John Wiley & Sons Environmental and Agricultural Microbiology Cover Das Werk Environmental and Agricultural Microbiology: Applications for Sustainability besteht aus zw.. Product #: 978-1-119-52623-0 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 Auf Lager

Environmental and Agricultural Microbiology

Applications for Sustainability

Mishra, Bibhuti Bhusan / Nayak, Suraja Kumar / Mohapatra, Swati / Samantaray, Deviprasad (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Oktober 2021
464 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-52623-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Das Werk Environmental and Agricultural Microbiology: Applications for Sustainability besteht aus zwei Teilen, die Kapitel über Versorgung und Lebenszyklen der Mikroorganismen unter verschiedenen Umweltbedingungen, ihre Verbreitung, das Zusammenspiel mit anderen Lebensgemeinschaften, die Herstellung von Metaboliten und die Rückgewinnung enthalten. Obwohl es auf dem Markt bereits Bücher über die Mikrobiologie im Boden und in der Landwirtschaft bzw. über Umweltbiotechnologie gibt, fehlt es an umfassender Literatur über das Verhalten von Mikroorganismen im Umwelt- und Agrarbereich. Im ersten Teil geht es um die Bioremediation von Agrochemikalien durch Mikroalgen, die Entgiftung von Chrom und anderen Schwermetallen durch mikrobielle Biofilme, Technologien auf Basis mikrobieller Biopolymere wie Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) und Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) sowie deren Produktion, Abbauverhalten und Anwendung. Auch die Herstellung von Biotensiden und deren kommerzielle Bedeutung werden in diesem Teil systematisch betrachtet. Der zweite Teil des Werks umfasst 9 Kapitel, in denen wichtige Ideen zu Nachhaltigkeitsansätzen in der Landwirtschaft vermittelt werden. Themen wie funktionale Bodenmikroben, neuartige Strategien zur Weiterentwicklung von Kulturpflanzen durch das Mikrobiom der Rhizosphäre, die Herstellung und Anwendung von flüssigen Biodüngern, die Verringerung des Methanausstoßes von Nutztieren, Chitinasen aus Mikroben, Extremozyme, d. h. Enzyme aus extremophilen Mikroorganismen und deren Bedeutung für die aktuelle Biotechnologie, sowie lithobiontische Lebensgemeinschaften und ihr Einfluss auf die Umwelt werden umfassend erläutert. Im Zeitalter der nachhaltigen Energieerzeugung spielen Biokraftstoffe und andere Bioenergieprodukte eine wichtige Rolle, daher ist die Herstellung dieser Produkte aus mikrobiellen Quellen eine neue Herausforderung für die Forschung. Im letzten Kapitel wird die Bedeutung von Mikroben und Mikrobengemeinschaften für die Behandlung fester Abfälle in Kombination mit Biotechnologie betrachtet.

Preface xvii

Part 1: Microbial Bioremediation and Biopolymer Technology 1

1 A Recent Perspective on Bioremediation of Agrochemicals by Microalgae: Aspects and Strategies 3
Prithu Baruah and Neha Chaurasia

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Pollution Due to Pesticides 6

1.2.1 Acute Effects 8

1.2.2 Chronic Effects 9

1.3 Microalgal Species Involved in Bioremediation of Pesticides 9

1.4 Strategies for Phycoremediation of Pesticides 13

1.4.1 Involvement of Enzymes in Phycoremediation of Pesticides 13

1.4.2 Use of Genetically Engineered Microalgae 13

1.5 Molecular Aspects of Pesticide Biodegradation by Microalgae 14

1.6 Factor Affecting Phycoremediation of Pesticides 16

1.6.1 Biological Factor 16

1.6.2 Chemical Factor 16

1.6.3 Environment Factor 17

1.7 Benefit and Shortcomings of Phycoremediation 17

1.7.1 Benefits 17

1.7.2 Shortcomings 17

1.8 Conclusion and Future Prospects 18

References 18

2 Microalgal Bioremediation of Toxic Hexavalent Chromium: A Review 25
Pritikrishna Majhi, Satyabrata Nayak and Saubhagya Manjari Samantaray

