# Electromechanical Motion Devices

## Rotating Magnetic Field-Based Analysis with Online Animations

IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

3. Auflage April 2020

448 Seiten, Hardcover*Wiley & Sons Ltd*

**978-1-119-48982-5**

The updated third edition of the classic book that provides an introduction to electric machines and their emerging applications

The thoroughly revised and updated third edition of Electromechanical Motion Devices contains an introduction to modern electromechanical devices and offers an understanding of the uses of electric machines in emerging applications such as in hybrid and electric vehicles. The authors--noted experts on the topic--put the focus on modern electric drive applications. The book includes basic theory, illustrative examples, and contains helpful practice problems designed to enhance comprehension.

The text offers information on Tesla's rotating magnetic field, which is the foundation of reference frame theory and explores in detail the reference frame theory. The authors also review permanent-magnet ac, synchronous, and induction machines. In each chapter, the material is arranged so that if steady-state operation is the main concern, the reference frame derivation can be de-emphasized and focus placed on the steady state equations that are similar in form for all machines. This important new edition:

* Features an expanded section on Power Electronics

* Covers Tesla's rotating magnetic field

* Contains information on the emerging applications of electric machines, and especially, modern electric drive applications

* Includes online animations and a solutions manual for instructors

Written for electrical engineering students and engineers working in the utility or automotive industry, Electromechanical Motion Devices offers an invaluable book for students and professionals interested in modern machine theory and applications.

Chapter 1 Magnetic and Magnetically Coupled Circuits 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Phasor Analysis 2

1.3 Magnetic Circuits 8

1.4 Properties of Magnetic Materials 14

1.5 Stationary Magnetically Coupled Circuits 18

1.6 Open- and Short-Circuit Characteristics of Stationary Magnetically Coupled Circuits 25

1.7 Magnetic Systems with Mechanical Motion 28

1.8 Recapping 35

Chapter 2 Electromechanical Energy Conversion 39

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Energy Balance Relationships 40

2.3 Energy in Coupling Field 45

2.4 Graphical Interpretation of Energy Conversion 52

2.5 Electromagnetic and Electrostatic Forces 55

2.6 Operating Characteristics of an Elementary Electromagnet 60

2.7 Single-Phase Reluctance Machine 65

2.8 Windings in Relative Motion 70

2.9 Recapping 72

Chapter 3 Direct-Current Machines and the Dc Drive 77

3.1 Introduction 77

3.2 Elementary Direct-Current Machine 78

3.3 Voltage and Torque Equations 85

3.4 Permanent-Magnet DC Machine 88

3.5 Time-Domain Block Diagram and State Equations for the Permanent-Magnet DC Machine 92

3.6 Dynamic Characteristics of Permanent-Magnet DC Motors 94

3.7 DC Drive 97

3.8 Recapping 103

Chapter 4 Winding Distribution and Tesla's Rotating Magnetic Field 105

4.1 Introduction 105

4.2 Winding Distribution 106

4.3 Air-Gap MMF 109

4.4 Tesla's Rotating Magnetic Field - Symmetrical Stator Circuits 113

4.5 Tesla's Rotating Fields and Torque with Unsymmetrical and Symmetrical Rotor Circuits 121

4.6 P-Pole Machines 126

4.7 Recapping 131

Chapter 5 Introduction to Reference Frame Theory 137

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Background 138

5.3 Change of Variables for Symmetrical Stator Circuits 138

5.4 Transformation of Two-Phase Stator Variables to the Arbitrary Reference Frame 143

5.5 Balanced Steady-State Stator Variables Viewed from any Reference Frame 148

5.6 Stator Variables Observed from Different Reference Frames 152

5.7 Instantaneous Phasor 156

5.8 Transformation of Three-Phase Stator Variables to the Arbitrary Reference Frame 159

5.9 Substitute Variables for Symmetrical Rotating Circuits 162

5.10 Recapping 164

Chapter 6 Permanent-Magnet AC Machine and Field Orientation of a Brushless DC Drive 167

