John Wiley & Sons Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration Cover A comprehensive survey of advanced multilevel converter design, control, operation and grid-connecte.. Product #: 978-1-119-47586-6 Regular price: $126.17 $126.17 Auf Lager

Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration

Maswood, Ali Iftekhar / Tafti, Hossein Dehghani (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Dezember 2018
496 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-47586-6
John Wiley & Sons

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A comprehensive survey of advanced multilevel converter design, control, operation and grid-connected applications

Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration presents a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, which require fewer components and provide higher power conversion efficiency and output power quality. The authors - noted experts in the field - explain in detail the operation principles and control strategies and present the mathematical expressions and design procedures of their components.

The text examines the advantages and disadvantages compared to the classical multilevel and two level power converters. The authors also include examples of the industrial applications of the advanced multilevel converters and offer thoughtful explanations on their control strategies. Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration provides a clear understanding of the gap difference between research conducted and the current industrial needs. This important guide:
* Puts the focus on the new challenges and topics in related areas such as modulation methods, harmonic analysis, voltage balancing and balanced current injection
* Makes a strong link between the fundamental concepts of power converters and advances multilevel converter topologies and examines their control strategies, together with practical engineering considerations
* Provides a valid reference for further developments in the multilevel converters design issue
* Contains simulations files for further study

Written for university students in electrical engineering, researchers in areas of multilevel converters, high-power converters and engineers and operators in power industry, Advanced Multilevel Converters and Applications in Grid Integration offers a comprehensive review of the core principles of advanced multilevel converters, with contributions from noted experts in the field.

List of Contributors xv

Preface xvii

Part I A review on Classical Multilevel Converters 1

1 Classical Multilevel Converters 3
Gabriel H. P. Ooi, Ziyou Lim, and Hossein Dehghani Tafti

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Classical Two-Level Converters 3

1.3 The Need for Multilevel Converters 4

1.4 Classical Multilevel Converters 5

1.4.1 Multilevel Diode Clamped Converters 5

1.4.2 Multilevel Flying Capacitor Converter 7

1.4.3 Multilevel Cascaded H-Bridge Converter 8

1.4.4 Modular Multilevel Converter 9

1.4.5 Multilevel Active Neutral Point Clamped Inverter 11

1.5 Multilevel Applications and Future Trends 12

References 14

2 Multilevel Modulation Methods 17
Ziyou Lim, Hossein Dehghani Tafti, and Harikrishna R. Pinkymol

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Carrier-Based Sinusoidal Pulse-WidthModulation Methods 19

2.2.1 Operation Principles 19

2.2.2 Limitations of Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation in Multilevel Converters 20

2.2.3 Performances of Level-Shifted PWM and Phase-Shifted PWM 20

2.3 Space Vector Modulation (SVM) 24

2.4 Summary 27

References 28

3 MathematicalModeling of Classical Three-Level Converters 29
Gabriel H. P. Ooi

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 Three-Level Diode-Clamped Inverter Topology 29

3.3 Three-Level Flying-Capacitor Inverter Topology 38

3.4 Summary 44

References 44

4 Voltage BalancingMethods for Classical Multilevel Converters 45
Gabriel H. P. Ooi, Hossein Dehghani Tafti, and Harikrishna R. Pinkymol

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 Active Balancing by Adding dc Offset Voltage to Modulating Signals 45

