John Wiley & Sons Energy for Sustainable Society Cover A handbook of sustainable energy, covering entire energy aspects from present status to future alter.. Product #: 978-1-119-56130-9 Regular price: $116.19 $116.19 Auf Lager

Energy for Sustainable Society

From Resources to Users

Soysal, Oguz A. / Soysal, Hilkat S.

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1. Auflage Mai 2020
552 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-56130-9
John Wiley & Sons

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A handbook of sustainable energy, covering entire energy aspects from present status to future alternatives under one umbrella

This book takes an interdisciplinary system approach to evaluating energy systems so that readers can gain the necessary technical foundation to perform their own performance evaluations and understand their interactions with socioeconomic indicators. Topics include the current and future availability of primary sources, energy supply chain, conversion between different forms of energy, security of energy supply, and efficient end-use of energy sources. Each chapter provides readers with comprehensive background information, an outline of the current technologies, and potential future developments. The book also examines the global, economic, societal, ethical, and environmental issues associated with currently used energy technologies.

Energy for Sustainable Society: From Resources to Users starts with ageneral overview of energy systems, and describes the major elements of energy transformation and supply chain. It then discusses interdisciplinary career opportunities in the "energy engineering" field. The fundamental concepts of energy conversion, transmission, and load flow in electrical systems are covered, as are conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, and the basics of nuclear power generation and reactor types. Other chapters look at: the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and basic operation of steam turbines, gas turbines, and combined cycle heat engines used in fossil fuel and nuclear power plants; current technologies in hydroelectric power generation; renewable and alternative energy sources; energy security issues; and more.

* Contains up-to-date information on renewable energy technologies such as grid-tie, net-zero energy, battery backup, and utility-independent micro grids
* Presents the status of the share of renewable sources in the current and future energy supply mix
* Provides solved examples, case studies, self-assessment quizzes, and problems to enhance the understanding of readers
* Includes an exclusive chapter on energy security issues
* Supplemented with a companion web site featuring a solutions manual, sample problems, and additional reading material

Energy for Sustainable Society gives readers a solid foundation to study energy related subjects and is an ideal book for a first course on energy systems for upper division undergraduate and first year graduate students.