6.1 Introduction 167

6.2 Two-Phase Permanent-Magnet AC Machine 168

6.3 Voltage Equations and Winding Inductances 170

6.4 Torque 172

6.5 Machine Equations in the Rotor Reference Frame 173

6.6 Instantaneous and Steady-State Phasors 177

6.7 Three-Phase Permanent-Magnet AC Machine 181

6.8 Unequal Direct- and Quadrature-Axis Inductances 186

6.9 Field Orientation of a Brushless DC Drive 189

6.10 Inverter-Supplied Brushless DC Drive 208

6.11 Recapping 221

Chapter 7 Synchronous Machines 223

7.1 Introduction 223

7.2 Windings of the Synchronous Machine 224

7.3 Two-Phase Round-Rotor Synchronous Machine 228

7.4 Analysis of Steady-State Operation 234

7.5 Analysis of Steady-State Operation in Power Systems 238

7.6 Two-Phase Reluctance Machine 247

7.7 Dynamic and Steady-State Performance 254

7.8 Three-Phase Round-Rotor Synchronous Machine 260

7.9 Recapping 266

Chapter 8 Symmetrical Induction Machines and Field Orientation 269

8.1 Introduction 269

8.2 Two-Phase Induction Machine 270

8.3 Voltage Equations and Winding Inductances 274

8.4 Torque 280

8.5 Voltage Equations in the Arbitrary Reference Frame 281

8.6 Magnetically Linear Flux-Linkage Equations and Equivalent Circuits 284

8.7 Torque Equations in Arbitrary Reference Frame Variables 286

8.8 Phasors and Steady-State Operating Modes 286

8.9 Dynamic and Steady-State Performance - Machine Variables 299

8.10 Free Acceleration Viewed from Stationary, Rotor, and Synchronously Rotating Reference Frames 307

8.11 Three-Phase Induction Machine 312

8.12 Principles of Field Orientation 319

8.13 Recapping 331

Chapter 9 Stepper Motors 335

9.1 Introduction 335

9.2 Basic Configurations of Multistack Variable-Reluctance Stepper Motors 335

9.3 Equations for Multistack Variable-Reluctance Stepper Motors 342

9.4 Operating Characteristics of Multistack Variable-Reluctance Stepper Motors 345

9.5 Single-Stack Variable-Reluctance Stepper Motors 348

9.6 Basic Configuration of Permanent-Magnet Stepper Motors 352

9.7 Equations for Permanent-Magnet Stepper Motors 356

9.8 Equations of Permanent-Magnet Stepper Motors in Rotor Reference Frame - Reluctance Torques Neglected 359

9.9 Recapping 363

Chapter 10 Power Electronics 365

10.1 Introduction 365

10.2 Switching-Circuit Fundamentals 365

10.3 DC-DC Conversion 376

10.4 AC-DC Conversion 389

10.5 DC-AC Conversion 403

10.6 Recapping 407

Appendix A 411

Appendix B 415

Index 417

OLEG WASYNCZUK, PHD, is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University. He has authored or co-authored over 100 technical papers and two textbooks on electric machines. He is a Fellow of IEEE and was the 2008 recipient of the IEEE Cyril Veinott Award. He also serves as Chief Technical Officer of P.C. Krause & Associates.

STEVEN D. PEKAREK, PHD, is the Edmund O. Schweitzer III Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University. He is the co-author of two textbooks on electric machinery, an IEEE Fellow, and an active member of the IEEE Power and Energy Society. He is an Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and the recipient of the 2018 IEEE Cyril Veinott Award.

TIMOTHY O'CONNELL, PHD, is a Senior Lead Engineer at P.C. Krause & Associates, where he has over ten years' experience in the modeling, simulation, analysis and design of more electric aircraft. He is an Adjunct Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a Senior Member of IEEE, an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, and has co-authored two textbooks on electric machinery.