2.1 Introduction 25

2.1.1 Chromium Cycle 27

2.2 Effects of Hexavalent Chromium Toxicity 27

2.2.1 Toxicity to Microorganisms 27

2.2.2 Toxicity to Plant Body 28

2.2.3 Toxicity to Animals 29

2.3 Chromium Bioremediation by Microalgae 30

2.3.1 Cyanobacteria 30

2.3.2 Green Algae 31

2.3.3 Diatoms 31

2.4 Mechanism Involved in Hexavalent Chromium Reduction in Microalgae 32

2.5 Conclusion 33

References 34

3 Biodetoxification of Heavy Metals Using Biofilm Bacteria 39
Adyasa Barik, Debasish Biswal, A. Arun and Vellaisamy Balasubramanian

3.1 Introduction 40

3.2 Source and Toxicity of Heavy Metal Pollution 41

3.2.1 Non-Essential Heavy Metals 42

3.2.1.1 Arsenic 42

3.2.1.2 Cadmium 43

3.2.1.3 Chromium 43

3.2.1.4 Lead 44

3.2.1.5 Mercury 45

3.2.2 Essential Heavy Metals 45

3.2.2.1 Copper 45

3.2.2.2 Zinc 46

3.2.2.3 Nickel 46

3.3 Biofilm Bacteria 47

3.4 Interaction of Metal and Biofilm Bacteria 47

3.5 Biodetoxification Mechanisms 48

3.5.1 Biosorption 48

3.5.2 Bioleaching 50

3.5.3 Biovolatilization 52

3.5.4 Bioimmobilization 54

3.6 Conclusion 55

References 55

4 Microbial-Derived Polymers and Their Degradability Behavior for Future Prospects 63
Mohammad Asif Ali, Aniruddha Nag and Maninder Singh

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Polyamides 65

4.2.1 Bioavailability and Production 66

4.2.2 Biodegradability of Polyamides 66

4.2.3 Degradation of Nylon 4 Under the Soil 67

4.2.4 Fungal Degradation of Nylon 6 and Nylon 66 (Synthetic Polyamide) 67

4.2.5 Itaconic Acid-Based Heterocyclic Polyamide 68

4.2.6 Summary and Future Development 69

4.3 Polylactic Acid 69

4.3.1 Availability and Production 70

4.3.2 Polymerization Method 71

4.3.3 Biodegradability of Polylactic Acid 73

4.3.4 Copolymerization Method 73

4.3.5 Blending Method 73

4.3.6 Nanocomposite Formation 74

4.3.7 Summary 74

4.4 Polyhydroxyalkanoates 74

4.4.1 Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates 75

4.4.2 Application of PHAs 75

4.4.3 Biodegradability of PHAs 76

4.4.4 Degradability Methods 76

4.4.5 Summary 77

4.5 Conclusion and Future Development 77

References 78

5 A Review on PHAs: The Future Biopolymer 83
S. Mohapatra, K. Vishwakarma, N. C. Joshi, S. Maity, R. Kumar, M. Ramchander, S. Pattnaik and D. P. Samantaray

5.1 Introduction 84

5.2 Green Plastic: Biodegradable Polymer Used as Plastic 85

5.3 Difference Between Biopolymer and Bioplastic 88

5.4 Polyhydroxyalkanoates 88

5.5 Polyhydroxyalkanoates and Its Applications 89

5.6 Microorganisms Producing PHAs 90

5.7 Advantages 96

5.8 Conclusion and Future Prospective 96

References 96

6 Polyhydroxybutyrate as an Eco-Friendly Alternative of Synthetic Plastics 101
Shikha Sharma, Priyanka Sharma, Vishal Sharma and Bijender Kumar Bajaj

