John Wiley & Sons Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry Cover Provides complete and up-to-date coverage of the foundational principles, enabling technologies, and.. Product #: 978-1-119-63636-6 Regular price: $142.06 $142.06 Auf Lager

Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry

Volume 1: Technologies and Instrumentation

Crocombe, Richard A. / Leary, Pauline E. / Kammrath, Brooke W. (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Mai 2021
608 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-63636-6
John Wiley & Sons

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Provides complete and up-to-date coverage of the foundational principles, enabling technologies, and specific instruments of portable spectrometry

Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry: Volume One is both a timely overview of the miniature technologies used in spectrometry, and an authoritative guide to the specific instruments employed in a wide range of disciplines. This much-needed resource is the first comprehensive work to describe the enabling technologies of portable spectrometry, explain how various handheld and portable instruments work, discuss their potential limitations, and provide clear guidance on optimizing their utility and accuracy in the field. In-depth chapters--written by a team of international authors from a wide range of disciplinary backgrounds--have been carefully reviewed both by the editors and by third-party experts to ensure their quality and completeness.

Volume One begins with general discussion of portable spectrometer engineering before moving through the electromagnetic spectrum to cover x-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-visible, near-infrared, mid-infrared, and Raman spectroscopies. Subsequent chapters examine microplasmas, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and a variety of portable mass spectrometry instrument types. Featuring detailed chapters on DNA instrumentation and biological analyzers--topics of intense interest in light of the global coronavirus pandemic--this timely volume:
* Provides comprehensive coverage of the principles and instruments central to portable spectroscopy
* Includes contributions by experienced professionals working in instrument companies, universities, research institutes, the military, and hazardous material teams
* Discusses special topics such as smartphone spectroscopy, optical filter technology, stand-off detection, and MEMS/MOEMS technology
* Covers elemental spectroscopy, optical molecular spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and molecular and imaging technologies

Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry: Volume One is an indispensable resource for developers of portable instruments, civilian and government purchasers and operators, and teachers and students of portable spectroscopy. When combined with Volume Two, which focuses on the multitude of applications of portable instrumentation, Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry provides the most thorough coverage of the field currently available.

List of Contributors xiii

Foreword xvii

Preface for Volume 1 xix

Acknowledgements xxi

1 Introduction to Portable Spectroscopy 1
Pauline E. Leary, Richard A. Crocombe and Brooke W. Kammrath

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Defining Portable Spectrometers 1

1.3 Performance 2

1.4 History and Availability 4

1.5 Instrument Design and Enabling Technologies 7

1.6 Producing Results 8

1.7 Outline of These Volumes 9

Acronyms and Abbreviations 11

References 12

2 Engineering Portable Instruments 15
Terry Sauer

2.1 Size/Weight 15

2.2 Sample Interface 16

2.3 Embedded Computer vs. External Personal Computer (PC) 16

2.4 Reduced Feature Set 17

2.5 Target of Non-Spectroscopist 17

2.6 Power Budget 18

2.7 Voltage Conversion 18

2.8 Decon/Ingress Protection (IP) Rating 19

2.9 Testing the Seal 20

2.10 Gloved Operation 20

2.11 Display 21

2.12 Thermal Concerns 23

2.13 Optical Elements 27

2.14 Interferometer Optical Design 27

2.15 Interferometer Bearings 29

2.16 Vibration 30

2.17 Shock 30

2.18 Battery 31

2.19 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) 32

2.20 Ergonomics 34

2.21 Laser Safety 34

2.22 Stability 35

2.23 Service 38

2.24 Communications/Wireless 38

References 38

3 Design Considerations for Portable Mid-Infrared FTIR Spectrometers Used for In-Field Identifications of Threat Materials 41
David W. Schiering and John T. Stein

3.1 Introduction and Background 41

3.2 FTIR System Components 44

3.3 FTIR Spectrometer Performance Attributes 53

3.4 Modeling and Simulation Guide to Portable Instrument Design and Development 55

3.5 Portable FTIR Performance Benchmarks 60

3.6 Conclusion 62

Abbreviations and Acronyms 62

References 63

4 PAT Applications of NIR Spectroscopy in the Pharmaceutical Industry 67
Pierre-Yves Sacré, Charlotte De Bleye, Philippe Hubert and Eric Ziemons

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Continuous Manufacturing and Real-Time Release Testing 67

