John Wiley & Sons A Comprehensive Guide to Radiographic Sciences and Technology Cover A comprehensive and succinct guide to radiographic physics and imaging, covering all the core compon.. Product #: 978-1-119-58184-0 Regular price: $61.59 $61.59 Auf Lager

A Comprehensive Guide to Radiographic Sciences and Technology

Seeram, Euclid

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1. Auflage Juni 2021
240 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-58184-0
John Wiley & Sons

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A comprehensive and succinct guide to radiographic physics and imaging, covering all the core components of the radiographic sciences, including digital imaging production and equipment, radiation protection and safety, and the principles of Computed Tomography.
* Designed to support students preparing to sit certification and board examinations, including the American Registry for Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) and other global radiography certification examinations.
* Addresses the core radiographic science components of the ASRT curriculum, including digital imaging production and equipment, radiation protection and safety, and the principles of Computed Tomography.
* Useful for students and practitioners in diagnostic medical radiation technology, radiography and medical radiation sciences, as well as in biomedical engineering technology.

Foreword

Preface

SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1: Radiographic Sciences and Technology: An Overview

Radiographic Imaging Systems: Major Modalities and Components

Radiographic Imaging Physics

Essential Physics of Diagnostic Imaging

Digital Radiographic Imaging Modalities

Radiographic Exposure Technique

Image Quality Considerations

Computed Tomography-Physics and Instrumentation

Quality Control

Imaging Informatics at a Glance

Radiation Protection and Dose Optimization

Radiobiology

Technical Factors Affecting Dose in Radiographic Imaging

Radiation Protection in Diagnostic Radiography

Radiation Protection Regulations

Optimization of Radiation Protection

References

Chapter 2: Digital Radiographic Imaging Systems: Major Components

Film-Screen Radiography: A Short Review of Principles

Digital Radiography Modalities: Major System Components

Computed Radiography

Flat-Panel Digital Radiography

Digital Fluoroscopy

Digital Mammography

Computed Tomography

Image Communication Systems

Picture Archiving and Communication System

References

SECTION 2: BASIC RADIOGRAPHIC SCIENCES and TECHNOLOGY

Chapter 3: Basic Physics of Diagnostic Radiography

Structure of the Atom

Nucleus

Electrons, Quantum Levels, Binding Energy, Electron Volts

Energy Dissipation in Matter

Excitation

Ionization

Types of Radiation

Electromagnetic

Particulate

X-Ray Generation

X-Ray Production

Properties of X-rays

Origin of X-Rays

Characteristic Radiation

Bremstrahlung Radiation

X-ray Emission

X-Ray Beam Quantity and Quality

Factors Affecting X-Ray Beam Quantity and Quality

Interaction of Radiation with Matter

Mechanisms of Interaction in Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging

Radiation Attenuation

Linear Attenuation Coefficient

Mass Attenuation Coefficient

Half Value Layer

Radiation Quantities and Units

References

Chapter 4: The X-Ray Tube and Generator

Physical Components of the X-Ray Machine

Components of the X-Ray Circuit

The Power Supply to the X-Ray Circuit

The Low Voltage Section (Control Console)

The High Voltage Section

Types of X-Ray Generators

Three-Phase Generators

High-Frequency Generators

Power Ratings

The X-Ray Tube: Structure and Function

Major Components

Special X-Ray Tubes: Basic Design Features

Double-Bearing Axle

Heat Capacity and Heat Dissipation Considerations

X-Ray Beam Filtration and Collimation

Inherent and Added Filtration

Effects of Filtration on X-ray Tube Output Intensity

Half-Value Layer

Collimation

References

Chapter 5: Digital Image Processing at a Glance

Digital Image Processing

Definition

Image Formation and Representation

Processing Operations

Characteristics of Digital Images

Gray Scale Processing

Windowing

Conclusion

References

Chapter 6: Digital Radiographic Imaging Modalities: Principles and Technology

Computer Radiography

Essential Steps

Basic Physical Principles

Response of the IP to Radiation Exposure

Standardized Exposure Indicator

Flat-Panel Digital Radiography

What is Flat-Panel Digital Radiography (FPDR)?

Types of FPDR Systems

Basic Physical Principles of Indirect and Direct Flat-Panel Detectors

The Fill Factor of the Pixel in the Flat-Panel Detector

Exposure Indicator

Image Quality Descriptors for DR Systems

Continuous Quality Improvement for DR Systems

Digital Fluoroscopy

Digital Fluoroscopy Modes

Image Intensifier-Based Digital Fluoroscopy Characteristics

Flat-Panel Digital Fluoroscopy Characteristics

Digital Mammography

Screen-Film Mammography: Basic Principles

Full-Field Digital Mammography-Major Elements

Digital Tomosynthesis at a Glance

Imaging System Characteristics

Synthesized 2D Digital Mammography

References

Chapter 7: Image Quality and Dose

The process of Creating an Image

Image Quality Metrics

Contrast

Contrast Resolution

Spatial Resolution

Noise

Contrast-to-Noise Ratio

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Artifacts

Dose and Image Quality

Digital Detector Response to the Dose

Detective Quantum Efficiency

References

SECTION 3: COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY: BASIC PHYSICS and TECHNOLOGY

