John Wiley & Sons Forensic Psychology Cover FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Explore the theory, research, and practice of forensic psychology with this col.. Product #: 978-1-119-67354-5 Regular price: $89.63 $89.63 Auf Lager

Forensic Psychology

Crighton, David A. / Towl, Graham J. (Herausgeber)

BPS Textbooks in Psychology (Band Nr. 1)


3. Auflage Mai 2021
896 Seiten, Softcover

ISBN: 978-1-119-67354-5
John Wiley & Sons

Weitere Versionen



Explore the theory, research, and practice of forensic psychology with this collection of resources from recognized leaders in the field

The newly revised Third Edition of Forensic Psychology delivers insightful coverage of the theory and applications of forensic psychology. The book combines authoritative scholarship with an unprecedented breadth of international coverage and constitutes an essential resource for all aspects of contemporary forensic and criminal psychology.

The new edition addresses issues of equality, diversity, and inclusion in each section, as well as the uses and abuses of power in forensic contexts. The book takes a constructively critical approach to the dominant theories, policy, and practices of today, as opposed to being merely descriptive, and considers new and developing areas, like the prevention of sexual violence at universities.

Forensic Psychology comprehensively addresses the application of modern forensic techniques and practices to the civil and criminal justice systems in the United Kingdom. Each chapter concludes with some specific suggestions for further reading. Additionally, readers will enjoy the inclusion of a wide variety of topics, like:
* A thorough discussion of investigative and clinical practice, including the politics of forensic psychology, offender profiling, eyewitness testimony, and jury decision making
* An examination of clinical and risk assessments, including reviews of the key legal issues and principles involved in risk assessments, the role of structured instruments and protocols, and coverage of actuarial and structured clinical methods
* Discussions of working with criminalized populations in prisons and forensic mental health facilities
* A treatment of psychology in the courts with an emphasis on the courts of England and Wales

Perfect for graduate level students in forensic psychology courses, Forensic Psychology will also earn a place in the libraries of qualified forensic psychologist practitioners and postgraduate students seeking to improve their understanding of forensic psychology with a high-quality international textbook underpinned by considerations of human rights and ethical standards.

List of Contributors xxiii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Graham J. Towl and David A. Crighton

Justice 4

Expert Controversies 6

Human Rights and Ethics 7

Developmental Perspectives 8

Investigation and Prosecution Issues 10

Psychological Assessment 11

Critical Psychology 12

Substance Use 13

Early Intervention 13

Justice Restored 15

Note 15

Further Reading 16

References 16

Part 1 Forensic Psychology: Legal

Chapter 2 Offender Profiling 21
David A. Crighton

Introduction 22

Historical Development 22

Approaches to Offender Profiling 25

Criminal investigative analysis 25

Crime action profiling 25

Investigative psychology 26

The Development of Offender Profiling 26

Current Evidence on Accuracy 30

Conclusions 31

Notes 32

Further Reading 32

References 33

Chapter 3 Eyewitness Testimony 36
Lorraine Hope and Ryan J. Fitzgerald

Eyewitness Identification Performance 37

The Witnessed Event 39

Witness factors 39

Super-recognisers 40

Perpetrator factors 40

Situational factors 42

Between the Witnessed Event and Identification Task 43

Retention interval 43

Post-event misinformation 44

Intermediate Recognition Tasks 45

Mugshots 45

Composite production 45

The identification task 46

Pre-lineup instructions 46

Lineup composition 46

Investigator bias 47

Lineup procedure: Comparing absolute and relative judgements 48

Post-identification feedback 49

Is confidence related to accuracy? 49

Is eyewitness identification evidence reliable? 50

Procedural Guidelines Relating to Suspect Identification in the United Kingdom 51

The Eyewitness in Court 53

Conclusions 54

Further Reading 54

References 55

Chapter 4 Jury Decision-making 66
Andreas Kapardis 66

Introduction: The Jury Idea 67

The Notion of an Impartial and Fair Jury: A Critical Appraisal 68

Arguments Against Jury Trials 69

Arguments in Favour of Jury Trials 70

Methods for Studying Juries/Jurors 71

Archival research 71

Questionnaire surveys 71

Mock juries 72

Shadow juries 73

Post-trial juror interviews 73

Books by ex-jurors 74

Selecting Jurors 74

Pre-Trial Publicity 75

The Reported Importance of Juror Characteristics 76

Juror Competence 78

Comprehending evidence 78

Understanding and following the judge's instructions/the jury charge 79

The Jury Foreperson 79

Jury Deliberation 80

Small Juries 81

Defendant Characteristics 82

Victim/Plaintiff Characteristics 82

Lawyer and Judge Characteristics 82

Courtroom Design 83

Hung Juries 83

Models of Jury Decision-making 83

Reforming the Jury to Remedy Some of Its Problems 84

Alternatives to Trial by Jury 84

Conclusions 85

Notes 86

Further Reading 87

References 87

Chapter 5 Jury Decision-making in Rape Trials: An Attitude Problem? 94
Dominic Willmott, Daniel Boduszek, Agata Debowska and Lara Hudspith