4.3 PAT Implementation of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy 73

4.4 Conclusion 79

Glossary 81

References 82

5 MOEMS and MEMS - Technology, Benefits & Uses 89
Heinrich Grüger

5.1 Introduction 89

5.2 Grating-Based Spectrometers 92

5.3 Fourier Transform Spectrometer 101

5.4 Tunable Fabry-Perot Interferometer 104

5.5 Integration Strategies for MEMS-/MOEMS-Based Spectrometers 106

5.6 Use of MEMS-Based NIR Spectrometers 108

Acronyms and Abbreviations 109

References 110

6 Portable Raman Spectroscopy: Instrumentation and Technology 115
Cicely Rathmell, Dieter Bingemann, Mark Zieg and David Creasey

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 The Case for Raman: Capabilities and Scope 115

6.3 The Theory of Raman Spectra 116

6.4 Basics of a Raman System 119

6.5 "Portable" Versus "Handheld" Versus "Mini" 119

6.6 Performance Needs in Portable Raman Instruments 120

6.7 Excitation Laser 122

6.8 Optical Filters and Sampling Optics 125

6.9 Spectrometer Design 127

6.10 Sample Interface and Accessories 134

6.11 Spectral Processing and Analysis 135

6.12 Special Cases 138

6.13 Conclusion 140

Acronyms and Abbreviations 141

References 141

7 Optical Filters - Technology and Applications 147
Oliver Pust

7.1 Overview on the Use of Optical Filters in Spectroscopy 147

7.2 Optical Filters as Auxiliary Filters 154

7.3 Optical Filters as Complementary Filters 159

7.4 Optical Filters asWavelength Selective Element 161

7.5 Conclusion and Outlook 175

References 176

8 Portable UV-Visible Spectroscopy - Instrumentation, Technology, and Applications 179
Anshuman Das

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 Typical Instrumentation of a Portable UV-Vis Spectrometer 180

8.3 Measurement Configurations 183

8.4 Types of Instrumentation Used in UV-Vis Spectroscopy 187

8.5 Applications 193

8.6 Challenges for Portable Spectrometers 202

8.7 Outlook 204

References 204

9 Smartphone Technology - Instrumentation and Applications 209
Alexander Scheeline

9.1 Introduction and Context 209

9.2 Challenges of Smartphone Spectrometry 210

9.3 Progress to Date 213

9.4 Conclusion and Prospective 230

References 230

10 Portable Standoff Optical Spectroscopy for Safety and Security 237
Matthew P. Nelson and Nathaniel R. Gomer

10.1 Introduction 237

10.2 Portable Standoff Optical Instrument Types 240

10.3 Portable Standoff Optical Instrument Technologies 242

10.4 Portable Standoff Optical Spectroscopy Sensor Selection 248

10.5 Portable Standoff Optical Spectroscopy Sensors and Applications 253

10.6 Conclusions and Future Direction 269

Acronyms and Abbreviations 269

References 270

11 Microplasmas for Portable Optical Emission Spectrometry 275
Vassili Karanassios

11.1 Introduction 275

11.2 A Brief Review of the Portable Microplasma Literature 276

11.3 Conclusion 284

Acronyms 284

Abbreviations 284

Acknowledgments 285

References 285

12 Portable Electro-Optical-Infrared Spectroscopic Sensors for Standoff Detection of Chemical Leaks and Threats 289
Hugo Lavoie, Jean-Marc Thériault, Eldon Puckrin, Richard L. Lachance, Alexandre Thibeault, Yotam Ariel and Jean Albert

12.1 Introduction 289

12.2 A Differential FTIR Approach for Standoff Gas Detection 289

12.3 iCATSI Sensor 297

12.4 Active FTIR for Ground Contamination Detection 299

12.5 Signature Collection: Broadband Portable Field Spectral Reflectometer 303

12.6 Imaging Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry 308

12.7 Conclusion 317

References 317

13 Handheld Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (HHLIBS) 321
David Day

13.1 Introduction 321

13.2 Handheld LIBS-Enabling Technologies 323

13.3 Commercial HHLIBS Specifications 337

13.4 HHLIBS Applications 337

13.5 Summary and Future Expectations 341

References 341

14 Miniaturized Mass Spectrometry - Instrumentation, Technology, and Applications 345
Dalton T. Snyder

14.1 Introduction 345

14.2 Instrumentation 346

14.3 Applications 358

14.4 Summary and Outlook 364

Acronyms 364

Further Reading 365

15 Portable Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Instrumentation and Applications 367
Pauline E. Leary, Brooke W. Kammrath and John A. Reffner