4.3 Measurement Results for dc Offset Modulation Control 47

4.4 Natural Balancing by using Star Connected RC Filter 49

4.5 Measurement Results for the Natural Balancing Method 59

4.6 Space Vector Modulation with the Self-Balancing Technique 59

4.7 Summary 61

References 63

Part II Advanced Multilevel Rectifiers and their Control Strategies 65

5 Unidirectional Three-Phase Three-Level Unity-Power Factor Rectifier 67
Gabriel H. P. Ooi andHosseinDehghani Tafti

5.1 Introduction 67

5.2 Circuit Configuration 67

5.3 Proposed Controller Scheme 70

5.3.1 dc-Link Voltage Control 72

5.3.2 Current Control 75

5.3.3 Validation 76

5.4 Experimental Verification 80

5.5 Summary 86

References 86

6 Bidirectional and Unidirectional Five-Level Multiple-Pole Multilevel Rectifiers 89
Gabriel H. P. Ooi

6.1 Introduction 89

6.2 Circuit Configuration 89

6.2.1 Bidirectional Front-End Five-Level/Multiple-PoleMultilevel Diode-Clamped Rectifier 90

6.2.2 Unidirectional Front-End Five-Level/Multiple-PoleMultilevel Switch-Clamped Rectifier 90

6.3 Modulation Scheme 91

6.4 Design Considerations 93

6.4.1 Device Voltage Stresses 94

6.4.2 Device Current Stresses 94

6.5 Comparative Evaluation 95

6.5.1 Input Current Shaping 95

6.5.2 Components Count 100

6.6 Control Strategy 101

6.7 Experimental Verification 103

6.8 Summary 105

References 105

7 Five-Level Multiple-Pole Multilevel Vienna Rectifier 107
Gabriel H. P. Ooi and Ali I. Maswood

7.1 Introduction 107

7.2 Operating Principle 108

7.3 Design Considerations 110

7.3.1 Device Current Stress 110

7.3.2 Device Voltage Stress 111

7.4 Control Strategy 112

7.4.1 Power Balance Principle 112

7.4.2 dc-Link Voltage Control 113

7.4.3 Current Control 113

7.5 Validation 115

7.6 Summary 116

References 117

8 Five-Level Multiple-Pole Multilevel Rectifier with Reduced Components 119
Gabriel H. P. Ooi

8.1 Introduction 119

8.2 Operation Principle 120

8.3 Modulation Scheme 122

8.4 Control Strategy 123

8.4.1 Unity Power Factor Control 123

8.4.2 Voltage Control 125

8.4.3 Current Control 127

8.4.4 Grid Voltage Observer 127

8.5 Design Considerations 128

8.5.1 Device Current Stresses 129

8.5.2 Device Voltage Stress 130

8.6 Validation 131

8.7 Experimental Verification 131

8.8 Summary 132

References 134

9 Four-Quadrant ReducedModular Cell Rectifier 137
Ziyou Lim

9.1 Introduction 137

9.2 Circuit Configuration 139

9.3 Operating Principle 139

9.4 Design Considerations 141

9.4.1 Devices Voltage Stress 142

9.4.2 Voltage Stress Analysis 142

9.4.3 Design of Input Inductors 143

9.4.4 Design of Flying Capacitors 144

9.5 Control Strategy 144

9.5.1 Synchronous-Reference-Frame Current Control 145

9.5.2 Flying Capacitor Voltage Balancing Control 146

9.5.3 Hybrid Carrier-Based Pulse-WidthModulation Schemes 147

9.6 Comparative Evaluation of Classical MFCR and Proposed RFCR 148

9.6.1 Input Current Shaping Performance 148

9.6.2 Power Semiconductor Device Losses 148

9.7 Experimental Verification 149

References 160

Part III AdvancedMultilevel Inverters and their Control Strategies 163

10 Transformerless Five-Level/Multiple-Pole Multilevel Inverters with Single DC Bus Configuration 165
Gabriel H. P. Ooi

10.1 Introduction 165

10.2 Five-LevelMultiple-Pole Concept 166

10.3 Circuit Configuration and Operation Principles 167

10.3.1 Five-Level/Multilevel Diode-Clamped Inverter (5L-MDCI) 167

10.3.2 Five-Level/Multiple-PoleMultilevel Diode-Clamped Inverter (5L-M2DCI) 168

10.3.3 Five-Level/Multiple-PoleMultilevel T-Type-Clamped Inverter (5L-M2T2CI) 170

10.3.4 Five-Level/Multiple-PoleMultilevel Single-Switch-Clamped Inverter (5L-M2S2CI) 175

10.4 Modulation Scheme 176

10.5 Design Consideration 176

10.5.1 Device Voltage Stress 178

10.5.2 Devices Current Stress 178

10.6 Accuracy of the Current Stress Calculation 184

10.7 Losses in PowerDevices 189

10.7.1 Conduction Loss in Power Devices 189

10.7.2 Switching Loss in Power Devices 190

10.7.3 Distribution of Power Loss in Devices 191

10.7.4 Cost Overview 194

10.7.5 Measured Results 195

10.8 Discussion 197

References 199

11 Transformerless Seven-Level/Multiple-Pole Multilevel Inverters with Single-InputMultiple-Output (SIMO) Balancing Circuit 201
Hossein Dehghani Tafti and Gabriel H. P. Ooi