Introduction 95

Case study--The girl of Qatif 96

Rape and Sexual Offences in the Criminal Justice System 97

The prevalence of sexual victimisation 98

Rape complaints and attrition 98

Jury acquittals at trial 100

Jury Decision-making within Rape Trials 101

Arguments against retaining juries in rape trials 102

Arguments in favour of retaining juries in rape trials 102

Juror Bias and Pre-trial Attitudes 103

Rape myths: Definitions and research 104

Common rape myth beliefs 104

Rape myths and jury decision-making: The empirical evidence 105

Methodological considerations 109

Mock jury trial methodological considerations 110

Solutions and reforms 110

Conclusions 112

Further Reading 113

References 113

Chapter 6 Psychology in the Courts 120
David A. Crighton

Introduction 121

Systems of Justice 123

The System of Courts 124

The courts in England and Wales 124

Magistrates' courts 124

Youth courts 124

The Crown Court 125

The Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) 125

The County Court 125

The Family Court 125

The High Court 125

The Courts in Scotland 126

Justice of the Peace Courts 126

Sheriff Courts 126

Sheriff Appeal Court 126

The High Court of Justiciary 126

The Court of Session 126

The Courts in Northern Ireland 127

Magistrates' courts (including youth courts and family proceedings) 127

The Crown Court 127

The Court of Appeal 127

County Courts 127

The High Court 127

The UK Supreme Court 128

Some Other UK Courts and Tribunals 128

Court Martial 128

Coroners Courts and fatal accident inquiries 128

The Parole Boards 129

Mental Health Tribunals 129

Contributions of Psychology 129

Legal Process 131

Psychologists' Evidence in Court 132

Giving Evidence 135

Conclusions 136

Notes 137

Further Reading 137

References 138

Part 2 Forensic Psychology: Clinical

Chapter 7 Clinical Assessment 143
David A. Crighton

Conceptual Issues in Assessment 144

Classification 145

Dimensional approaches 147

Diagnosis and formulation 148

Assessment 148

Hypothesis formulation 148

Psychodynamic theory 151

Cognitive behavioural theory 152

Systemic theory 153

Social inequalities theory 153

Integrative theories 154

Data Gathering 155

Interviews 156

Psychometric assessments 157

Data Analysis 158

Reliability 158

Validity 159

Criterion-related validity 159

Content validity 159

Construct validity 159

Specificity, sensitivity and power 160

Single case analysis 160

Clinical Judgements and Biases 161

Conclusions 162

Notes 163

Further Reading 163

References 164

Chapter 8 Risk Assessment 166
David A. Crighton

Key Legal Issues 167

Key Principles in Risk Assessment 168

Approaches to risk assessment 169

Risk Assessment Instruments 171

Critical Issues in Risk Assessment 175

Acceptable risk and rare catastrophic failures 179

Conclusions 181

Notes 182

Further Reading 183

References 184

Chapter 9 Psychology in Prisons 187
David A. Crighton and Graham J. Towl

The Development of Psychology in Prisons 188

Developments in England and Wales 192

What Psychologists Do in Corrections 193

Legal 193

Clinical 195

Teaching and training 197

Research and development 198

The future 198

Conclusions 200

Notes 202

Further Reading 203

References 203

Chapter 10 Forensic Psychology in Mental Health and Social Care 207
Phil Willmot and Elizabeth Utting

Introduction 208

Forensic Psychology in Mental Health 208

The legal framework 209

Practical issues 210

Cultural issues 210

Evidence Base 211

Forensic Psychology in Social Care 213

The legal framework 213

Contributions of forensic psychology to social care 214

Systemic issues 215

Discussion 216

Further Reading 217

References 218

Chapter 11 The Developmental Evidence Base: Neurobiological Research and Forensic Applications 221
Robert A. Schug, Yu Gao, Andrea L. Glenn, Yong Lin Huang, Melissa Peskin, Yaling Yang and Adrian Raine

