John Wiley & Sons Guidelines for Inherently Safer Chemical Processes Cover Since the publication of the second edition several United States jurisdictions have mandated consid.. Product #: 978-1-119-52916-3 Regular price: $157.14 $157.14 Auf Lager

Guidelines for Inherently Safer Chemical Processes

A Life Cycle Approach

CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Cover

3. Auflage Dezember 2019
528 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-52916-3
John Wiley & Sons

Jetzt kaufen

Preis: 165,00 €

Preis inkl. MwSt, zzgl. Versand

Weitere Versionen

epubmobipdf

Since the publication of the second edition several United States jurisdictions have mandated consideration of inherently safer design for certain facilities. Notable examples are the inherently safer technology (IST) review requirement in the New Jersey Toxic Chemical Prevention Act (TCPA), and the Inherently Safer Systems Analysis (ISSA) required by the Contra Costa County (California) Industrial Safety Ordinance. More recently, similar requirements have been proposed at the U.S. Federal level in the pending EPA Risk Management Plan (RMP) revisions. Since the concept of inherently safer design applies globally, with its origins in the United Kingdom, the book will apply globally.


The new edition builds on the same philosophy as the first two editions, but further clarifies the concept with recent research, practitioner observations, added examples and industry methods, and discussions of security and regulatory issues. Inherently Safer Chemical Processes presents a holistic approach to making the development, manufacture, and use of chemicals safer. The main goal of this book is to help guide the future state of chemical process evolution by illustrating and emphasizing the merits of integrating inherently safer design process-related research, development, and design into a comprehensive process that balances safety, capital, and environmental concerns throughout the life cycle of the process.

It discusses strategies of how to: substitute more benign chemicals at the development stage, minimize risk in the transportation of chemicals, use safer processing methods at the manufacturing stage, and decommission a manufacturing plant so that what is left behind does not endanger the public or environment.

Preface vii

Acknowledgements ix

Figures xxiii

Tables xxvi

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Objectives, Intended Audience, and Scope of this Book 1

