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Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels

Greulich, Owen R. / Jawad, Maan H.

Wiley-ASME Press Series


1. Auflage Januar 2022
336 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-67486-3
John Wiley & Sons

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Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels

A comprehensive guide to processes and topics in pressure vessel fabrication

Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels delivers comprehensive coverage of the various processes used in the fabrication of process equipment. The authors, both accomplished engineers, offer readers a broad understanding of the steps and processes required to fabricate pressure vessels, including cutting, forming, welding, machining, and testing, as well as suggestions on controlling costs.

Each chapter provides a complete description of a specific fabrication process and details its characteristics and requirements. Alongside the accessible and practical text, you'll find equations, charts, copious illustrations, and other study aids designed to assist the reader in the real-world implementation of the concepts discussed within the book.

You'll find numerous appendices that include weld symbols, volume and area equations, pipe and tube dimensions, weld deposition rates, lifting shackle data, and more.

In addition to detailed discussions of cutting, machining, welding, and post-weld heat treatments, readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:
* A thorough introduction to construction materials, including both ferrous and nonferrous alloys
* An exploration of layout, including projection and triangulation, material thickness and bending allowance, angles and channels, and marking conventions
* A treatment of material forming, including bending versus three-dimensional forming, plastic theory, forming limits, brake forming, roll forming, and tolerances
* Practical discussions of fabrication, including weld preparation, forming, vessel fit up and assembly, correction of distortion, and transportation of vessels

Perfect for new and established engineers, designers, and procurement personnel working with process equipment or in the fabrication field, Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels will also earn a place in the libraries of students in engineering programs seeking a one-stop resource for the fabrication of pressure vessels.



1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2. Fabrication Sequence

1.3 Cost Considerations

1.3.1 Types of costs

1.3.2 Design choices

1.3.3 Shipping

1.3.4 General approach to cost control

1.4 Fabrication of Non-nuclear Versus Nuclear Pressure Vessels

1.5 Units and Abbreviations

1.6 Summary

2. Materials of Construction

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Ferrous Alloys

2.2.1 Carbon steels (Mild steels)

2.2.2 Low alloy steels (Cr-Mo steels)

2.2.3 High alloy steel (stainless steels)

2.2.4 Cost of Ferrous alloys

2.3 Nonferrous Alloys

2.3.1 Aluminum alloys

2.3.2 Copper alloys

2.3.3 Nickel alloys

2.3.4 Titanium alloys

2.3.5 Zirconium alloys

2.3.6 Tantalum alloys

2.3.7 Price of nonferrous alloys

2.4 Density of Some Ferrous and Nonferrous Alloys

2.5 Nonmetallic Vessels

2.6 Forms and Documentation

2.7 Miscellaneous Materials

2.7.1 Cast iron

2.7.2 Gaskets

2.8 References

3. Layout

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Applications

3.3 Tools and Their Use

3.4 Layout Basics

3.4.1 Projection

3.4.2 Triangulation

3.5 Material Thickness and Bending Allowance

3.6 Angles and Channels

3.7 Marking Conventions

3.8 Future of Plate Layout

3.9 References:

4. Material Forming

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Bending versus three-dimensional forming