6.1 Introduction 102

6.2 Bioplastics 104

6.3 Bioplastics vs. Petroleum-Based Plastics 106

6.4 Classification of Biodegradable Polymers 107

6.5 PHB-Producing Bacteria 109

6.6 Methods for Detecting PHB Granules 113

6.7 Biochemical Pathway for Synthesis of PHB 114

6.8 Production of PHB 116

6.8.1 Process Optimization for PHB Production 117

6.8.2 Optimization of PHB Production by One Variable at a Time Approach 118

6.8.3 Statistical Approaches for PHB Optimization 120

6.9 Production of PHB Using Genetically Modified Organisms 123

6.10 Characterization of PHB 125

6.11 Various Biochemical Techniques Used for PHB Characterization 126

6.11.1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 127

6.11.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry 127

6.11.3 Thermogravimetric Analysis 128

6.11.4 X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) 128

6.11.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 128

6.11.6 Microscopic Techniques 129

6.11.7 Elemental Analysis 130

6.11.8 Polarimetry 130

6.11.9 Molecular Size Analysis 130

6.12 Biodegradation of PHB 131

6.13 Application Spectrum of PHB 132

6.14 Conclusion 135

6.15 Future Perspectives 135

Acknowledgements 136

References 136

7 Microbial Synthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and Their Applications 151
N.N.N. Anitha and Rajesh K. Srivastava

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Conventional Plastics and Its Issues in Utility 156

7.2.1 Synthetic Plastic and Its Accumulation or Degradation Impacts 158

7.3 Bioplastics 159

7.3.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoates 160

7.3.1.1 Microorganisms in the Production of PHAs 164

7.4 Fermentation for PHAs Production 171

7.5 Downstream Process for PHAs 173

7.6 Conclusions 175

References 176

8 Polyhydroxyalkanoates for Sustainable Smart Packaging of Fruits 183
S. Pati, S. Mohapatra, S. Maity, A. Dash and D. P. Samantaray

8.1 Introduction 183

8.2 Physiological Changes of Fresh Fruits During Ripening and Minimal Processing 185

8.3 Smart Packaging 186

8.4 Biodegradable Polymers for Fruit Packaging 188

8.5 Legal Aspects of Smart Packaging 189

8.6 Pros and Cons of Smart Packaging Using PHAs 189

8.7 Conclusion 190

References 191

9 Biosurfactants Production and Their Commercial Importance 197
Saishree Rath and Rajesh K. Srivastava

9.1 Introduction 198

9.2 Chemical Surfactant Compounds 200

9.2.1 Biosurfactant Compounds 202

9.3 Properties of Biosurfactant Compound 205

9.3.1 Activities of Surface and Interface Location 205

9.3.2 Temperature and pH Tolerance 205

9.3.3 Biodegradability 206

9.3.4 Low Toxicity 206

9.3.5 Emulsion Forming and Breaking 206

9.4 Production of Biosurfactant by Microbial Fermentation 206

9.4.1 Factors Influencing the Production of Biosurfactants 209

9.4.1.1 Environmental Conditions 209

9.4.1.2 Carbon Substrates 210

9.4.1.3 Estimation of Biosurfactants Activity 211

9.5 Advantages, Microorganisms Involved, and Applications of Biosurfactants 211

9.5.1 Advantages of Using Biosurfactants 211

9.5.1.1 Easy Raw Materials for Biosurfactant Biosynthesis 211

9.5.1.2 Low Toxic Levels for Environment 211

9.5.1.3 Best Operation With Surface and Interface Activity 212

9.5.1.4 Good Biodegradability 212

9.5.1.5 Physical Variables 212

9.5.2 Microbial Sources 212

9.5.3 Production of Biosurfactants 213

9.5.3.1 Production of Rhamnolipids 213

9.5.3.2 Regulation of Rhamnolipids Synthesis 214

9.5.3.3 Commercial Use of Biosurfactants 214

9.6 Conclusions 215

References 216

Part 2: Microbes in Sustainable Agriculture and Biotechnological Applications 219