Chapter 8: The Essential Technical Aspects of Computed Tomography

Physics

Radiation Attenuation

Technology

Data Acquisition: Principles and Components

Image Reconstruction

Image Display, Storage, and Communication

MultiSlice CT (MSCT): Principles and Technology

Slip-Ring Technology

X-Ray Tube Technology

Interpolation Algorithms

MSCT Detector Technology

Selectable Scan Parameters

Isotropic CT Imaging

MSCT Image Processing

Image Postprocessing

Windowing

3-D Image Display Techniques

Image Quality

Spatial Resolution

Contrast Resolution

Noise

Radiation Protection

CT Dosimetry

Factors Affecting Patient Dose

Optimizing Radiation Protection

Conclusion

References

SECTION 4: CONTINUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

Chapter 9: Fundamentals of Quality Control

Introduction

Definitions

Essential Steps of QC

QC Responsibilities

Steps in Conducting a QC Test

The Tolerance Limits or Acceptance Criteria

Parameters for QC Monitoring

QC Testing Frequency

Tools for QC Testing

The Format of a QC Test

Performance Criteria/Tolerance Limits for Common QC Tests

Radiography

Fluoroscopy

Repeat Image Analysis

Computed Tomography QC Tests for Technologists

References

SECTION 5: PACS and IMAGING INFORMATICS

Chapter 10: Imaging Informatics at a Glance

Introduction

Picture Archiving and Communication Systems: Characteristic Features

Definition

Core Technical Components

Imaging Informatics?

Enterprise Imaging

Cloud Computing

Big Data

Artificial Intelligence

Machine Learning and Deep Learning

Applications in Medical Imaging

AI in CT Image Reconstruction

Ethics of AI in Radiology-A Joint Multi-Society Summary Statement.

References

SECTION 5: RADIATION PROTECTION

Chapter 11: Basic Concepts of Radiobiology

What is Radiobiology?

Generalizations About Radiation Effects on Living Organisms

Relevant Physical Processes

Ionization

Excitation

Linear Energy Transfer

Relative Biological Effectiveness

Radiolysis of Water

Dose-Response Models

The Linear Non-Threshold (LNT) Dose-Response Model

The Linear Threshold Dose-Response Model

Stochastic Effects

Deterministic Effects

Radiation Effects on the Conceptus

References

Chapter 12: Technical Dose Factors in Radiography, Fluoroscopy, and CT

Dose Factors in Digital Radiography

The X-Ray Generator

Exposure Technique Factors

X-Ray Beam Filtration

Collimation and Field Size

SID and SSD

Patient Thickness and Density

Scattered Radiation Grid

The Sensitivity of the Image Receptor

Dose Factors in Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopic Exposure Factors

Fluoroscopic Equipment Factors

CT Radiation Dose Factors and Dose Optimization Considerations

Dose Distribution in the Patient

CT dose Metrics

Factors Affecting the Dose in CT

Dose Optimization Overview

References

Chapter 13: Essential Principles of Radiation Protection

Introduction

Why Radiation Protection?

Categories of Data from Human Exposure

Radiation Dose-Risk Models

Summary of Biological Effects

Radiation Protection Organizations

Objectives of Radiation Protection

Radiation Protection Philosophy

ICRP Radiation Protection Framework

Justification

Optimization

Dose Limits

Dose Limits

Personal Actions

Time

Shielding

Distance

Radiation Quantities and Units

Sources of Radiation Exposure

Quantities and Units

Personnel Dosimetry

Optimization of Radiation Protection

Regulatory and Guidance Recommendations

Diagnostic Reference Levels

Gonadal Shielding: Past Considerations

X-Ray Protective Shielding

Current State of Gonadal Shielding

References Index
Dr Euclid Seeram, PhD, MSc, BSc, FCAMRT, currently serves as honorary senior lecturer at the University of Sydney-Faculty of Health Sciences; adjunct associate professor at Monash University-Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences; adjunct professor at Charles Sturt University-Faculty of Science; and Adjunct Associate Professor-Faculty of Health, University of Canberra; in Australia.
He has published more than 50 papers in professional radiologic technology journals and has had 20 textbooks published on computed tomography, computers in radiology, radiographic instrumentation, digital radiography, and radiation protection. He is a founding member of the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences and is now on editorial boards for Radiography; Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal; Open Journal of Radiology; Journal of Allied Health; Journal of Social Science & Allied Health Professions. Euclid also serves on the international advisory panel for the Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences.

E. Seeram, British Columbia Institute of Technology Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Canada