About the Authors xvii

How Was This Book Born? xix

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxv

1 Overview 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Elements of an Energy System 4

1.3 Fundamental Concepts 7

1.3.1 Work, Energy, and Power 7

1.3.2 Energy Conservation and Transformation 10

1.4 Energy Statistics 11

1.5 Primary Sources 12

1.5.1 Renewable Sources 13

1.5.2 Non-renewable Sources 14

1.6 Secondary Sources 15

1.6.1 Processed Fuels 15

1.6.1.1 Solid Fuels 16

1.6.1.2 Liquid Fuels 16

1.6.1.3 Gaseous Fuels 16

1.6.2 Electric Power 17

1.7 Energy Carriers 18

1.7.1 Electric Transmission 18

1.7.2 Steam 18

1.7.3 Water, Air, and Heat Transfer Fluids 19

1.7.4 Hydrogen 19

1.8 End Use of Energy 19

1.8.1 Consumption by Sectors 19

1.8.2 Primary Sources Consumed by End-users 21

1.9 Energy Balance 23

1.10 Energy Indicators 24

1.11 Energy and Society 29

1.11.1 Energy Sector 29

1.11.2 Geopolitical Challenges 31

1.12 Energy Engineering 32

1.13 Chapter Review 32

Further Reading 36

References 36

2 Energy Conversion and Storage 37

2.1 Introduction 38

2.2 Work, Energy, and Power 38

2.2.1 Work 39

2.2.2 Energy 39

2.2.3 Power 39

2.3 Conservation Laws 40

2.3.1 Conservation of Mass 41

2.3.2 Conservation of Momentum 41

2.3.3 Conservation of Energy 41

2.3.4 Equivalence of Energy and Mass 42

2.4 Transformation Between Energy Forms 42

2.5 Thermal Energy 44

2.5.1 Temperature and Phase Changes 45

2.5.2 Production of Heat 47

2.5.2.1 Combustion 47

2.5.2.2 Nuclear Reactions 49

2.5.2.3 Electric Heating 49

2.5.3 Heat Transfer 50

2.5.3.1 Conduction 50

2.5.3.2 Convection 51

2.5.3.3 Radiation 51

2.5.4 Thermodynamics 51

2.6 Mechanical Energy 52

2.6.1 Potential Energy 52

2.6.2 Kinetic Energy 52

2.6.3 Potential and Kinetic Energy Exchanges 53

2.6.4 Mechanical Power 54

2.6.5 Mechanical Energy Balance in Incompressible Fluids 54

2.7 Electrical Energy 55

2.7.1 Voltage and Current 56

2.7.2 Electric Power and Energy 56

2.8 Electromechanical Energy Conversion 58

2.9 Photothermal Energy Conversion 59

2.10 Photovoltaic Energy Conversion 60

2.11 Electrochemical Energy Conversion 61

2.11.1 Batteries 61

2.11.2 Fuel Cells 62

2.12 Energy Storage 65

2.12.1 Fuel Storage 66

2.12.2 Potential Energy Storage 67

2.12.3 Kinetic Energy Storage 68

2.12.4 Thermal Energy Storage 69

2.12.5 Compressed Air Storage 71

2.12.6 Hydrogen for Energy Storage 71

2.12.7 Electrical Energy Storage 72

2.12.8 Properties of Energy Storage Systems 73

2.13 Chapter Review 74

Review Quiz 76

References 78

3 Fossil Fuels 81

3.1 Introduction 82

3.2 Resources and Reserves 83

3.3 Physical Properties of Fossil Fuels 85

3.4 Coal 86

3.4.1 Properties of Coal 87

3.4.2 Coal Reserves 89

3.4.3 Coal Mining 89

3.4.3.1 Underground (Deep) Mining 90

3.4.3.2 Surface (Opencast) Mining 91

3.4.4 Preparation, Handling, and Transportation 91

3.4.5 Coal Production and Consumption 92

3.4.6 Transportation of Coal 93

3.4.7 Environmental Impacts of Coal Production 93

3.4.8 Coal Related Issues 95

3.4.9 Environmental Impacts of Coal Consumption 96

3.5 Petroleum 97

3.5.1 Types of Petroleum Formations 98

3.5.2 Properties of Crude Oil 99

3.5.3 World Oil Resources 101

3.5.4 Oil Exploration 103

3.5.5 Well Drilling Techniques 104

3.5.5.1 Planning 104

3.5.5.2 Vertical Drilling 105

3.5.5.3 Directional Drilling 105

3.5.5.4 Hydraulic Fracturing 106

