John Wiley & Sons Toward 6G Cover The latest developments and recent progress on the key technologies enabling next-generation 6G mobi.. Product #: 978-1-119-65802-3 Regular price: $78.41 $78.41 Auf Lager

Toward 6G

A New Era of Convergence

Maier, Martin / Ebrahimzadeh, Amin

IEEE ComSoc Pocket Guides to Communications Technologies

Cover

1. Auflage März 2021
240 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-65802-3
John Wiley & Sons

Jetzt kaufen

Preis: 83,90 €

ca.-Preis

Preis inkl. MwSt, zzgl. Versand

Weitere Versionen

epubmobipdf

The latest developments and recent progress on the key technologies enabling next-generation 6G mobile networks

Toward 6G: A New Era of Convergence offers an up-to-date guide to the emerging 6G vision by describing new human-centric services made possible by combinations of mobile robots, avatars, and smartphones, which will be increasingly replaced with wearable displays and haptic interfaces that provide immersive extended reality (XR) experiences. The authors--noted experts on the topic--include a review of their work and information on the recent progress on the Tactile Internet and multi-sensory haptic communications. The book highlights decentralized edge computing in particular via Ethereum blockchain technologies, most notably the so-called decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) for crowdsourcing of human skills to solve problems that machines (such as autonomous artificial intelligence agents and robots) alone cannot solve well.

The book also contains a review of the most recent and ongoing work on XR (including virtual/augmented/mixed reality). Specifically, the book describes the implications of the transition from the current gadgets-based Internet to a future Internet that is evolving from bearables (such as smartphones), moves towards wearables (for example Amazon's recently launched voice-controlled Echo Loop ring, glasses, and earbuds), and then finally progresses to nearables with embedded computing technologies and intelligent provisioning mechanisms for the delivery of human-intended services, including sixth-sense perceptions, in a 6G post-smartphone era. This important text:
* Offers a review of the 6G network architectures and key enabling technologies
* Explains why 6G should not be a mere exploration of more spectrum at high-frequency bands, but rather a convergence of upcoming technological trends
* Describes the Tactile Internet's human-in-the-loop centric design principles and haptic communications models
* Includes analytical frameworks to estimate the fluid orchestration of human + machine co-activities across unified communication network infrastructures
* Explores the performance gains of cooperative computation offloading with communications and computation limitations in both fronthaul and backhaul

Written for students, network researchers, professionals, engineers, and practitioners, Toward 6G: A New Era of Convergence explores the most recent advances on the key technologies enabling next-generation 6G mobile networks, with an emphasis on their seamless convergence.

Author biographies

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Acronyms

1 The 6G Vision 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Evolution of Mobile Networks and Internet 4

1.3 6G Network Architectures and Key Enabling Technologies 7

1.3.1 Four-Tier Networks: Space-Air-Ground-Underwater 7

1.3.2 Key Enabling Technologies 8

1.4 Toward 6G: A New Era of Convergence 12

1.5 Scope and Outline of Book 15

1.5.1 Scope 15

1.5.2 Outline 17

2 Immersive Tactile Internet Experiences via Edge Intelligence 21

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 The Tactile Internet: Automation or Augmentation of the Human? 29