1.1.1 Objectives 1

1.1.2 Intended Audience 2

1.1.3 Scope 2

1.2 Integration of this Guidance with Other CCPS Guidance 2

1.3 Organization of this Book 3

1.4 History of Inherent Safety 4

1.5 References 9

2. The Concept of Inherent Safety 12

2.1 Inherent Safety and Process Risk Management 12

2.2 Inherent Safety Defined 15

2.3 Shared characteristics 16

2.4 Inherently Safer Strategies 18

2.5 Inherent safety throughout the process Life cycle 22

2.6 Inherently Safer Approaches 24

2.6.1 Orders of Inherent Safety 27

2.7 Layers of Protection 30

2.8 Integrating Inherent Safety in Process Risk Management Systems 32

2.9 Summary 40

2.10 References 40

3. Minimize - An Inherently Safer Strategy 44

3.1 Minimize 44

3.2 Reactors 47

3.3 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors 48

3.4 Tubular Reactors 49

3.5 Loop Reactors 49

3.6 Reactive Distillation 51

3.7 Storage of Hazardous Materials 54

3.8 Process Piping 57

3.9 Process Equipment 58

3.10 Limitation of Effects 60

3.11 References 61

4. Substitute - An Inherently Safer Strategy 64

4.1 Reaction Chemistry 64

4.2 Green Chemistry 72

4.3 Solvents 73

4.4 Refrigerants 75

4.5 Firefighting Agents 76

4.6 Heat Transfer Media 76

4.7 Informed Substitution 77

4.8 References 83

5. Moderate - An Inherently Safer Strategy 87

5.1 Dilution 87

5.2 Refrigeration 88

5.3 Less Energetic Process Conditions 91

5.4 Secondary Containment - Dikes and Containment Buildings 94

5.5 Segregation 98

5.6 References 100

6. Simplify - An Inherently Safer Strategy 103

6.1 Leaving Things Out 104

6.2 Eliminating Unnecessary Spares 105

6.3 Inherently Robust Process Equipment 107

6.4 Preventing Runaway Reactions 110

6.5 Simplifying Heat Transfer 113

6.6 Simplifying Liquid Transfer 114

6.7 Reactor Geometry 116

6.8 Optimizing Catalyst Selectivity 116

6.9 Separation of Process Steps 116

6.10 Limitation of Available Energy 119

6.11 Simplification of the Human-Machine Interface 120

6.11.1 Overview 120

6.11.2 Equipment Layout, Accessibility, and Operability 121

6.11.3 Maintainability 121

6.11.4 Error Prevention 123

6.11.5 Design of Equipment and Controls - Making Status Clear 123

6.12 Summary 124

6.13 References 124

7. Applying Inherent Safety Strategies to Protection Layers 126

7.1 Operating Procedures 128

7.2 Maintenance Procedures 129

7.3 Relocation 129

7.4 Containment 130

7.5 More Robust Process Equipment and Design 131

7.6 Simplified Process Equipment and Design 132

7.7 Distributed Control Systems 133

7.8 Summary 134

7.9 References 134

8. Life Cycle Stages 136

8.1 General Principles Across All Life cycle Stages 136

8.2 Concept 137

8.3 Research 139

8.3.1 Inherently Safer Synthesis 141

8.3.2 Types of Hazards Associated with Research 142

8.3.3 Hazards Identification Methods 148

8.4 Design Development 159

8.4.1 Unit Operations - General 160

8.4.2 Unit Operations - Specific 161

8.5 Detailed Engineering Design 169

8.5.1 Process Design Basis 170

8.5.2 Equipment 171

8.5.3 Process Controls 175

8.5.4 Utility & Supporting Systems 179

8.5.5 Batch Processes 180

8.5.6 Other Design Considerations 182

8.6 Procurement, Construction, and Commissioning 183

8.7 Operations & Maintenance 185

8.7.1 Preservation of Inherent Safety 185

8.7.2 Inherent Safety - Continuous Improvement 187

8.8 Change Management 191

8.9 Decommissioning 192

8.10 Transportation 195

8.10.1 Location Relative to Raw Materials 197

8.10.2 Shipping Conditions 198

8.10.3 Transportation Mode and Route Selection 199

8.10.4 Improved Transportation Containers 200

8.10.5 Administrative Controls 201

8.10.6 Management of Transportation Containers On-site 202

8.11 References 203

9. Inherent Safety and Security 212

9.1 Introduction 212

9.2 Chemical Security Risk 213

9.3 Security Strategies 217

9.4 Countermeasures 219

9.5 Assessing Security Vulnerabilities 220

9.6 Inherent Safety and Chemical Security 221

9.7 Limitations to Implementing IS Concepts in Security Management 226

9.8 Conclusion 228

9.9 References 229

10. Implementing Inherently Safer Design 230

10.1 Introduction 230

10.2 Management System Approach for IS 231

10.3 Education and awareness 232

10.3.1 Making IS a Corporate Philosophy 232

10.3.2 IS in Education 233

10.4 Organizational culture 234

10.4.1 Multiple Demands of IS in the PSM program 235

10.4.2 Incorporating IS into Normal Design Process 236

10.5 Inherent Safety Reviews 241

10.5.1 Inherent Safety Review Objectives 242

10.5.2 Good Preparation is Required for Effective Inherent Safety Reviews 243

10.5.3 Inherent Safety Review Timing 244

10.5.4 Inherent Safety Review Team Composition 246

10.5.5 Inherent Safety Review Process Overview 246

10.5.6 Focus of Inherent Safety Reviews at Different Stages 250

10.5.7 Stage in the Process Life Cycle 252

10.6 Reactive Chemicals Screening 256

10.7 Inherent Safety Review Training 258

10.8 Documentation of the Inherently Safer Design Features of a Process 260

10.8.1 IS Review Documentation 261

10.8.2 Time Required for an Inherent Safety Review 263

10.9 Summary 264

10.10 References 265

11. Inherent Safety & the Elements of a RBPS Program 268

11.1 Process Safety Culture 270

11.2 Compliance with Standards 271

11.3 Workforce Involvement 272

11.4 Process Knowledge Management 272

11.5 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis 273

11.6 Safe Work Practices 280

11.7 Asset Integrity and Reliability 282

11.8 Contractor Management 284

11.9 Training and Performance Assurance / Process Safety Competency 285

11.10 Management of Change / Operational Readiness 286

11.11 Conduct of Operations / Operating Procedures 290

11.11.1 Minimization 291

11.11.2 Simplification 294

11.12 Emergency Management 296

11.13 Incident Investigation 297

