John Wiley & Sons Resilient Control Architectures and Power Systems Cover Master the fundamentals of resilient power grid control applications with this up-to-date resource f.. Product #: 978-1-119-66041-5 Regular price: $116.82 $116.82 Auf Lager

Resilient Control Architectures and Power Systems

Rieger, Craig / Boring, Ronald / Johnson, Brian / McJunkin, Timothy (Herausgeber)

IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

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1. Auflage Januar 2022
336 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-66041-5
John Wiley & Sons

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Master the fundamentals of resilient power grid control applications with this up-to-date resource from four industry leaders

Resilient Control Architectures and Power Systems delivers a unique perspective on the singular challenges presented by increasing automation in society. In particular, the book focuses on the difficulties presented by the increased automation of the power grid. The authors provide a simulation of this real-life system, offering an accurate and comprehensive picture of a how a power control system works and, even more importantly, how it can fail.

The editors invite various experts in the field to describe how and why power systems fail due to cyber security threats, human error, and complex interdependencies. They also discuss promising new concepts researchers are exploring that promise to make these control systems much more resilient to threats of all kinds. Finally, resilience fundamentals and applications are also investigated to allow the reader to apply measures that ensure adequate operation in complex control systems.

Among a variety of other foundational and advanced topics, you'll learn about:
* The fundamentals of power grid infrastructure, including grid architecture, control system architecture, and communication architecture
* The disciplinary fundamentals of control theory, human-system interfaces, and cyber security
* The fundamentals of resilience, including the basis of resilience, its definition, and benchmarks, as well as cross-architecture metrics and considerations
* The application of resilience concepts, including cyber security challenges, control challenges, and human challenges
* A discussion of research challenges facing professionals in this field today

Perfect for research students and practitioners in fields concerned with increasing power grid automation, Resilient Control Architectures and Power Systems also has a place on the bookshelves of members of the Control Systems Society, the Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society, the Computer Society, the Power and Energy Society, and similar organizations.

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxiii

Editors Biography xxv

List of Contributors xxvii

Part I Introduction 1

1 Basis, Definition, and Application 3
Craig Rieger

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Definition and Application 3

References 6

2 General Use Case Introduction 7
Brian Johnson

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Importance of Resilient Controls for Power Systems 7