3.5.5.5 Offshore and Deep Water Drilling 107

3.5.6 Recovery of Conventional Oil Deposits 108

3.5.6.1 Light Tight Oil Recovery 108

3.5.6.2 Sand Oil Recovery 110

3.5.7 Crude Oil Production 114

3.5.8 Fuel Conversions 115

3.5.9 Oil Transportation and Distribution 117

3.5.10 Challenges of the Petroleum Industry 117

3.5.10.1 Oil Well Tragedies 117

3.5.10.2 Oil Transport Hazards 118

3.6 Natural Gas 120

3.6.1 Purification and Processing of Natural-Gas 121

3.6.2 Natural Gas Resources and Reserves 123

3.6.3 Unconventional Natural Gas 123

3.6.4 Natural Gas Transportation 125

3.6.5 Storage of Natural Gas 126

3.6.6 Natural Gas Consumption 127

3.6.7 Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas Consumption 128

3.7 Chapter Review 129

Review Quiz 130

Research Topics and Problems 133

Recommended Web Sites 135

References 135

4 Nuclear Energy 139

4.1 Introduction 140

4.2 Basic Concepts of Nuclear Physics 141

4.2.1 Basic Definitions 142

4.2.2 Binding Energy and Mass Defect 143

4.3 Nuclear Reactions 145

4.3.1 Fusion Reaction 145

4.3.2 Fission Reaction 146

4.3.3 Radioactive Decay 149

4.3.4 Health Effects of Nuclear Radiation 151

4.4 Nuclear Fuels 153

4.4.1 Resources, Reserves, Production, and Consumption 153

4.4.2 Nuclear Fuel Cycle 155

4.4.2.1 Fuel Preparation 155

4.4.2.2 Uranium Enrichment 155

4.4.2.3 Nuclear Fuel Assembly 156

4.4.2.4 Critical Mass for Sustained Chain Reaction 156

4.4.2.5 Disposal of Used Nuclear Material 157

4.5 Nuclear Reactors 157

4.5.1 Reactor Core 159

4.5.2 Fuel Assembly 160

4.5.3 Moderator 160

4.5.4 Control Rods 161

4.5.5 Cooling System 161

4.5.6 Reactor Types 162

4.5.6.1 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) 162

4.5.6.2 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) 163

4.5.6.3 Pressurized Heavy-Water Reactor (PHWR) 164

4.5.6.4 Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) 165

4.5.6.5 Light Water-Cooled Graphite Reactor (LWGR) 165

4.5.6.6 Sodium Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) 165

4.6 Safety of Nuclear Power Plants 166

4.6.1 Nuclear Safety Concepts 167

4.6.2 Reactor Protection Systems 168

4.6.3 Major Nuclear Power Plant Accidents 168

4.6.3.1 Three Mile Island Accident 169

4.6.3.2 Chernobyl Nuclear Accident 170

4.6.3.3 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident 171

4.6.4 Consequences of Nuclear Accidents 171

4.7 Status of Commercial Nuclear Power 173

4.8 Outlook for Commercial Reactors 178

4.9 Benefits and Challenges of Nuclear Power Plants 179

4.10 Chapter Review 182

References 187

5 Renewable Energy Sources 189

5.1 Introduction 190

5.2 Common Features of Renewables 191

5.3 Energy Supply from Renewable Sources 193

5.3.1 Installed Renewable Power Capacity 193

5.3.2 Capacity Factor 197

5.4 Renewable Resource Potential 197

5.4.1 Assessment of Non-combustible Resources 198

5.4.2 Assessment of Biomass Resources 198

5.5 Benefits and Challenges of Renewable Energy 199

5.6 Solar Energy 203

5.6.1 Solar Resource Potential 203

5.6.2 End-use of Solar Energy 204

5.6.2.1 Passive Solar Buildings 207

5.6.2.2 Heat Production 207

5.6.2.3 Solar Electric Generation 208

5.6.3 Strengths and Challenges of Solar Energy 208

5.7 Wind Energy 209

5.7.1 Electric Generation Potential of Wind Resource 210

5.7.2 Strengths and Challenges of Wind Energy 213

5.7.3 Environmental Impacts of Wind Powered Generation 214