11.1 Introduction 201

11.2 Circuit Configuration and Operating Principles 201

11.2.1 Seven-Level/Multiple-PoleMultilevel Diode-Clamped Inverter (7L-M2DCI) 202

11.2.2 Seven-Level/Active-ClampedMultiple-PoleMultilevel Diode-Clamped Inverter (7L-AM2DCI) 204

11.3 SIMO Voltage Balancing Circuit 204

11.4 Design Considerations 208

11.4.1 Voltage Stress on Seven-Level/Multiple-PoleMultilevel Diode-Clamped Inverter 208

11.4.2 Voltage Stress on Seven-Level/Active-ClampedMultiple-PoleMultilevel Diode-Clamped Inverter 210

11.4.3 Voltage Stress on the SIMO Voltage Balancing Circuit 212

11.5 Experimental Verification 212

11.6 Summary 215

References 215

12 Three-Phase Seven-Level Three-Cell Lightweight Flying Capacitor Inverter 217
Ziyou Lim

12.1 Introduction 217

12.2 LFCI Topology 219

12.3 Circuit Configuration 220

12.4 Operational Principles 220

12.5 Modulation Scheme 228

12.6 Design Considerations 230

12.7 Harmonic Characteristics 234

12.7.1 PSC-POD-PWM 234

12.7.2 PSC Phase-Disposition PWM(PSC-PD-PWM) 239

12.8 Experimental Verification 247

References 250

13 Three-Phase Seven-Level Four-Cell Reduced Flying Capacitor Inverter 251
Ziyou Lim

13.1 Introduction 251

13.2 Circuit Configuration 251

13.3 Operation Principles 252

13.4 Design Considerations 254

13.4.1 Voltage Characteristics Expressions 254

13.4.2 Design of Flying Capacitors 256

13.4.3 Experimental Verification 258

13.5 Flying Capacitor Voltage Balancing Control 259

13.6 Experimental Verification 264

14 Active Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter 275
Ziyou Lim

14.1 Introduction 275

14.2 Circuit Configuration 277

14.3 Operating Principles 277

14.4 Design Considerations 279

14.5 Multiple Voltage Quantities Enhancement Control 280

14.5.1 dc-Link Neutral Point Offset Regulator 280

14.5.2 Feedforward dc-Link Ripple Compensation 283

14.5.3 Flying Capacitor Voltage Balancing Control 284

14.5.4 Interleaved Sawtooth Carrier Phase-Disposition PWM 286

14.5.5 Harmonic Characteristics of Proposed Hybrid ISC-PD-PWM 289

14.5.6 Experimental Verification 295

14.6 Common Mode Reduction 298

14.6.1 Vector Equivalence Mapping 302

14.6.2 Spectral Harmonic Characteristics 307

14.6.3 Switching Frequency Reduction 309

14.6.4 Power Device Losses 310

14.6.5 Experimental Verification 312

References 316

15 Multilevel Z-Source Inverters 319
Muhammad M. Roomi

15.1 Introduction 319

15.2 Two-Level ZSI 321

15.3 Three-Level ZSI 324

15.3.1 Three-Level Single Z-Source Network with Neutral Point Connected to Split Capacitor Bank Inverter 324

15.3.2 Three-Level Single Z-Source Network with Neutral Point Connected to Split Input dc Source Inverter 328

15.3.3 Three-Level Dual Z-Source NPC Inverter 331

15.4 Modulation Methods forThree-Level Z-Source NPC Inverter 332

15.4.1 Phase Opposition Disposition Modulation Method 333

15.4.2 In-Phase Disposition (I-PD) Modulation Method 334

15.5 Modulation Method for Three-Level Dual Z-Source NPC Inverter 335

15.5.1 Reference Disposition Level-Shifted PWMMethod 336

15.5.2 Switching States 340

15.5.3 Validation 341

15.6 Reference Disposition Level-Shifted PWMfor Non-ideal Dual Z-Source Network NPC Inverter 350

15.6.1 Non-ideal Circuit Topology 350

15.6.2 Circuit Analysis 351

15.6.3 Switching States 352

15.6.4 Validation 353

15.6.5 Experimental Verification 357

15.7 Applications of ZSI 363

15.8 Summary 365

References 367

Part IV Grid-Integration Applications of AdvancedMultilevel Converters 369

16 Multilevel Converter-Based Photovoltaic Power Conversion 371
Hossein Dehghani Tafti, Georgios Konstantinou, and Josep Pou