2.3 Power Systems Operations and Control 7

2.4 Summary 9

References 9

Part II Infrastructure Fundamentals 11

3 Power Grid Architecture 13
Brian Johnson and Rômulo Bainy

Objectives 13

3.1 Introduction 13

3.2 Classical Power System Architectures 14

3.3 Emerging Architecture Trends 17

3.3.1 Smart Grids 17

3.3.2 Microgrids 20

3.4 Power Systems Operations and Control 22

3.5 Power Systems Planning 24

3.5.1 Modeling and Simulation 25

3.6 Measures of Performance 26

3.7 Summary 29

Further Reading 30

References 31

4 Control System Architecture 33
Thomas Baldwin

Objectives 33

4.1 Introduction 33

4.1.1 Background 33

4.1.2 Basic Generator Control Loops 34

4.1.3 Load Frequency Control 35

4.1.4 The Generator 35

4.1.5 The Load 36

4.1.6 The Turbine-Based Prime Mover 37

4.1.7 The Speed Governor 38

4.1.8 The Load Frequency Control Loop 39

4.1.9 Multiple Generators Operating with LFC 40

4.2 Automatic Generation Control 42

4.2.1 Background 42

4.2.2 The AGC in Single Area Systems 42

4.2.3 The AGC in Multi-Area Systems 43

4.2.4 The Tie Line 43

4.2.5 Tie Line Control 47

4.2.6 AGC with Generation Allocation 47

4.3 Reactive Power and Voltage Control 49

4.3.1 Background 49

4.3.2 Voltage Sensor 51

4.3.3 Amplifier 51

4.3.4 Exciter 51

4.3.5 Generator 51

4.3.6 The Voltage Control Loop 52

4.4 Excitation System Stabilizer 52

4.4.1 Rate Feedback Method 52

4.4.2 PID Controller 54

4.5 Summary 55

Further Reading 56

5 Communication Architecture 57
Chris Dyer

Objectives 57

5.1 Introduction 57

5.2 Communication Media 58

5.2.1 CopperWire 59

5.2.1.1 Telecommunication Industry Association (TIA)/Electronic Industries Association (EIA) RS-232 59

5.2.1.2 Twisted Pair (TIA RS-485) 59

5.2.1.3 Twisted Pair (Ethernet [10Base-T]) 60

5.2.2 Fiber-Optic Cable 60

5.2.2.1 Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) 61

5.2.2.2 All-Dielectric Self-Supporting (ADSS) Cables 62

5.2.2.3 Underground Cables 62

5.2.2.4 Splice Box 63

5.2.2.5 Fiber-optic Terminations 63

5.2.3 Patch Panel 65

5.2.3.1 Patch Cables 65

5.2.3.2 Fiber-optic Loss Calculations 66

5.2.4 Radio-Frequency (RF) Communications 66

5.2.4.1 Microwave 66

5.2.4.2 VHF/UHF Radio 68

5.2.4.3 Spread-Spectrum Communication 68

5.2.4.4 Mesh Communication Networks 68

5.2.4.5 Radio Propagation and Path Studies 68

5.2.5 Local Area Networks 68

5.2.5.1 Business Enterprise Networks 69

5.2.5.2 Operational Enterprise Networks 69

5.2.5.3 Remote Outstation Networks 73

5.2.6 Backhaul Communications 78

5.2.7 Emerging Technologies and Other Considerations 79

5.3 Summary 80

References 81

Part III Disciplinary Fundamentals 83

6 Introducing Interdisciplinary Studies 85
Craig Rieger

Objectives 85

6.1 Introduction 85

6.2 The Pathway to an Interdisciplinary Team 86

Further Reading 87

7 Cybersecurity 89
Daniel Conte de Leon, Georgios M. Makrakis, and Constantinos Kolias

Objectives 89

7.1 Introduction 89

7.2 Systems and Control Systems 90

7.2.1 Systems, Subsystems, and Analysis Boundaries 90

7.2.2 System Subjects and Objects 90

7.2.3 Subject Communication and Cyber Systems 90

7.3 Fundamental Cybersecurity Objectives: The CIA Triad 91

7.3.1 Confidentiality 91

7.3.2 Integrity 92

7.3.3 Availability 93

7.4 Fundamental Cybersecurity Techniques 93

7.4.1 Cryptography 93

7.4.1.1 Symmetric Encryption 94

7.4.1.2 Asymmetric Encryption 94

7.4.1.3 Digital Signatures 95

7.4.2 Authentication and Identity 95

7.4.3 Authorization and Access Control 96

7.4.4 Accountability 97

7.4.5 Redundancy and Replication 97

7.5 Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Attacks 97

7.5.1 Definitions 97

7.5.2 Common Types of ICS Vulnerabilities 98

7.5.2.1 Human Related 98

7.5.2.2 Software or Firmware Based 99

7.5.2.3 Policies and Procedures 99

7.5.3 Attack Stages and the Cyber Kill Chain 100

7.5.3.1 Reconnaissance 100

7.5.3.2 Weaponization 100

7.5.3.3 Delivery 101

7.5.3.4 Exploitation 101

7.5.3.5 Installation 101

7.5.3.6 Command and Control 101

7.5.3.7 Actions on Objectives 101

7.5.3.8 ICS Cyber Kill Chain 101

7.6 Secure System Design Principles 102

7.6.1 Continuous Improvement 102

7.6.2 Defense in Depth 102

7.6.3 Least Privilege 103

7.6.4 Validated Design and Implementation 103

7.6.5 Fail-safe Defaults 103

7.6.6 Separation of Duties 104

7.6.7 Psychological Acceptability 104

7.6.8 Modularization 104