4.1.2 Other issues

4.1.3 Plastic Theory

4.1.4 Forming limits

4.1.5 Grain direction

4.1.6 Cold versus hot forming

4.1.7 Spring back

4.2 Brake Forming (Angles, Bump-Forming)

4.2.1 Types of dies

4.2.2 Brake work forming limits

4.2.3 Crimping

4.2.4 Bending of pipes and tubes

4.2.5 Brake forming loads

4.3 Roll Forming (Shells, Reinforcing Pads, Pipe/Tube)

4.3.1 Pyramid rolls

4.3.2 Pinch rolls

4.3.3 Two roll systems

4.3.4 Rolling radius variability compensation

4.3.5 Heads and caps

4.3.6 Hot forming

4.4 Tolerances

4.4.1 Brake forming tolerances

4.4.2 Roll forming tolerances

4.4.3 Press forming tolerances

4.4.4 Flanging tolerances

5. Fabrication

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Layout

5.3 Weld Preparation

5.3.1 Hand and automatic grinders

5.3.2 Nibblers

5.3.3 Flame cutting

5.3.4 Boring Mills

5.3.5 Lathes

5.3.6 Routers

5.3.7 Other cutter arrangements

5.4 Forming

5.5 Vessel Fit up and Assembly

5.5.1 The fitter

5.5.2 Fit up tools

5.5.3 Persuasion and other fit up techniques

5.5.4 Fixturing

5.5.5 Welding fit up

5.5.6 Weld shrinkage

5.5.7 Order of assembly

5.6 Welding

5.6.1 Welding position

5.6.2 Welding residual stresses

5.6.3 Welding positioners, turning rolls, column and boom weld manipulators

5.7 Correction of Distortion

5.8 Heat Treatment

5.8.1 Welding preheat

5.8.2 Interpass temperature

5.8.3 Post weld heat treatment

5.9 Post-fabrication Machining

5.10 Field Fabrication - Special Issues

5.10.1 Exposure to the elements

5.10.2 Staging area

5.10.3 Tool and equipment availability

5.10.4 Staffing

5.10.5 Material handling

5.10.6 Energy sources

5.10.7 PWHT

5.10.8 Layout

5.10.9 Fit up

5.10.10 Welding

5.11 Machining

5.12 Cold Springing

6. Cutting and Machining

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Common Cutting Operations for Pressure Vessels