The Developmental Evidence Base: Neurobiological Research 222

Genetics 223

Neuroimaging 224

Neurology 226

Neuropsychology 228

Verbal and spatial intelligence 228

Executive functioning 229

Biological versus social influences 231

Psychophysiology 231

Heart rate 232

Skin conductance 232

Electroencephalogram and event-related potentials 234

Endocrinology 236

Moral Development 236

Nutrition 238

Forensic Applications of Developmental Neurobiological Research 239

Lie detection 240

Legal and judicial process 241

Assessment 241

Diagnostic identification 241

Treatment 242

Intervention 243

Dangerousness and risk prediction 243

Conclusions 244

Further Reading 244

References 245

Chapter 12 The Developmental Evidence Base: Prevention 263
David P. Farrington

Introduction 264

Risk-focused prevention 265

What is a risk factor? 265

Cost-benefit analysis 266

Family-based Prevention 266

Home visiting programmes 267

Parent management training 268

Other parenting interventions 269

Multi-systemic therapy 270

School-based Prevention 271

Pre-school programmes 271

School programmes 272

Anti-bullying programmes 274

Peer Programmes 275

Skills Training 276

Communities That Care 278

Recent UK Developments 279

Conclusions 280

Further Reading 283

References 283

Chapter 13 The Developmental Evidence Base: Psychosocial Research 294
David P. Farrington

Introduction 295

Individual Factors 300

Temperament and personality 300

Hyperactivity and impulsivity 301

Low intelligence and attainment 302

Low empathy 303

Family Factors 304

Child-rearing 304

Teenage mothers and child abuse 306

Parental conflict and disrupted families 307

Criminal parents 309

Large family size 310

Social Factors 311

Socio-economic deprivation 311

Peer influences 312

School influences 313

Community influences 314

Conclusions 316

Further Reading 317

References 318

Chapter 14 Desistance from Crime 330
Lila Kazemian and David P. Farrington

Current State of Knowledge on Desistance 331

Social predictors of desistance 331

Employment 332

Marriage 333

Peers 335

Military 336

Religion and Spirituality 336

Substance Use 337

Cognitive predictors of desistance 337

The role of identity change in the desistance process 339

The interaction between social and cognitive factors 340

Genetic Factors and Desistance 341

Summary 342

Conclusions 342

Policy relevance of desistance research 342

Next steps in desistance research 343

Further Reading 344

References 345

Chapter 15 Crisis Negotiation 350
David A. Crighton

Development of Crisis Negotiation 351

Conceptual Issues in Crisis Negotiation 352

Types of critical incidents 352

To Negotiate or Not to Negotiate 354

Goals of Crisis Negotiation 355

Calming the situation 355

Process of crisis negotiation 355

Communication and rapport building 356

Listening 356

Showing empathy 357

Building rapport 357

Developing influence 357

Gathering intelligence 358

Crisis Negotiation and Terrorism 358

Crisis Negotiation during Terrorist Incidents 360

The Process of Negotiation with Terrorists 361

The Experience of Hostages 361

Crisis Negotiation--The Evidence 362

Conclusions 365

Notes 366

Further Reading 366

References 367

Chapter 16 Terrorism 371
Orla Lynch

Introduction 372

Key Issues--Defining Terrorism 373

Labelling 374

Is Terrorism a Psychological Issue? 375

The Psychology of Terrorism: The State of the Art 376

Applying Psychology: The Case of Extremism 380

Risk Assessment 382

Risk assessment and the case of terrorism 382

Intervention 383

Proactive Integrated Support Model (PRISM) 386

What Does CVE Success Look Like? 387

Conclusion 388

Notes 388

Further Reading 389

References 389

Chapter 17 Intellectual Disability: Assessment 394
David A. Crighton

The Context of Forensic Practice 395

Mental Health Legislation 396

Learning Disability and Crime 397

Pathways into and through offender services 400

Childhood adversity and behaviour problems 402

Adult psychiatric disorders 403

Specific offence types and pathways into services 404

Applications of Psychology to Processes within the Justice System 407

The process of police interview 407

The legal process and offenders with ID 408

Working with Offenders with ID 410

Assessment issues 410

Assessment of anger and aggression 412

Assessment for sexual offenders 413

Assessment of fire raising 416

Risk assessment 417

The role of dynamic risk assessment in the management of offenders with ID 419

Conclusions on Assessment 420

Notes 421

Further Reading 421

References 422

Chapter 18 Intellectual Disability: Treatment and Management 430
David A. Crighton and Graham J. Towl