10 Functional Soil Microbes: An Approach Toward Sustainable Horticulture 221
C. Sarathambal, R. Dinesh and V. Srinivasan

10.1 Introduction 221

10.2 Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity 222

10.3 Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria 223

10.3.1 Nitrogen Fixation 224

10.3.2 Production of Phytohormones 225

10.3.3 Production of Enzymes That can Transform Crop Growth 225

10.3.4 Microbial Antagonism 226

10.3.5 Solubilization of Minerals 226

10.3.6 Siderophore and Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Production 228

10.3.7 Cyanide (HCN) Production 229

10.3.8 Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Growth of Horticultural Crops 229

10.4 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 235

References 235

11 Rhizosphere Microbiome: The Next-Generation Crop Improvement Strategy 243
M. Anandaraj, S. Manivannan and P. Umadevi

11.1 Introduction 244

11.2 Rhizosphere Engineering 245

11.3 Omics Tools to Study Rhizosphere Metagenome 246

11.3.1 Metagenomics 246

11.3.2 Metaproteomics 248

11.3.3 Metatranscriptomics 249

11.3.4 Ionomics 250

11.4 As Next-Generation Crop Improvement Strategy 251

11.5 Conclusion 252

References 252

12 Methane Emission and Strategies for Mitigation in Livestock 257
Nibedita Sahoo, Swati Pattnaik, Matrujyoti Pattnaik and Swati Mohapatra