5.7.3.1 Visual Impact 214

5.7.3.2 Impacts on Wildlife 215

5.7.3.3 Audible Noise 215

5.8 Hydraulic Energy 215

5.8.1 Hydroelectric Potential 216

5.8.2 Strengths and Challenges of Hydroelectric Generation 217

5.9 Geothermal Energy 221

5.9.1 Sources of Geothermal Energy 222

5.9.2 Geothermal Energy Potential 223

5.9.3 End-uses of Geothermal Energy 223

5.9.3.1 Geothermal Heating 224

5.9.3.2 Geothermal Power Generation 225

5.9.4 Strengths and Challenges of Geothermal Energy 228

5.10 Biomass Energy 229

5.10.1 Biomass Sources 229

5.10.2 Energy Potential of Biomass Resources 232

5.10.3 Bioenergy Conversion Technologies 233

5.10.3.1 Thermochemical Conversion 234

5.10.3.2 Physicochemical Conversion 234

5.10.3.3 Biological Conversion 234

5.10.4 Strengths and Challenges of Bioenergy 235

5.11 Future Trend of Renewable Energy Development 236

5.12 Chapter Review 237

5.13 Review Quiz 239

References 243

6 Electric Energy Systems 245

6.1 Introduction 246

6.2 Evolution of Electric Power Systems 246

6.2.1 Early Electrification Systems 248

6.2.2 Development of Transmission Options for Growing Needs 250

6.2.3 Interconnected Grid 252

6.3 Fundamental Concepts of Electric Circuit Analysis 254

6.3.1 Basic Definitions 254

6.3.2 Fundamental Laws 255

6.3.3 DC Circuits 256

6.3.4 AC Circuits 257

6.3.4.1 Fundamental Concepts and Definitions 257

6.3.4.2 Phasor Quantities 258

6.3.5 Three Phase Electric System 260

6.3.6 Per-Phase Analysis 263

6.4 AC Power 263

6.4.1 Power in Single-Phase Circuits 263

6.4.2 Power Factor Considerations 265

6.4.3 Power in Three-Phase Systems 267

6.5 Electromagnetic Field 268

6.5.1 Ampere's Law 268

6.5.2 Magnetic Flux 268

6.5.3 Magnetic Properties of Substances 269

6.5.4 Magnetic Circuits 270

6.5.5 Faraday's Law 272

6.6 Transformers 274

6.6.1 Operation Principle 274

6.6.2 Industrial Transformer Tests 277

6.6.2.1 Open-circuit (No-load) Test 277

6.6.2.2 Short-circuit Test 277

6.6.3 Three-phase Transformers 278

6.7 Electromechanical Energy Conversion 280

6.7.1 Basic Motor and Generator 281

6.7.2 Efficiency of Electromechanical Energy Conversion 282

6.8 Electric Generation 284

6.8.1 Synchronous Generators 284

6.8.1.1 Single-Phase Generation 285

6.8.1.2 Three-phase Generation 285

6.8.1.3 Motor Operation 286

6.8.1.4 Rotating Magnetic Field 287

6.8.2 Induction Machines 288

6.8.2.1 Induction Motor 288

6.8.2.2 Induction Generator 290

6.9 Electric Transmission and Distribution 292

6.9.1 Transmission Line Parameters 293

6.9.1.1 Line Resistance 294

6.9.1.2 Line Inductance 295

6.9.1.3 Line Capacitance 295

6.9.2 Representation of Transmission Lines 296

6.9.3 Short Transmission Lines 297

6.9.3.1 Resistive Losses 297

6.9.4 DC Transmission and Distribution 299

6.9.4.1 Voltage Regulation 300

6.10 Electric Loads 300

6.11 Chapter Review 301

References 305

7 Thermal Power Generation 307

7.1 Introduction 308

7.2 Principles of Thermodynamics 309

7.2.1 Heat and Temperature 309

7.2.1.1 Common Temperature Scales 309

7.2.1.2 Absolute Temperature Scale 310

7.2.2 Internal Energy 312

7.2.3 Laws of Thermodynamics 312

7.2.3.1 Thermal Equilibrium: Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 312

7.2.3.2 First Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of Energy 312

7.2.3.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Direction of Heat Flow 313