Treatment for Specific Needs 433

Aggression 433

Sexual offending 435

Interventions for other offence-related problems 440

Conclusions 442

Note 443

Further Reading 443

References 444

Chapter 19 Personality Disorder: Assessment and Treatment 448
Conor Duggan and Richard Howard

Introduction 449

DSM-5 Alternative Model 450

ICD-11 451

Prototype Matching/SWAP-200 453

PD Assessment in Forensic and Correctional Contexts 455

Clinical Implications of ICD-11 457

Translating Theory into Practice in the Treatment of PD 457

Livesley's Integrated Modular Treatment 459

Ruptures in the Patient-Therapist Relationship 460

Will Categories of PD (and Borderline PD in Particular) Survive? 461

A Hierarchical Model of Personality Disorder 463

Concluding Comments 464

Further Reading 465

References 465

Chapter 20 Personality Disorder and Offending 468
Richard Howard and Conor Duggan

Introduction 469

Some caveats 469

PD and offending in community samples 471

The 'comorbidity' problem 472

Comorbidity with 'psychopathy' 474

Emotional impulsiveness 476

The importance of context 476

Paranoid thinking and violence 477

Paranoia and angry rumination 478

Concluding Comments 479

Note 480

Further Reading 480

References 481

Chapter 21 The Biopsychosocial Model of Psychopathy 485
Nicholas D. Thomson

Construct of Psychopathy 486

Psychopathy and the Biopsychosocial Model 487

Biological Contributors to Psychopathy 488

Genetics 488

Brain structures and function 488

Hormones 489

Psychological Contributors to Psychopathy 490

Childhood psychopathology and temperament 490

Personality traits 491

Cognitive function 491

Social Contributors to Psychopathy 492

Psychopathy: The Biopsychosocial Disorder 493

Further Reading 493

References 494

Chapter 22 Personality Disorder: Clinical and Policy Responses and the 'OPD Pathway' 499
Sarah Skett and Carine Lewis

What Is the OPD Pathway and What Makes It Unique? 500

History and context 500

Aims, Principles and the Theoretical Model of the OPD Pathway 501

The OPD Core Offender Management service and workforce development 504

The relational environment and its importance 505

Interventions in custody 506

Interventions in the community--IIRMS, AP PIPES and Supported Housing 507

Conclusion 508

Further Reading 508

References 509

Chapter 23 The Role of Arts in the Criminal Justice System 514
Laura Caulfield

Introduction and Context 515

The Arts in Criminal Justice: What Exists and Their Role 515

The Arts in Criminal Justice: Their Impact 518

Confidence and engagement 519

Identity 520

Well-being 520

Relationships: Collaboration and democracy 521

The importance of rehabilitation 522

Developing the evidence base 522

Summary 524

Organisations mentioned in this chapter 524

Useful resources 525

Notes 525

References 525

Chapter 24 Substance Use 529
David A. Crighton

Drugs and Crime 531

Assessment of Substance Use Disorders 532

Management of Detoxification 533

Heroin (and other opiates) 534

Stimulants 534

Alcohol 534

Multiple drug detoxification 535

The management of withdrawal in custody 535

Treatment 535

Cognitive behavioural interventions 536

Twelve-step treatments and therapeutic communities 537

Drug maintenance and other pharmacotherapies 539

Efficacy of Treatments 540

Additional Considerations 542

Mental health 542

Suicide risk 543

Overdose 543

Physical health risks 543

Notes 544

Further Reading 544

References 545

Chapter 25 Sports-based Learning and the Role of Sport in Promoting Education in Prisons 549
Rosie Meek

Emerging Issues and Ongoing Challenges 553

Further Reading 556

References 557

Chapter 26 Suicide and Self-harm in Prisons: Age, Gender and Ethnicity 560
Graham J. Towl

Self-harm 565

Suicide Prevention 566

Further Reading 570

References 570

Chapter 27 Suicide, Self-harm and Imprisoned Women 572
Tammi Walker

Overview 573

Context 573

Background 574

What Is Prison Suicide? 574

Rates of Suicide in Prisoner Populations 575

Suicide and Imprisoned Women 576

Self-harm and Imprisoned Women 578

Risk Factors for Suicide and Self-harm 580

Individual 580

Mental ill-health 581

Prison life 582

Preventing Suicide and Self-harm by Imprisoned Women 584

Limitations of Suicide Research in Prison Settings 586

Conclusion 586

Further Reading 587

References 587

Chapter 28 What Can University Communities Do to Reduce Sexual Violence? Responsibility, Prevention and Response 593
Clarissa J. Humphreys and Graham J. Towl