12.1 Introduction 258

12.2 Contribution of Methane from Livestock 259

12.3 Methanogens 259

12.3.1 Rumen Microbial Community 260

12.3.2 Methanogens Found in Rumen 260

12.3.3 Enrichment of Methanogens from Rumen Liquor 261

12.3.4 Screening for Methane Production 261

12.3.5 Isolation of Methanogens 261

12.3.6 Molecular Characterization 261

12.4 Methanogenesis: Methane Production 262

12.4.1 Pathways of Methanogenesis 262

12.4.2 Pathway of CO2 Reduction 262

12.4.3 CO2 Reduction to Formyl-Methanofuran 263

12.4.4 Conversion of the Formyl Group from Formyl-Methanofuran to Formyl-Tetrahydromethanopterin 263

12.4.5 Formation of Methenyl-Tetrahydromethanopterin 263

12.4.6 Reduction of Methenyl-Tetrahydromethanopterin to Methyl-Tetrahydromethanopterin 263

12.4.7 Reduction of Methyl-Tetrahydromethanopterin to Methyl-S-Coenzyme M 264

12.4.8 Reduction of Methyl-S-Coenzyme M to CH4 264

12.5 Strategies for Mitigation of Methane Emission 264

12.5.1 Dietary Manipulation 264

12.5.1.1 Increasing Dry Matter Intake 264

12.5.1.2 Increasing Ration Concentrate Fraction 265

12.5.1.3 Supplementation of Lipid 265

12.5.1.4 Protozoa Removal 266

12.5.2 Feed Additives 266

12.5.2.1 Ionophore Compounds 266

12.5.2.2 Halogenated Methane Compound 267

12.5.2.3 Organic Acid 267

12.5.3 Microbial Feed Additives 268

12.5.3.1 Vaccination 268

12.5.3.2 Bacteriophages and Bacteriocins 269

12.5.4 Animal Breeding and Selection 270

12.6 Conclusion 270

References 271

13 Liquid Biofertilizers and Their Applications: An Overview 275
Avro Dey

13.1 Introduction 275

13.1.1 Chemical Fertilizer and its Harmful Effect 277

13.2 Biofertilizers "Boon for Mankind" 278

13.3 Carrier-Based Biofertilizers 279

13.3.1 Solid Carrier-Based Biofertilizers 279

13.3.2 Liquid Biofertilizer 279

13.4 Sterilization of the Carrier 282

13.5 Merits of Using Liquid Biofertilizer Over Solid Carrier-Based Biofertilizer 282

13.6 Types of Liquid Biofertilizer 283

13.7 Production of Liquid Biofertilizers 285

13.7.1 Isolation of the Microorganism 285

13.7.2 Preparation of Medium and Growth Condition 285

13.7.3 Culture and Preservation 286

13.7.4 Preparation of Liquid Culture 286

13.7.5 Fermentation and Mass Production 287

13.7.6 Formulation of the Liquid Biofertilizers 287

13.8 Applications of Biofertilizers 288

13.9 Conclusion 290

References 291

14 Extremozymes: Biocatalysts From Extremophilic Microorganisms and Their Relevance in Current Biotechnology 293
Khushbu Kumari Singh and Lopamudra Ray

14.1 Introduction 294

14.2 Extremophiles: The Source of Novel Enzymes 295

14.2.1 Thermophilic Extremozymes 296

14.2.2 Psychrophilic Extremozymes 299

14.2.3 Halophilic Extremozymes 300

14.2.4 Alkaliphilic/Acidiophilic Extremozymes 300

14.2.5 Piezophilic Extremozymes 301

14.3 The Potential Application of Extremozymes in Biotechnology 301

14.4 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 303

References 304

15 Microbial Chitinases and Their Applications: An Overview 313
Suraja Kumar Nayak, Swapnarani Nayak, Swaraj Mohanty, Jitendra Kumar Sundaray and Bibhuti Bhusan Mishra

15.1 Introduction 314

15.2 Chitinases and Its Types 315

15.3 Sources of Microbial Chitinase 317

15.3.1 Bacterial Chitinases 317

15.3.2 Fungal Chitinases 319

15.3.3 Actinobacteria 321

15.3.4 Viruses/Others 322

15.4 Genetics of Microbial Chitinase 322

15.5 Biotechnological Advances in Microbial Chitinase Production 323

15.5.1 Media Components 324

15.5.2 Physical Parameters 325

15.5.3 Modes and Methods of Fermentation 325

15.5.4 Advances Biotechnological Methods 326

15.6 Applications of Microbial Chitinases 327

15.6.1 Agricultural 328

15.6.1.1 Biopesticides 328

15.6.1.2 Biocontrol 328

15.6.2 Biomedical 329

15.6.3 Pharmaceutical 329

15.6.4 Industrial 330

15.6.5 Environmental 330

15.6.5.1 Waste Management 331

15.6.6 Others 331

15.7 Conclusion 332

References 332

16 Lithobiontic Ecology: Stone Encrusting Microbes and their Environment 341
Abhik Mojumdar, Himadri Tanaya Behera and Lopamudra Ray

16.1 Introduction 341

16.2 Diversity of Lithobionts and Its Ecological Niche 342

16.2.1 Epiliths 342

16.2.2 Endoliths 343

16.2.3 Hypoliths 344

16.3 Colonization Strategies of Lithobionts 345

16.3.1 Temperature 346

16.3.2 Water Availability 346

16.3.3 Light Availability 347

16.4 Geography of Lithobbiontic Coatings 348

16.4.1 Bacteria 348

16.4.2 Cyanobacteria 349

16.4.3 Fungi 349

16.4.4 Algae 349

16.4.5 Lichens 350

16.5 Impacts of Lithobiontic Coatings 351

16.5.1 On Organic Remains 351

16.5.2 On Rock Weathering 351

16.5.3 On Rock Coatings 352

16.6 Role of Lithobionts in Harsh Environments 352

16.7 Conclusion 353

Acknowledgement 353

References 353

17 Microbial Intervention in Sustainable Production of Biofuels and Other Bioenergy Products 361
Himadri Tanaya Behera, Abhik Mojumdar, Smruti Ranjan Das, Chiranjib Mohapatra and Lopamudra Ray