2.3 Haptic Traffic Characterization 36

2.3.1 Teleoperation Experiments 38

2.3.2 Packet Interarrival Times 39

2.3.3 Sample Autocorrelation 45

2.4 FiWi Access Networks: Revisited for Clouds and Cloudlets 48

2.4.1 FiWi: EPON and WLAN 48

2.4.2 C-RAN: Cloud vs. Cloudlet 51

2.4.3 Low-Latency FiWi Enhanced LTE-A HetNets 52

2.5 Delay Analysis 56

2.5.1 Assumptions 56

2.5.2 Local Teleoperation 57

2.5.3 Non-Local Teleoperation 62

2.6 Edge Sample Forecast 63

2.7 Results 69

2.8 Conclusions 74

3 Context- and Self-Awareness for Human-Agent-Robot Task Coordination

3.1 Introduction 77

3.2 System Model 80

3.2.1 Network Architecture 80

3.2.2 Energy and Motion Models of Mobile Robots 81

3.3 Context-Aware Multi-Robot Task Coordination 84

3.3.1 Illustrative Case Study 84

3.3.2 Problem Formulation 85

3.3.3 The Proposed Algorithm 89

3.4 Self-Aware Optimal Motion Planning 91

3.5 Delay and Reliability Analysis 94

3.5.1 Delay Analysis 95

3.5.2 Reliability Analysis 99

3.6 Results 101

3.7 Conclusions 108

4 Delay-Constrained Teleoperation Task Scheduling and Assignment

4.1 Introduction 111

4.2 System Model and Network Architecture 114

4.3 Problem Statement 115

4.3.1 Problem Formulation 116

4.3.2 Model Scalability 120

4.4 Algorithmic Solution 121

4.4.1 Illustrative Case Study 121

4.4.2 Proposed Task Coordination Algorithm 122

4.4.3 Complexity Analysis 124

4.5 Delay Analysis 124

4.6 Results 129

4.7 Discussion 137

4.8 Conclusions 139

5 Cooperative Computation Offloading in FiWi Enhanced Mobile Networks 141

5.1 Introduction 141

5.2 System Model 145

5.3 Energy-Delay Analysis of the Proposed Cooperative Offloading 147

5.3.1 Average Response Time 148

5.3.2 Average Energy Consumption per Task 155

5.4 Energy-Delay Trade-off via Self-organization 156

5.5 Results 161

5.6 Conclusions 170

6 Decentralization via Blockchain 173

6.1 Introduction 173

6.2 Blockchain Technologies 177

6.2.1 Ethereum vs. Bitcoin Blockchains 177

6.2.2 Ethereum: The DAO 181

6.3 Blockchain IoT and Edge Computing 183

6.3.1 Blockchain IoT (BIoT): Recent Progress and Related Work 183

6.3.2 Blockchain Enabled Edge Computing 186

6.4 Decentralizing the Tactile Internet 187

6.4.1 AI-enhanced MEC 188

6.4.2 Crowdsourcing 190

6.5 Nudging: From Judge Contract to Nudge Contract 192

6.5.1 Cognitive Assistance: From AI to Intelligence Amplification (IA) 192

6.5.2 HITL Hybrid-Augmented Intelligence 192

6.5.3 Decentralized Self-Organizing Cooperative (DSOC) 193

6.5.4 Nudge Contract: Nudging via Smart Contract 194

6.6 Conclusions 195

7 XR in the 6G Post-Smartphone Era 197

7.1 Introduction 197

7.2 6G Vision: Putting (Internet of No) Things in Perspective 199

7.3 Extended Reality (XR): Unleashing Its Full Potential 201

7.3.1 The Reality-Virtuality Continuum 201

7.3.2 The Multiverse: An Architecture of Advanced XR Experiences 202

7.4 Internet of No Things: Invisible-to-Visible (I2V) Technologies 204

7.4.1 Extrasensory Perception Network (ESPN) 206

7.4.2 Nonlocal Awareness of Space and Time: Mimicking the Quantum Realm 208

7.5 Results 211

7.6 Conclusions 214

A Proof of Lemmas 215

A.1 Proof of Lemma 3.1 215

A.2 Proof of Lemma 3.2 216

A.3 Proof of Lemma 3.3 217

A.4 Proof of Lemma 5.1 218

Bibliography

Index 239
AMIN EBRAHIMZADEH, PHD, is a Horizon Post-Doctoral Fellow at Concordia University, Montréal, Québec. He was awarded the Best Doctoral Thesis Prize from the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique in Montréal, Québec.

MARTIN MAIER, PHD, is a Full Professor at the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique in Montréal, Québec. He received the Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Research Award and was named one of the three most promising scientists in the category "Contribution to a better society" of the Marie SkBodowska-Curie Actions Prize Award.