Introduction 594

Why Universities Must Address Sexual Violence 595

Research-informed Policy and Practice 599

Prevention 600

Response 602

Conclusion 605

Notes 606

Further Reading 606

References 607

Chapter 29 Adult Cyber Harassment and Image-based Sexual Abuse 609
Afroditi Pina

Conceptual Challenges and Outline 611

Online Non-sexual Harassment 611

Cyber harassment/cyberbullying 612

Online hate speech 613

Trolling 614

Doxing (also spelled 'doxxing') 615

Cyberstalking 615

Online Sexual Harassment and Abuse 616

Technology-facilitated sexual violence 617

Cyber sexual harassment 617

Image-based sexual abuse 618

Criminalisation/Legislation of Online Harassment Behaviours 620

Looking to the Future: Conceptual Harmonisation, Practical Implications and Future Research 622

References 624

Chapter 30 Intimate Partner Abuse 630
Elizabeth A. Gilchrist

Key Issues In IPA 631

Key Principles In IPA 632

Key Legal Issues 633

Theoretical Approaches to IPA 637

Biological theories 637

Psychological theories 637

Sociological: Interpersonal/family systems 637

Cultural explanations 638

Integrative approaches/multi-factor theories 639

Empirical Evidence 640

Risk abuse markers 640

Gender as a risk factor 642

Female offenders 642

Risk markers for assault and for lethality 643

Measurement of IPA 644

Different types of abuser 645

Critical Issues in Intimate Partner Abuse 646

Victim issues 646

IPA risk assessment 647

Limitations of risk tools 650

Effective interventions for IPA 650

Multi-agency responses 652

Conclusions 653

Further Reading 653

References 654

Chapter 31 Hate Crime and Hate Incidents at a UK University: Empirical Evidence Informing Policy and Research Practice 662
Nadia Siddiqui and Graham J. Towl

The Prevalence of Hate Incidents 666

Barriers to Reporting to the Authorities 668

Is Race or Religion a Factor in Victimisation? 669

Thematic Analysis 669

Education 670

Increase Victim Support 671

Conclusions 672

Further Reading 673

References 674

Chapter 32 Bullying in Prisons: Introducing the Prison Bullying Ecosystem Framework as a Guide for Intervention 676
Jane L. Ireland, Carol A. Ireland, Ushna Mian, Raneesha De Silva and Michael Lewis

Prison Bullying: Summarising Some Key Findings 678

Defining prison-based bullying 678

Extent of prison-based bullying 679

Groups involved 680

Understanding Prison Bullying: Introducing Theoretical Perspectives 680

Taking Theory and Proposing a Framework for Intervention: Prison Bullying Ecosystem Framework 683

Considering ecosystem external factors 684

Considering ecosystem internal factors 686

Concluding Comments 689

References 690

Chapter 33 Psychology of Gang Membership: Group Processes, Social Cognition and Mental Health 692
Jane L. Wood