15.1 Introduction 367

15.2 History of Portable GC-MS 368

15.3 Critical Components for Portability 370

15.4 Applications 379

15.5 The Future of Portable GC-MS 384

Acknowledgments 385

References 385

16 Development of High-Pressure Mass Spectrometry for Handheld and Benchtop Analyzers 391
Kenion H. Blakeman and Scott E. Miller

16.1 Introduction 391

16.2 Ion Trap Development for HPMS 392

16.3 Commercialization and Applications 401

16.4 Conclusions 408

References 408

17 Key Instrumentation Developments That Have Led to Portable Ion Mobility Spectrometer Systems 415
Reno F. DeBono and Pauline E. Leary

17.1 Background and History 415

17.2 Principles of Ion Mobility Spectrometry 417

17.3 Current Innovations and Future Directions 439

17.4 Conclusions 441

Acronyms 442

Abbreviations and Symbols 443

References 444

18 X-Ray Sources for Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Instruments 449
Sterling Cornaby

18.1 Background 449

18.2 The Miniature X-Ray Source 450

18.3 The Selection of a Target Anode Material for XRF 455

18.4 Functionality of X-Ray Sources for HHXRF 461

18.5 Conclusion 472

References 473

19 Semiconductor Detectors for Portable Energy-Dispersive XRF Spectrometry 475
Andrei Stratilatov

19.1 Introduction 475

19.2 Semiconductor Detector Fundamentals: Signal Formation 476

19.3 Detectors for Portable Spectrometers: Design and Performance 486

19.4 Silicon Drift Detectors 489

19.5 Si Detectors' Quantum Efficiency: X-Ray EntranceWindows 491

19.6 Conclusion 498

Acronyms and Abbreviations 499

References 499

20 Field-Deployable Utility of Benchtop Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometers 501
Koby L. Kizzire and Griffin Cassata

20.1 Introduction 501

20.2 NMR Theory 503

20.3 Magnet Miniaturization 505

20.4 Improvements in Sensitivity and Resolution 506

20.5 Current bNMR Spectrometers 507

20.6 Applications 509

20.7 Conclusion 510

References 511

21 Rapid DNA Analysis - Need, Technology, and Applications 515
Claire L. Glynn and Angie Ambers

21.1 Need for Speed 515

21.2 Technology 518

21.3 Applications 529

21.4 Limitations and Important Considerations 538

21.5 Future Considerations and Conclusions 539

A Appendix 540

A.1 Acronyms 540

References 541

22 Portable Biological Spectroscopy: Field Applications 545
Brian Damit and Miquel Antoine

22.1 Introduction 545

22.2 Organization of This Chapter 547

22.3 Attributes of Field-Portable Spectroscopy Systems 547

22.4 Field Applications 548

22.5 Summary, Challenges, and Outlook 558

Acknowledgements 558

List of Acronyms 559

References 559

Index 565
RICHARD A. CROCOMBE, PHD, operates Crocombe Spectroscopy Consulting, served as the 2020 President of the Society for Applied Spectroscopy (SAS), and is Chair of the SPIE 'Next-Generation Spectroscopic Technologies' conference. He has 40 years of experience in the analytical instrumentation business. For the last 15 years, he has specialized in miniature and portable spectrometers.

PAULINE E. LEARY, PHD, is a Reachback Chemist at Federal Resources where she specializes in miniature and portable spectrometers and instrument platforms. For over 15 years, she has been training users, including field scientists, emergency responders, and conventional and specialized forces of the United States military, on the theory and operation of portable systems. Pauline has presented on portable instruments at conferences and technical symposia throughout the world.

BROOKE W. KAMMRATH, PHD, is the Assistant Director of the Henry C. Lee Institute of Forensic Science and an Associate Professor in the Forensic Science Department of the Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences at University of New Haven. She also serves as a scientific consultant and expert witness for both criminal and civil cases. She served as the President of the New York Microscopical Society (NYMS) from 2017-2019, is on the Governing Board of the Eastern Analytical Symposium (EAS), and is a Diplomate of the American Board of Criminalistics (ABC).