7.6.9 Accountability 104

7.7 Approaches for Threat and Risk Assessment and Mitigation 105

7.7.1 Risk Framing, Legal, and Compliance 105

7.7.2 Risk Assessment 106

7.7.3 Risk Response or Treatment 106

7.7.4 Risk Monitoring 106

7.7.5 Security Management and Continuous Improvement 107

7.8 Approaches for Incident Detection and Response 107

7.8.1 Incident and Intrusion Detection 107

7.8.1.1 Host-Based IDS 108

7.8.1.2 Network-Based IDS 108

7.8.1.3 Distributed or Hybrid IDS 108

7.8.1.4 Signature Detection 108

7.8.1.5 Anomaly Detection 108

7.8.2 Incident Response 109

7.9 Summary 109

7.10 Thoughtful Questions to Ensure Comprehension 109

Further Reading 110

References 110

8 Control Theory 113
Desineni S. Naidu

Objectives 113

8.1 Introduction 113

8.1.1 Formal Statement of Optimal Control Problem 114

8.2 Deterministic Linear Systems 114

8.2.1 Open-Loop Optimal Control of Linear Systems 114

8.2.2 Closed-Loop Optimal Control of Linear Systems 115

8.2.3 Finite-Time Linear Quadratic Regulator: Time-Varying Case 116

8.2.4 Infinite-Interval Regulator System: Time-Invariant Case 116

8.2.5 Linear Quadratic Tracking System: Finite-Time Case 117

8.2.6 Gain Margin and Phase Margin 118

8.2.7 Gain Margin 118

8.2.8 Phase Margin 118

8.3 Pontryagin Principle and HJB Equation 119

8.3.1 The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) Equation 119

8.4 Stochastic Linear Systems 120

8.4.1 Optimal Estimation 120

8.4.2 Optimal Control 121

8.5 Deterministic Nonlinear Systems 121

8.5.1 Finite-Horizon Regulation and Tracking for Nonlinear Systems 122

8.5.2 Finite-Horizon Regulator 122

8.5.3 Finite-Horizon Tracking for Nonlinear Systems 123

8.6 Summary 124

8.7 Thoughtful Questions to Ensure Comprehension 124

Further Reading 125

References 125

9 Human System Interfaces 127
Ronald Boring

Objectives 127

9.1 Introduction 127

9.1.1 Control Systems 127

9.1.2 History of Humans and Control Systems 128

9.1.3 Common Elements of Control System HSIs 128

9.1.4 Consequences of Poor HSIs in Control Systems 129

9.2 Basic Methods 131

9.2.1 Introduction to User-Centered Design 131

9.2.2 Design Planning 133

9.2.3 Prototyping Process 134

9.2.4 Evaluation Process 135

9.2.5 Validation versus Verification 138

9.3 Summary 140

Further Reading 142

References 142

Part IV Metrics Fundamentals 145

10 Differentiating Resilience 147
Jeffrey D. Taft

Objectives 147

10.1 Introduction 147

10.2 Conventional Views of Grid Resilience 150

10.3 Grid Characteristics 151

10.4 Grid Resilience and the Relationship to Electric Reliability 152

10.5 Characterization of Resilience 155

10.5.1 Stress and Stressors 156

10.5.2 Physical Scale 156

10.5.3 Temporal Scale 157

10.5.4 Strain 157

10.5.5 Resilience Domains 157

10.5.5.1 Stress Avoidance 157

10.5.5.2 Stress Resistance 158

10.5.5.3 Strain Adjustment 159

10.5.6 Foundational Support 160

10.6 Architectural Principles and Concepts for Resilience 160

10.6.1 All Hazards Approach 162

10.6.2 Situational Awareness 162

10.6.3 ULS Normal Failures Approach 162

10.6.4 System Hardness 162

10.6.5 Flexibility 162

10.6.6 Extensibility 163

10.6.7 Agility 163

10.6.8 Distributed Versus Centralized Systems 163

10.6.9 Buffering 163

10.6.10 Structural Resilience 163

10.6.11 Redundancy 164

10.7 Structural Resilience Quantification and Valuation 164

10.8 Summary 166

Further Reading 167

References 167

11 Cross-architecture Metrics 169
Timothy McJunkin

Objectives 169

11.1 Definition of Resilience 169

11.2 Notional Capture of Resilience Adaptive Capacity 173

11.3 Response Epoch: Adaptive Capacity on an Asset-Level Development 174

11.4 Adaptive Capacity on an Aggregated-Level Development 176

Exercises 178

Exercises 178

11.5 Cybersecurity Considerations 179

11.6 Consideration of Resist Epoch (Inertia) 182

11.7 Consideration of Recover and Restore Epochs 183

References 184

Part V Resilience Application 185

12 Introducing the Grid Game 187
Timothy McJunkin

Objectives 187

12.1 Introduction 187

12.2 Download/Install the Game 187

12.3 Play the Grid Game 188

12.4 Fundamentals 194

12.5 Evaluate the Grid Game and Players (Yourself and Others) 196

12.6 Play Together 198

12.7 Improve the Game 198

References 198

13 Cybersecurity and Resilience for the Power Grid 201
Xi Qin, Kelvin Mai, Neil Ortiz, Keerthi Koneru, and Alvaro A. Cardenas