Gang Membership 693

Gang Joining 693

Gang Members: Delinquency Levels 694

Gang Identity and Identifying with the Gang 695

Conformity, Pluralistic Ignorance and Cohesion 696

Intergroup Conflict and Status Enhancement 697

Being a Gang Member: Social Cognitive Processes 698

Moral Disengagement 699

Offence-supportive Cognitions 700

Rumination, Displaced Aggression and Entitativity 702

Rumination 702

Displaced aggression 703

Entitativity 704

Gang involvement and mental health 704

Conclusions 706

Further Reading 707

References 707

Chapter 34 Arson and Fire Setting: A New Conceptualisation 713
Faye Horsley

Introduction 714

Part One 714

Background 714

The Psychology of Arson and Fire Setting 715

Sample composition 715

Recidivism and dangerousness 717

Characteristics of arsonists and fire setters 718

Summary of empirical work 720

Theoretical Perspectives 720

Typologies 720

Multi-factor perspectives 721

Problems with the literature 722

Part Two 724

Non-criminalised fire use 724

The Continuum of Fire Use (CoFU) 726

Implications and Applications 727

Conclusions 728

Notes 729

Further Reading 729

References 729

Chapter 35 Trauma-informed Care in the Criminal Justice System 735
Tammi Walker

Introduction 736

What Is Trauma? 737

Trauma among Men and Women in Prison 740

Becoming Trauma Informed 741

SAMHSA's Four 'R'S': Key assumptions in the trauma-informed

approach 741

SAMHSA's six key principles of the trauma-informed approach 743

SAMHSA's ten implementation domains for the trauma-informed approach 743

Prisons as Trauma-informed Organisations 744

Evaluations of Prisons as Trauma-informed Organisations 746

Barriers to Trauma-informed Care in Prison 748

Conclusion 748

Further Reading 749

References 749

Part 3 Forensic Psychology: Ethics and Politics

Chapter 36 The Politics of Forensic Psychological Research, Policy and Practice 755
Graham J. Towl

New Public Management 756

Language Use as Forensic Psychologists 758

How Does the Way in Which Psychology Is Taught in the United Kingdom Influence the Development of Forensic Psychology? 760

A Brief History of Forensic Psychological Internal Politics in the United Kingdom 762

Debates around the defining characteristics of the discipline 762

Training arrangements 764

Statutory regulation of practitioner psychologists 765

Conclusions 765

Further Reading 766

References 767

Chapter 37 Aspects of Diagnosed Mental Illness and Offending 769
David Pilgrim

Social Context of Rule Transgressions: Normal and Abnormal Offenders 770

Penal and psychiatric jurisdiction of mentally abnormal offenders 771

Overlaps and Tensions between Psychiatric and Psychological Knowledge 772

Psychological encounters with 'mental illness' in forensic settings 773

Traditions of psychiatric and psychological knowledge 774

Emergence of the biopsychosocial model and neo-Kraepelinian retrenchment 775

Psychological and Psychiatric Approaches to Mental Illness in Forensic Settings 777

Problematic Relationship between Diagnosed Mental Illness and Risks 779

'Dual diagnosis' or 'comorbidity' 779

Mental illness and risk to others 780

Conclusions 783

Further Reading 783

References 784

Chapter 38 Role of Safeguarding in Overcoming Persistent Harmful Practice in Forensic Mental Health 787
Brian A. Thomas-Peter and Rebecca Lawday

Moral Blindness in Forensic Mental Health 789

Major Inquiries: Lessons Not Learned 791

The Failure of Senior Management 797

Conclusion 799

Notes 800

Further Reading 800

References 800

Chapter 39 Beyond 'Disorder': A Manifesto for Psychological Health and Well-being 803
Peter Kinderman

Labels Are for Products, Not People 805

Reliability 806

Validity 807

Can we think of a better phrase than 'oppositional defiant disorder'? 808

A New Approach 809

Minimising real problems 811

Moving Beyond the Concept of 'Abnormality' 811

There are alternatives to diagnosis 813

Non-diagnostic alternatives 813

Recognising causes in the real world 814

The drugs don't work 815

Coercion 816

Prevention 817

Pathways to mental health 819

We learn to make sense of the world 819

Psychological model of mental health and well-being 821

Notes 821

Further Reading 821

References 822

Chapter 40 Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychology 824
Graham J. Towl

Philosophical Roots 826

Ethical Guidance for Professionals 828

APA ethical guidance 830

APA specialty guidelines for forensic psychology (2013) 830

Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI) code of professional ethics 831

BACP--Ethical framework for good practice in counselling and psychotherapy 832

HCPC standards of conduct, performance and ethics (2016) 833

BPS code of ethics and conduct (2018) 833

Specialist BPS forensic guidance 834

Power Relationships 834

Conclusions 836

Note 837

Further Reading 837

References 838

Name Index 841

Subject Index 849
David A. Crighton is Hon. Professor of Forensic Psychology at Durham University. He was formally Deputy Chief Psychologist in the UK Ministry of Justice. He is a past Chair of the BPS Expert Witness Advisory Group and a past Secretary and Treasurer of the British Psychological Society, Division of Forensic Psychology.

Graham J. Towl is Professor of Forensic Psychology, Durham University and visiting Clinical Professor, University of Newcastle. He was formally the Chief Psychologist at the Ministry of Justice, UK, and uniquely is the recipient of BPS awards for Distinguished Contributions to Professional practice and forensic academic knowledge. His research interests are wide currently including suicide in prisons and sexual violence at universities.

D. A. Crighton, London Metropolitan University; G. J. Towl, HM Prison Service