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Scramjet Propulsion

A Practical Introduction

Musielak, Dora

Aerospace Series (PEP)


1. Auflage Dezember 2022
512 Seiten, Hardcover

ISBN: 978-1-119-64060-8
John Wiley & Sons

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Scramjet Propulsion

Explore the cutting edge of HAP technologies with this comprehensive resource from an international leader in her field

Scramjet Propulsion: A Practical Introduction delivers a comprehensive treatment of hypersonic air breathing propulsion and its applications. The book covers the most up-to-date hypersonic technologies, like endothermic fuels, fuel injection and flameholding systems, high temperature materials, and TPS, and offers technological overviews of hypersonic flight platforms like the X-43A, X-51A, and HiFIRE. It is organized around easy-to-understand explanations of technical challenges and provides extensive references for the information contained within.

The highly accomplished author provides readers with a fulsome description of the theoretical underpinnings of hypersonic technologies, as well as critical design and technology issues affecting hypersonic air breathing propulsion technologies. The book's combination of introductory theory and advanced instruction about individual hypersonic engine components is ideal for students and practitioners in fields as diverse as hypersonic vehicle and propulsion development for missile defense technologies, launch aerospaceplanes, and civilian transports. Over 250 illustrations and tables round out the material. Readers will also learn from:
* A thorough introduction to hypersonic flight, hypersonic vehicle concepts, and a review of fundamental principles in hypersonic air breathing propulsion
* Explorations of the aerothermodynamics of scramjet engines and the design of scramjet components, as well as hypersonic air breathing propulsion combustors and fuels
* Analyses of dual-mode combustion phenomena, materials structures, and thermal management in hypersonic vehicles, and combined cycle propulsion
* An examination of CFD analysis, ground and flight testing, and simulation

Perfect for researchers and graduate students in aerospace engineering, Scramjet Propulsion: A Practical Introduction is also an indispensable addition to the libraries of engineers working on hypersonic vehicle development seeking a state-of-the-art resource in one of the most potentially disruptive areas of aerospace research today.


Chapter 1 Introduction to Hypersonic Air Breathing Propulsion 1

1.1 Hypersonic Flow and Hypersonic Flight 3

1.2 Chemical Propulsion Systems 5

1.3 Classes of Hypersonic Vehicles 11

1.4 Scramjet Engine-Vehicle Integration 14

1.5 Chemical Propulsion Performance Comparison 15

1.6 Hypersonic Air Breathing Propulsion Historical Overview 17

1.7 Scramjet Flight Demonstration Programs 24

1.8 New Hypersonic Air Breathing Propulsion Programs 27

1.9 Critical Technologies 30

1.10 Critical Design Issues 33

References 36

Chapter 2 Theoretical Background

2.1 Atmospheric Flight

2.2 Air Thermodynamic Models

2.3 Fundamental Equations

2.4 Thermodynamic Cycle of Air-Breathing Propulsion

2.5 Air-Breathing Propulsion Performance Measures

2.6 Shock Waves in Hypersonic Flow

2.7 One-Dimensional Flow with Heat Addition

2.8 Closing Remarks


Chapter 3 Aerothermodynamics of Vehicle-Integrated Scramjet

3.1 Aerothermodynamic Environment

3.2 Hypersonic Viscous Flow Phenomena

3.3 Laminar to Turbulent Transition in Hypersonic Flows

3.4 Hypersonic Flowfield for Propulsion-Integrated Vehicles

3.5 Convective Heat Transfer or Aerodynamic Heating

3.6 NASA X-43A Leading Edge Flight Hardware

3.7 Inlet Shock-On Lip Condition or Inlet Speeding

3.8 Shock-Boundary Layer Interactions in the Propulsion Flowpath

3.9 Inlet Unstart

3.10 Closing Remarks


Chapter 4 Scramjet Inlet/Forebody and Isolator

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Engine Inlet Function and Design Requirements

