltaic Successions 249

13.5 Deltaic Cycles and Stratigraphy 254

13.6 Fossils in Deltaic Deposits 255

13.7 Recognition of Deltaic Deposits 255

Further Reading 256

14 Clastic Coasts and Estuaries 259

14.1 Coasts 260

14.2 Beaches 261

14.3 Wave- dominated Coastlines 265

14.4 Tidally Influenced Coastal Systems 269

14.5 Estuaries 271

14.6 Fossils in Coastal and Estuarine Environments 275

14.7 Recognition of Coastal and Estuarine Systems 276

Further Reading 277

15 Shallow Sandy Seas 279

15.1 Shallow Marine Environments 280

15.2 Storm and Wave- dominated Shallow Clastic Seas 282

15.3 Tide- dominated Clastic Shallow Seas 286

15.4 Responses to Change in Sea Level 290

15.5 Fossils in Sandy Shelf Successions 291

15.6 Criteria for the Recognition of Sandy Shallow Marine Sediments 292

Further Reading 293

16 Shallow Marine Carbonate and Evaporite Environments 295

16.1 Carbonate and Evaporite Depositional Environments 296

16.2 Coastal Carbonate and Evaporite Environments 299

16.3 Shallow Marine Carbonate Deposits 303

16.4 Carbonate Platform Facies and Successions 309

16.5 Marine Evaporites 314

16.6 Mixed Carbonate- clastic Environments 317

16.7 Recognition of Shallow Marine Carbonate and Evaporite Facies 318

Further Reading 319

17 Deep Marine Environments 321

17.1 The Deep Seas 322

17.2 Sediment Gravity Flow Processes in Deep Seas 323

17.3 Submarine Fans 325

17.4 Ancient Submarine Fan Systems 328

17.5 Slope Aprons 332

17.6 Ocean Current and Pelagic Sedimentation 333

17.7 Chemogenic Sediments 337

17.8 Fossils in Deep Ocean Sediments 337

Further Reading 339

Part D Post-depositional Processes 341

18 Soft Sediment Deformation 343

18.1 Deformation After Deposition 344

18.2 Large- scale Post- depositional Features 350

Further Reading 353

19 Diagenesis 355

19.1 Diagenetic Processes 356

19.2 Clastic Diagenesis 363

19.3 Carbonate Diagenesis 366

19.4 Diagenesis of Volcaniclastic Sediments 369

19.5 Formation of Coal, Oil and Gas 370

Further Reading 375

Part E Stratigraphy 377

20 Stratigraphy: Concepts and Lithostratigraphy 379

20.1 Geologic Time 380

20.2 Stratigraphic Units 385

20.3 Lithostratigraphy 385

20.4 Applications of Lithostratigraphy 391

Further Reading 394

21 Biostratigraphy 395

21.1 Fossils in Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 396

21.2 Classification of Organisms 397

21.3 Evolutionary Trends 398

21.4 Biozones and Zone Fossils 400

21.5 Taxa Used in Biostratigraphy 404

21.6 Applied Biostratigraphy 408

21.7 Biostratigraphy and Other Stratigraphic Techniques 409

Further Reading 410

22 Dating and Correlation Techniques 411

22.1 Techniques for Dating and Correlation 412

22.2 Radiometric dating 412

22.3 Magnetostrati graphy 416

22.4 Chemostrati graphy 418

22.5 Dating in the Quaternary 421

Further Reading 423

23 Subsurface Stratigraphy and Sedimentology 425

23.1 Introduction to Subsurface Stratigraphy and Sedimentology 426

23.2 Seismic Reflection Data 426

23.3 Borehole Stratigraphy and Sedimentology 432

23.4 Petrophysical Logging 435

23.5 Subsurface Facies and Basin Analysis 440

Further Reading 441

24 Sequence Stratigraphy and Sea Level Changes 443

24.1 Sea- level Changes and Sedimentation 444

24.2 Depositional Sequences and Systems Tracts 452

24.3 Parasequences: Components of Systems Tracts 457

24.4 Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy 461

24.5 Applications of Sequence Stratigraphy 463

24.6 Causes of Sea Level Fluctuations 467

24.7 Sequence Stratigraphy: Summary 473

Further Reading 474

25 Sedimentary Basins 475

25.1 Controls on Sediment Accumulation 476

25.2 Basins Related to Lithospheric Extension 478

25.3 Basins Related to Subduction 484

25.4 Basins Related to Crustal Loading 486

25.5 Basins Related to Strike- slip Tectonics 489

25.6 Complex and Hybrid Basins 490

25.7 The Record of Tectonics in Stratigraphy 490

25.8 Sedimentary Basin Analysis 492

25.9 Integrating Sedimentology and Stratigraphy: the History of the Earth's Surface 495

Further Reading 496

References 497

Index 511
Gary Nichols has taught sedimentology and stratigraphy at universities in the UK and Norway. His research interests in the analysis of facies and sedimentary basins have taken him to every continent, providing experience of a wide range of sedimentary rock types of different ages in a variety of depositional settings. He currently designs training programmes for geoscientists working in the energy industry.