Objectives 201

13.1 Introduction 201

13.2 Operation Technologies in the Power Grid 201

13.3 Cyberattacks to the Power Grid 206

13.3.1 Attacks in Ukraine 206

13.3.2 Other Potential Attacks 208

13.4 Research Efforts 208

13.4.1 Classical Power Grid Systems 208

13.4.2 Smart Grid Systems 209

13.4.3 Grid Simulator 211

13.5 Summary 211

13.6 Thoughtful Questions to Ensure Comprehension 211

Further Reading 212

References 212

14 Control Challenges 215
Quanyan Zhu

Objectives 215

14.1 Introduction 215

14.2 Resiliency Challenges in Control Systems 216

14.3 Resiliency Design Framework 217

14.3.1 Control of Autonomous Systems in Adversarial Environment 218

14.3.2 Cross-Layer Defense for Cloud-Enabled Internet of Controlled Things 219

14.4 Resiliency for Decentralized Control Systems 221

14.5 Summary 223

14.6 Thoughtful Questions to Ensure Comprehension 223

Further Reading 224

References 225

15 Human Challenges 231
Anshul Rege

Objectives 231

15.1 Introduction 231

15.2 Experiential Learning and the Multidisciplinary Grid Game 232

15.2.1 Grid Game Case Study 232

15.2.2 Grid Operations and Cybersecurity 233

15.2.2.1 Grid Operations 233

15.2.2.2 Microgrid Stability and Generation Control System 233

15.2.2.3 Generator Inertia 233

15.2.2.4 Energy Storage 234

15.2.3 Cyber Adversarial Decision-Making 234

15.2.4 Cyber Defender Decision-Making 236

15.2.4.1 Group Dynamics and Divisions of Labor 236

15.2.4.2 Cybersecurity Preparations 236

15.2.4.3 Response to Cyberattacks 237

15.2.5 Cyber-Field Research 237

15.2.5.1 Designing and Conducting Research 237

15.2.5.2 Weaving Multiple Methods in RealTime 237

15.2.5.3 Exposure to All Phases of Research 238

15.3 Benefits of Gamifying Cybersecurity 239

15.3.1 Discipline-Specific Benefits 239

15.3.2 Challenges 239

15.4 Summary 239

Further Reading 241

References 241

Part VI Additional Design Considerations 243

16 Interdependency Analysis 245
Ryan Hruska

Objectives 245

16.1 Introduction 245

16.1.1 Dependencies and Interdependencies 245

16.1.2 Electric-Grid System Dependencies 246

16.2 Approaches to Infrastructure Dependency Analysis 247

16.2.1 Engineering Models 247

16.2.2 Systems Engineering 248

16.2.3 Geospatial Modeling 248

16.2.4 All-Hazards Analysis 249

16.3 Bulk Power Systems Interdependency Case Studies 249

16.3.1 Natural Gas Expansion 249

16.3.1.1 Natural Gas Interdependencies for Electric Generation 251

16.3.1.2 Seasonal Impacts 252

16.3.2 Water Interdependencies 253

16.4 Summary 256

Further Reading 256

References 257

17 Multi-agent Control Systems 259
Craig Rieger

Objectives 259

17.1 Introduction 259

17.1.1 What Is an Agent? 259

17.1.2 Intelligent Agent 259

17.1.3 Resilient Agent 260

17.1.4 Multi-agents and Benefit to Resilience 260

17.2 Control System Design 261

17.2.1 Tiers of Control 261

17.2.2 Decomposition of Operational Philosophy into Management and Coordination Layers 261

17.2.3 Decomposition of Operational Philosophy into Execution Layer 263

17.2.4 Data-driven Methodology for Application of Tiered Control 264

17.2.5 Cyber-Physical Degradation Assessment 264

17.3 Control System Application 267

17.3.1 Human Decision Integration into Management and Execution Layers 267

17.3.2 Distributed Control and the Execution Layer Formulation 268

17.3.3 Domain Application 269

17.4 Summary 272

Further Reading 273

An overview of a HMADS for power system applications: 273

References 273

18 Other Examples of Resilience Application 275
Meghan G. Sahakian and Eric D. Vugrin

Objectives 275

18.1 Introduction 275

18.2 Resilient Design Capacities 276

18.3 Anticipative Capacity 276

18.4 Absorptive Capacity 277

18.5 Adaptive Capacity 278

18.6 Restorative Capacity 279

18.7 Considerations for Resilient Design 279

18.8 System of Interest 280

18.9 Threat Space 281

18.10 Operational Constraints 282

18.11 Summary 282

Further Reading 283

References 283

Part VII Conclusions 285

19 Summary and Challenge for the Future 287
Craig Rieger

19.1 Introduction 287

19.2 Resilience Is Not a Design Layer, It Is a Philosophy 287

19.3 Resilience and the Road to Autonomous Systems 288

References 288

Index 289
Craig Rieger, PhD, is Chief Control Systems Research Engineer at the Idaho National Laboratory. His research focus is on next generation resilient control systems.

Ronald Boring, PhD, is Researcher and Principal Investigator at Idaho National Laboratory. His primary research foci are on human reliability, human factors, and human-computer interaction forums.

Brian Johnson, PhD, is University Distinguished Professor and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Endowed Chair in Power Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Idaho.

Timothy McJunkin is an Electrical Engineer at the Idaho National Laboratory. His primary research foci are on the development of interest resilient control of critical infrastructure, Smart Grid for renewable energy integration, and design of zero carbon microgrids.

C. Rieger, Idaho National Laboratory (INL); R. Boring, University of Idaho; B. Johnson, Idaho National Laboratory (INL); T. McJunkin, Idaho National Laboratory (INL)