4.3 Inlet Types

4.4 Inlet Compression System Performance

4.5 Hypersonic Inlet Design

4.6 Inlet Operation: Start and Unstart

4.7 Inlet Aerodynamics

4.8 Isolator


Chapter 5 Scramjet Combustor

5.1 Combustor Process Desired Properties

5.2 Combustor Entrance Conditions

5.3 Combustion Stoichiometry

5.4 Combustion Flowfield

5.5 Scramjet Combustor Geometry

5.6 Scramjet Combustor Design Issues

5.7 Closing Remarks


Chapter 6 Fuels for Hypersonic Air-Breathing Propulsion

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Endothermic Fuels

6.3 Heat Sink Capacity of Hydrogen and Endothermic Fuels

6.4 Fuel Heat Sink Requirements

6.5 Ignition Characteristics of Fuels

6.6 Mixing Characteristics of Cracked Hydrocarbon Fuels

6.7 Structural and Heat Transfer Considerations

6.8 Fuel System Integration and Control

6.9 Combustor Technical Challenges with Hydrocarbon Fuels

6.10 Impact of Fuel Selection on Hypersonic Vehicle Design

6.11 Fuels Research for Air-Breathing Propulsion


Chapter 7 Dual-Mode Combustion Scramjet

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Phenomenological Description of Dual-Mode Scramjet

7.3 Heat Addition to Flow in Constant Area Duct

7.4 Divergent Combustor and Heat Release

7.5 Combustor Mode Transition Studies

7.6 Closing Remarks


Chapter 8 Scramjet Nozzle/Aftbody

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Nozzle Geometric Configurations

8.3 Nozzle Performance Parameters

8.4 Nozzle Flow Losses

8.5 SERN Design

8.6 Nozzle Ground Testing Issues

8.7 Special Topics for Further Research

8.8 Closing Remarks


Chapter 9 Materials, Structures, and Thermal Management

9.1 Hypersonic Flight Mission Characteristics

9.2 Aerodynamic Heating

9.3 Hypersonic Integrated Structures

9.4 High Temperature Materials Requirements and Properties

9.5 Selected Materials for Hypersonics

9.6 Examples of Vehicle Development Structure and Materials

9.7 Materials and Structures Technical Challenges


Chapter 10 Scramjets and Combined Cycle Propulsion

10.1 Aerospace Propulsion

10.2 Combined Cycle Propulsion for Hypersonic Cruise

10.3 From Take-off to Hypersonic Cruise

10.4 Ideal Cycle Analysis of Turbojet and Ramjet Engines

10.5 One-Stage and Two-Stage to Orbit Concepts

10.6 Propulsion for Spaceplanes

10.7 Hydrogen for Hypersonic Air-Breathing Propulsion

10.8 Technical Challenges for Combined Cycle Propulsion

10.9 Closing Remarks


Chapter 11 Ground Testing and Evaluation

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Airframe/Propulsion Integrated Vehicle Design Requirements

11.3 Ground Testing Overview

11.4 Ground Testing for the NASA Hyper-X Program

11.5 Ground Testing for the USAF X-51A Waverider

11.6 ONERA Ground Testing for the European LAPCAT2 Combustor

11.7 Vitiated versus Clean Air Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

11.8 Diagnostics and Measurements for Scramjet Combustion

Chapter 12 Analysis, Computational Modeling and Simulation

12.1 Overview of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Turbulence

12.2 Surrogate-based analysis and optimization (SBAO)

12.3 Flowfield in Highly Integrated Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicle

12.4 NASA Hyper-X Program Computational Modeling Requirements

12.5 Overview of Selected CFD Analysis Cases

12.6 Closing Remarks

Chapter 13 Hypersonic Air-Breathing Flight Testing

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Flight Operational Envelope

13.3 Flight Test Technique Concepts

13.4 NASA Air-lifted, Rocket-boosted Approach

13.5 Australia/USA Flight Experiments with Sounding Rockets

13.6 Russia CIAM and NASA Partnership for Scramjet Flight Testing

13.7 Hypersonic Flight Demonstration Program (HyFly)

13.8 Phoenix Air-Launched Small Missile (ALSM)

13.9 Gun-Launched Scramjet Missile Testing

13.10 X-43A Flight Test Mishap

13.11 Ending Remarks




Dora Musielak, PhD, is Research Professor in the Physics Department at the University of Texas in Arlington, Texas, United States. She is a NASA Fellow, an AIAA Associate Fellow, and has been invited to lecture at universities in China, France, Mexico, Panama, Italy, England, Spain, and the United States.