7.2.4 Entropy 313

7.2.5 Enthalpy 314

7.2.6 Reversibility of Energy Flow 315

7.2.7 State of a System 315

7.3 Thermodynamic Processes 315

7.3.1 Isothermal Process 316

7.3.2 Adiabatic Process 316

7.3.3 Carnot Cycle 317

7.3.4 Carnot Heat Engine 318

7.4 Efficiency and Heat Rate 318

7.4.1 Carnot Efficiency 318

7.4.2 Heat Rate of Thermoelectric Generation Units 319

7.5 Steam Turbines 320

7.5.1 Evaporation Properties of Water 321

7.6 Carnot Heat Engine 324

7.7 Rankine Cycle 328

7.8 Improved Efficiency Steam Turbines 331

7.9 Gas Turbines 332

7.9.1 Brayton (Joule) Cycle 333

7.10 Improved Efficiency Thermal Systems 335

7.10.1 Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) 336

7.10.2 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems 336

7.11 Chapter Review 337

References 342

8 Hydropower 343

8.1 Introduction 344

8.2 Basic Concepts of Hydrodynamics 344

8.2.1 Density and Specific Mass 344

8.2.2 Pressure 345

8.2.3 Flow Rate 345

8.2.4 Conservation of Mass in Steady Liquid Flow 346

8.3 Bernoulli's Principle 346

8.4 Euler's Turbomachine Equation 347

8.5 Hydraulic Turbines 348

8.5.1 Pelton Turbine 350

8.5.2 Francis Turbine 351

8.5.3 Kaplan Turbine 353

8.6 Hydroelectric Generation 354

8.7 Turbine Selection 356

8.8 Hydroelectric Station Types 356

8.9 Dam Structures 357

8.10 Strengths and Challenges of Hydroelectric Power Plants 358

8.11 Chapter Review 360

References 364

9 Wind Energy Systems 365

9.1 Introduction 366

9.2 Sources of Wind 367

9.3 Wind Shear 369

9.4 Wind Regimes 371

9.4.1 Site Wind Profile 372

9.4.2 Weibull Distribution 374

9.4.3 Rayleigh Distribution 376

9.5 Wind Turbine Types 377

9.5.1 Maximum Turbine Power and Torque 379

9.5.2 Performance Coefficients 381

9.5.3 Blade Aerodynamics 383

9.5.3.1 Pitch Angle 383

9.5.3.2 Lift and Drag Forces 385

9.5.3.3 Chord Length 387

9.5.4 Blade Design 388

9.6 Wind-powered Electric Generation 389

9.6.1 Turbine-Generator Characteristics 389

9.6.2 Output Power Control 390

9.6.2.1 Pitch Control 390

9.6.2.2 Stall Control 391

9.6.3 Generator Types 391

9.6.3.1 Synchronous Generators 392

9.6.3.2 Asynchronous (Induction) Generators 393

9.6.3.3 Stand-Alone Operation 394

9.6.3.4 Grid Connected Operation 394

9.6.4 Grid Integration of Wind Powered Generation 395

9.7 Energy Output Estimation 395

9.8 Chapter Review 398

References 403

10 Solar Energy Systems 405

10.1 Introduction 406

10.2 Solar Radiation 407

10.2.1 Solar Constant 407

10.2.2 Effect of Clear Atmosphere on Solar Radiation 409

10.2.3 Solar Geometry 409

10.2.4 Solar Time 412

10.2.5 Incident Solar Radiation on a Collecting Surface 413

10.2.6 Estimation of Total Irradiance on an Inclined Surface 414

10.2.6.1 Estimation of Direct-Beam Radiation 415

10.2.6.2 Estimation of Diffuse Radiation 415

10.2.6.3 Reflected Radiation 415

10.2.7 Solar Array Orientation 416

10.3 Solar Thermal Energy Conversion 416

10.3.1 Solar Collector Types 416

10.3.2 Solar Collector Performance and Efficiency 418

10.4 Photovoltaic Energy Conversion 419

10.4.1 Structure of Silicon Crystal 419

10.4.2 Operation of a PV Cell 420

10.4.3 Output Characteristic and Delivered Power 423

10.4.4 PV Technologies and Cell Efficiency 425

10.5 PV Generation Systems 426

10.5.1 PV Generation System Configurations 428

10.6 Concentrated Solar Power 429

10.7 Chapter Review 430

References 435

11 Energy Security 437

11.1 Introduction 438

11.2 Aspects of Energy Security 439

11.2.1 Types of Energy Security Concerns 440

11.2.2 Short-term Energy Security 441

11.2.3 Mid-term Energy Security 442

11.2.4 Long-term Energy Security 442

11.2.5 Energy Security Indicators 443

11.3 Cost of Electric Outages 444

11.4 Resource Availability 447

11.5 Energy Interdependence 449

11.6 Chapter Review 452

References 455

12 Energy and Sustainable Development 457

12.1 Introduction 458

12.2 Sustainable Development Goals 458

12.3 Environmental Impacts of Energy Systems 460

12.3.1 Ground Level Air Pollution 460

12.3.2 Acid Rain 461

12.3.3 Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change 461

12.3.4 Carbon Footprint of Consumers 465

12.4 Energy, Water, and Food Interactions 468

12.4.1 Water Sources 470

12.4.2 Water Use for Energy 470

12.4.3 Energy Use for Water 472

12.4.4 Energy Invested for Energy 475

12.5 Energy Management 478

12.5.1 Resource Coordination 479

12.5.2 Supply-side Energy Management 480

12.5.3 Load-side Energy Management 483

12.5.4 Site Energy and Source Energy 486

12.5.4.1 Direct Use of Fuels 487

12.5.4.2 Use of Grid Electricity 488

12.5.4.3 On-site Electric Generation 490

12.6 Chapter Review 491

References 495

Appendix A: Unit Conversion Factors 499

Appendix B: Calorific Values of Common Fuels 503

Appendix C: Abbreviations and Acronyms 507

Glossary 513

Index 519
OGUZ A. SOYSAL, PHD, is a Professor in the Department of Physics and Engineering at Frostburg State University, Maryland, USA. Dr. Soysal taught at several universities in Turkey, participated in research projects at the Ohio State University, Columbus OH and University of Toronto in Canada as a visiting scholar, and worked as a visiting professor at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, PA. His area of teaching includes energy systems, power electronics, control systems, and electromechanical energy conversion. He co-authored a textbook on Fault Conditions in Electric Energy Systems and published more than 50 papers in major journals and international conference proceedings.

HILKAT S. SOYSAL, LL.B, M.S.c, practiced law for over 15 years before she started teaching engineering-related law courses at the college of engineering at Istanbul University in Turkey. She also taught engineering courses in the Department of Physics and Engineering at Frostburg State University, Frostburg, Maryland. Since 2000, she directed several renewable energy projects including WISE Education Program, Hydrogen Collection and Storage for Power Systems, and Sustainable Energy Research Facility (SERF).