16.1 Introduction 371

16.2 Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter-Based PV Power Plant 371

16.2.1 Circuit Configuration 371

16.2.2 Control Strategy during Grid Normal Operation 372

16.2.3 Control Strategy during Grid Voltage Sags 376

16.2.4 Voltage Sag Detection 376

16.2.5 Adaptive Phase-Locked Loop Control 377

16.2.6 Proposed Control Strategy for Inverter and dc-dc Converter during Voltage Sags 378

16.2.7 Validation 381

16.2.8 Experimental Verification 386

16.3 Seven-Level Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter-Based PV Power Plant 390

16.3.1 Circuit Configuration 392

16.3.2 Control Algorithm 392

16.3.3 Effects of Feedforward Voltage Compensation 393

16.3.4 Proposed Inter-Phase Balancing Strategy 396

16.3.5 Inter-Bridge Balancing Strategy 397

16.3.6 Validation 398

16.3.7 Experimental Verification 402

16.4 Summary 407

References 407

17 Multilevel Converter-basedWind Power Conversion 413
Md Shafquat Ullah Khan

17.1 Introduction 413

17.2 Wind Power Conversion Principles 413

17.2.1 Wind Turbine Modeling Principles 413

17.2.2 Generators inWTS 414

17.2.3 Configurations ofWTSs 414

17.2.4 Type A: Fixed-speedWTS 415

17.2.5 Type B: Semi-variable-speedWTS 415

17.2.6 Type C: Variable-speedWTS with partial-scale power conversion 415

17.2.7 Type D: Variable-speedWTS with full-scale conversion 416

17.3 Multilevel Converters inWind Power Conversion 416

17.4 Grid-Connected Back-to-Back Three-Phase NPC Converter 418

17.4.1 Grid Code Requirements 418

17.4.2 Integration of ESS with Grid-Connected Three-Phase Back-to-Back NPC Converter forWTS 419

17.4.3 Circuit Configuration 419

17.4.4 Control of the NPC Converters 421

17.4.5 Bidirectional dc-dc converter connecting ESS toWTS 422

17.4.6 Analysis ofWind and Grid Dynamics forWTS with Connected ESS 424

17.5 Summary 429

References 429

18 Z-Source Inverter-Based Fuel Cell Power Generation 433
Muhammad M. Roomi

18.1 Introduction 433

18.2 Fuel Cell Power Conversion Principles 436

18.3 Modelling of the PEMFC 437

18.4 Circuit Configuration 439

18.5 Control Strategy 440

18.6 Validation 442

18.6.1 Constant Fuel Flow Rate 442

18.6.2 Variable Fuel Flow Rate 449

18.7 Summary 451

References 453

19 Multilevel Converter-Based Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System 455
Muhammad M. Roomi and Harikrishna R. Pinkymol

19.1 Introduction 455

19.2 A Space Vector Modulated Five-LevelMultiple-poleMultilevel Diode-Clamped STATCOM 456

19.2.1 Circuit Configuration 456

19.2.2 Operation Principles 457

19.2.3 STATCOM Modelling 459

19.2.4 Control Strategy 461

19.2.5 Validation 462

19.3 Summary 470

References 470

Index 473
EDITORS

ALI I. MASWOOD, PHD, is an Associate Professor at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He received his first class B & M. Eng from Moscow Power Engineering Institute and Ph. D degree from Concordia University, Canada. Having taught in Canada for some time, he joined NTU, Singapore. Dr. Maswood is an Associate Editor, IET PEL, author of more than 100 journal and conference papers and a number of patents. His research interests are in unity PF converters, harmonics, multilevel converters, and modulation techniques. He is the recipient of several national and international grants that include the Qatar Foundation & Rolls Royce.

HOSSEIN DEHGHANI TAFTI, PHD, received B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering and power system engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran, in 2009 and 2011, respectively, and a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, in 2017. From February to August 2016, he was on a research exchange program with the University of New South Wales, Australia, where he was working in the control of multilevel grid-connected converters. From August to October 2017, he was a Researcher with Aalborg University, Denmark, where he was working on the constant power generation of photovoltaic power plants. Since January 2018 he has worked as a research fellow at Nanyang Technological University. His research interests include photovoltaic power plants, multilevel converters, renewable energy, and fault-ride-through capabilities of power converters.