17.1 Introduction 362

17.2 Biomass 363

17.3 Biofuel 364

17.3.1 Biodiesel 365

17.3.1.1 Microalgae in Biodiesel Production 365

17.3.1.2 Oleaginous Yeasts in Biodiesel Production 366

17.3.1.3 Oleaginous Fungi in Biodiesel Production 366

17.3.1.4 Bacteria in Biodiesel Production 367

17.3.2 Bioalcohol 367

17.3.2.1 Bioethanol 367

17.3.2.2 Biobutanol 368

17.3.3 Biogas 369

17.3.4 Biohydrogen 369

17.4 Other Bioenergy Products 370

17.4.1 Microbial Fuel Cells 370

17.4.1.1 Microbes Used in MFCs 372

17.4.1.2 Future Aspects of Microbial Fuel Cells 372

17.4.2 Microbial Nanowires in Bioenergy Application 374

17.4.2.1 Pili 375

17.4.2.2 Outer Membranes and Extended Periplasmic Space 375

17.4.2.3 Unknown Type--MNWs Whose Identity to be Confirmed 375

17.4.3 Microbial Nanowires in Bioenergy Production 376

17.5 Conclusion 376

References 376

18 Role of Microbes and Microbial Consortium in Solid Waste Management 383
Rachana Jain, Lopa Pattanaik, Susant Kumar Padhi and Satya Narayan Naik

18.1 Introduction 384

18.2 Types of Solid Waste 384

18.2.1 Domestic Wastes 385

18.2.2 Institutional and Commercial Wastes 385

18.2.3 Wastes From Street Cleansing 385

18.2.4 Industrial Wastes 385

18.2.5 Nuclear Wastes 385

18.2.6 Agricultural Wastes 385

18.3 Waste Management in India 386

18.4 Solid Waste Management 390

18.4.1 Municipal Solid Waste Management 390

18.5 Solid Waste Management Techniques 390

18.5.1 Incineration 392

18.5.2 Pyrolysis and Gasification 392

18.5.3 Landfilling 393

18.5.4 Aerobic Composting 394

18.5.5 Vermicomposting 397

18.5.6 Anaerobic Digestion 401

18.5.6.1 Enzymatic Hydrolysis 402

18.5.6.2 Fermentation 402

18.5.6.3 Acetogenesis 403

18.5.6.4 Methanogenesis 403

18.5.7 Bioethanol From Various Solid Wastes 404

18.6 Conclusion 413

References 413

Index 423
Bibhuti Bhusan Mishra is working as the ICAR-Emeritus Professor at the P.G. Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Science & Humanities, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. He obtained his PhD Degree in 1987 from Berhampur University, Odisha. He has more than 60 research publications to his name.

Suraja Kumar Nayak obtained his PhD from Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology in 2013 and is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering and Technology, Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. His areas of teaching and research include general and environmental microbiology, soil microbiology, industrial & food biotechnology, microbial biotechnology. Dr. Nayak has published 18 scientific papers including book chapters in various journals and national & international books.

Swati Mohapatra is a research Professor in Wankwong University South Korea. She obtained her PhD in Microbiology from Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology in 2015. Her areas of teaching and research include environmental microbiology, polymer chemistry, industrial and material science, microbial molecular biology, infection biology, agriculture microbiology. Dr. Mohapatra has published 32 scientific articles in various national and international journals and 07 book chapters.

D. P. Samantaray obtained his PhD in Microbiology (2013) from Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. He is an assistant professor in the Post Graduate Department of Microbiology, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. He is working in the field of bioenergy, bioremediation, biopolymer & composite materials including its biomedical and agricultural applications. He has published more than 70 scientific publications.

B. B. Mishra, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha, India; S. K. Nayak, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha, India; S. Mohapatra, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha, India; D. Samantaray, Utkal University, Odisha, India