11.14 Measurements and Metrics / Auditing / Management Review and Continuous Improvement 297

11.15 Summary 299

11.16 References 299

12. Tools for IS Implementation 302

12.1 IS Review Methods - Overview 302

12.1.1 Three Approaches 302

12.1.2 Formal IS Reviews 303

12.1.3 IS Review Methods 304

12.1.4 Research & Development Application 304

12.1.5 PHA - Incorporation into HAZOP or other PHA Techniques 305

12.1.6 "What-If?" Method 307

12.1.7 Checklist Method 308

12.1.8 Consequence-Based Methods 311

12.1.9 Other Methods 312

12.2 Summary 317

12.3 References 318

13. Inherently Safer Design Conflicts 320

13.1 Introduction 320

13.2 Examples of inherent safety conflicts 324

13.2.1 Continuous vs. batch reactor 324

13.2.2 Reduced toxicity vs. reactive hazard 327

13.2.3 Reduced inventory vs. dynamic stability 328

13.2.4 Risk transfer vs. risk reduction 329

13.2.5 Inherent safety and security conflicts 331

13.3 Inherent safety - Environmental Hazards 332

13.3.1 PCBs 332

13.3.2 CFCs 332

13.4 Inherent Safety and Health Conflicts 333

13.4.1 Water Disinfection 333

13.5 Inherent safety and economic conflicts 334

13.5.1 Existing plants - operational vs. re-investment economics in a capital-intensive industry 334

13.5.2 Often more economical, but not necessarily 336

13.6 Tools for understanding and resolving conflicts 337

13.6.1 Tools for understanding and resolving conflicts 339

13.7 Measuring inherent safety characteristics 343

13.7.1 Dow Fire and Explosion Index 344

13.7.2 Dow Chemical Exposure Index 344

13.7.3 Mond Index 344

13.7.4 Proposed Inherent Safety indices 345

13.8 Summary 346

13.9 References 347

14. Inherent Safety Regulatory Initiatives 350

14.1 Inherent Safety Regulatory Developments and Issues 350

14.2 Experience with Inherent Safety Provisions in United States Regulations 351

14.2.1 Inherently Safer Regulatory Requirements - Contra Costa County, California, USA 352

14.2.2 New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act (TCPA) and Prescriptive Order for Chemical Plant Security 370

14.2.3 Inherently Safer Systems Requirements - California Accidental Release Prevention (CalARP) Regulations 378

14.2.4 Safer Technology & Alternatives Analysis - Revised US EPA Risk Management Program (RMP) Rule 380

14.3 Issues in Regulating Inherent Safety 382

14.3.1 Consistent Understanding of Inherent Safety 383

14.3.2 Needed Tools 384

14.4 Summary 385

14.5 References 386

15. Worked Examples and Case Studies 388

15.1 Introduction 388

15.2 Application of an Inherent Safety Strategic Approach to a Process 388

15.3 Case studies from carrithers 394

15.3.1 An Exothermic Batch Reaction 395

15.3.2 Refrigeration of Monomethylamine 398

15.3.3 Elimination of a Chlorine Water Treatment System 399

15.3.4 Reduction of Chlorine Transfer Line Size 400

15.3.5 Substitution of Aqueous Ammonia for Anhydrous Ammonia 400

15.3.6 Limitation of Magnitude of Deviations for Aqueous Ammonia 403

15.3.7 A Vessel Entry Example 408

15.4 Process Route Selection - Early R&D Example 411

15.5 Example of an Inherently Safer Study of a Steam Production Facility 412

15.5.1 Facility Description 412

15.5.2 Initial Design Proposal (Liquid Anhydrous Ammonia) 412

15.5.3 Aqueous Ammonia Design Proposal 413

15.5.4 Final Round of Option Selection 415

15.5.5 Consequence Analysis 416

15.5.6 Conclusion and Action 417

15.5.7 Conclusion 419

15.6 Case Study: Bhopal 419

15.6.1 Minimization 420

15.6.2 Substitution 420

15.6.3 Moderation 420

15.6.4 Simplification 421

15.7 Example: Inherently Safer Process for Production of Trialkyl Phosphate Esters 421

15.8 Summaries in brief: Examples by IS Strategy 422

15.8.1 Minimize 423

15.8.2 Substitute 425

15.8.3 Moderate 427

15.8.4 Simplify 429

15.9 Additional literature giving examples of inherently Safer Operations 430

15.10 References 431

16. Future Initiatives 433

16.1 Incorporating Inherently Safer Design into Process Safety Management 433

16.2 Encouraging Invention within the Chemical and Chemical Engineering Community 434

16.3 Including Inherent Safety into the Education of Chemists and Chemical Engineers 434

16.4 Developing Inherently Safer Design Databases and Libraries 434

16.5 Developing Tools to Apply Inherently Safer Design 435

16.5.1 The Broad View and Life Cycle Cost of Alternatives 435

16.5.2 Benefits of Reliability Analysis 436

16.5.3 Potential Energy 436

16.5.4 A Table of Distances and Consequence/Risk-Based Siting 437

16.5.5 Quantitative Measures of Inherent Safety 437

16.5.6 Other Suggestions 438

16.6 References 439

Appendix A. Inherently Safer Technology (IST) Checklist 442

A.1 IST Checklist Procedure 442

A.2 IST Checklist Questions 444

Appendix B. Inherent Safety Analysis Approaches 455

B.1 Inherent Safety Analysis - Guided Checklist Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 459

B.2 Inherent Safety Analysis - Independent Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 464

B.3 Inherent Safety Analysis - Integral to Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 467

Glossary 469

Index 497
The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) was founded in 1985 to develop technology and management practices that mitigate or eliminate process safety incidents in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Since that time, CCPS has published more than 100 books and held dozens of international conferences, each representing the most advanced thinking in process safety. CCPS is supported by the contributions and voluntary participation of more than 200 companies globally. CCPS is also the world's largest provider of undergraduate engineering curriculum materials through its SAChE program, with more than 160 universities participating from around the world.