6.3 Cutting Processes

6.3.1 Plate cutting

6.3.2 Pipe, bar, and structural shape cutting

6.4 Common Machining Functions and Processes

6.5 Common Machining Functions for Pressure Vessels

6.5.1 Weld preparation

6.5.2 Machining of flanges

6.5.3 Tubesheets

6.5.4 Heat exchanger channels

6.5.5 Heat exchanger baffles

6.6 Set Up Issues

6.7 Material Removal Rates

6.7.1 Feed

6.7.2 Speed

6.7.3 Depth of cut

6.8 Milling

6.9 Turning and Boring

6.10 Machining Centers

6.11 Drilling

6.12 Tapping

6.13 Water Jet Cutting

6.14 Laser Machining

6.15 Reaming

6.16 Electrical Discharge Machining, Plunge and Wire

6.17 Electrochemical Machining

6.18 Electron Beam Machining

6.19 Photochemical Machining

6.20 Ultrasonic Machining

6.21 Planing and Shaping

6.22 Broaching

6.23 3D Printing

6.24 Summary

6.25 References

7. Welding

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Weld Details and Symbols

7.2.1 Single fillet weld

7.2.2 Double fillet welds

7.2.3 Intermittent fillet welds

7.2.4 Single bevel butt welds

7.2.5 Double bevel butt welds

7.2.6 J-groove or double J-groove welds

7.2.7 Backing strips

7.2.8 Consumables

7.2.9 Tube to tubesheet welds

7.2.10 Weld symbols

7.3 Weld Processes

7.3.1 Diffusion welding

7.3.2 Electron beam welding

7.3.3 Electrogas welding

7.3.4 Electroslag welding

7.3.5 Flux-cored arc welding

7.3.6 Flash welding

7.3.7 Friction stir welding

7.3.8 Gas metal-arc welding

7.3.9 Gas tungsten-arc welding

7.3.10 Laser beam welding

7.3.11 Orbital welding

7.3.12 Oxyfuel gas welding

7.3.13 Plasma-arc welding

7.3.14 Resistance spot welding

7.3.15 Resistance seam welding

7.3.16 Submerged-arc welding

7.3.17 Shielded metal-arc welding

7.3.18 Stud welding

7.4 Weld Pre-heat and Interpass Temperature

7.5 Post Weld Heat Treating

7.6 Welding Procedures

7.7 Control of Residual Stress and Distortion

7.8 Material Handling to Facilitate Welding

7.9 Weld Repair

7.10 Brazing

7.10.1 Applications

7.10.2 Filler metal

7.10.3 Heating

7.10.4 Flux

7.10.5 Brazing Procedures

7.11 References

8. Welding Procedures and Post Weld Heat Treatment

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Weld Symbols and Details

8.3 Common Weld Joint Configurations

8.4 Welding Procedures

8.5 Weld Preparation Special Requirements

8.6 Weld Joint Design and Process to Reduce Stress and Distortion

8.6.1 Reduced heat input

8.6.2 Lower temperature differential

8.6.3 Choice of weld process

8.6.4 Weld configuration and sequencing

8.7 Weld Pre-Heat and Interpass Temperature

8.8 Welder Versus Welding Operator

8.8.1 Welders

8.8.2 Welding operators

8.8.3 Differences in qualifications

8.9 Weld Repair

8.9.1 Slag inclusion during welding

8.9.2 Surface indications after cooling of welds

8.9.3 Delayed hydrogen cracking after welding

8.9.4 Cracks occurring subsequent to PWHT

8.10 Post Weld Heat Treating

8.10.1 PWHT of carbon steels

8.10.2 PWHT of low alloy carbon steels

8.10.3 Some general PWHT requirements for carbon steels and low alloy steels

8.10.4 PWHT of stainless Steel

8.10.5 PWHT of Nonferrous alloys

8.11 Cladding, Overlay, and Loose Liners

8.11.1 Cladding

8.11.2 Weld overlay

8.11.3 Loose liners

8.12 Brazing

8.12.1 Applications

8.12.2 Filler metal

8.12.3 Heating

8.12.4 Flux

8.12.5 Brazing procedures

8.13 References

9. Fabrication of Pressure Equipment Having Unique Characteristics

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Heat Exchangers

9.2.1 U-tube heat exchangers

9.2.2 Fixed heat exchangers

9.2.3 Floating head heat exchangers

9.2.4 Attachment of tubes-to-tubesheets and tubes-to-headers

9.2.5 Expansion joints

9.2.6 Assembly of heat exchangers

9.3 Dimpled Jackets

9.4 Layered Vessels

9.4.1 Introduction

9.4.2 Fabrication of layered shells

9.5 Rectangular vessels

9.6 Vessels with Refractory and Insulation

9.7 Vessel Supports

9.8 Summary

9.9 References

10. Surface Finishes

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Types of Surface Finishes

10.2.1 Surface characteristics, unfinished

10.2.2 Passivation

10.2.3 Applied coatings

10.3 References

11. Handling and Transportation

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Handling of Vessels and Vessel Components within the Fabrication Plant

11.3 Transportation of Standard Loads

11.4 Transportation of Heavy Vessels

11.4.1 Handling heavy vessels using specialty cranes

11.4.2 Shipping by truck

11.4.3 Shipping by rail

11.4.4 Shipping by barge or ship

11.4.5 Shipping by air

11.5 Summary

12. ASME Code Compliance and Quality Control System

12.1 Need for ASME Code Compliance

12.2 What the ASME Code Provides

12.3 Fabrication in Accordance with the ASME Code

12.4 ASME Code Stamping

12.4.1 Design calculations

12.4.2 Fabrication drawings

12.4.3 Material mill test reports

12.4.4 WPS for the vessel welds

12.4.5 Records of Nondestructive Examination

12.4.6 Record of PWHT

12.4.7 Record of hydrotesting

12.4.8 Manufacturer's Data Report, U-1 Form

12.4.9 Manufacturer's Partial Data Report, U-2 form

12.4.10 Name plate

12.5 Authorized Inspector and Authorized Inspection Agency

12.6 Quality Control System for Fabrication

12.6.1 Organizational chart

12.6.2 Authority and responsibility

12.6.3 Quality control system

12.6.4 Design and drawing control

12.6.5 Material control

12.6.6 Production control

12.6.7 Inspection

12.6.8 Hydrostatic and pneumatic testing

12.6.9 Code stamping

12.6.10 Discrepancies and nonconformances

12.6.11 Welding

12.6.12 Nondestructive examination

12.6.13 Heat treatment control

12.6.14 Calibration of measuring and test equipment

12.6.15 Records retention

12.6.16 Handling, storage, and shipping

12.7 Additional Stamps Required for Pressure Vessels

12.7.1 National Board Stamping, NB

12.7.2 Jurisdictional stamping

12.7.3 User stamping

12.7.4 Canadian Registration numbers

12.8 Non Code Jurisdictions

12.9 Temporary Shop Locations

13. Repair of Existing Equipment

13.1 Introduction

13.2 National Board Inspection Code, NBIC, NB-23

13.2.1 Repairs

13.2.2 Alterations

13.2.3 Reratings

13.2.4 Post weld heat treating of repaired components

13.2.5 Hydrostatic or pneumatic testing of repaired vessels

13.3 ASME Post Construction Code, PCC-2

13.3.1 External weld buildup to repair internal thinning

13.3.2. Full encirclement steel reinforcing sleeves for pipes in corroded areas

13.3.3 Welded hot taps

13.4 API Pressure Vessel Inspection Code, API-510

13.5 API 579/ASME FFS-1 Fitness-For-Service Code.

13.6 Miscellaneous Repairs

13.6.1 Removal of seized nuts

13.6.2 Structural supports and foundation

13.7 References

Appendix A Units and Conversion Factors

A.1 Some Customary Units

A.2 Conversion Factors

A.3 Length Conversions

A.4 Miscellaneous Unit Conversions

Appendix B Welding Symbols

Appendix C Weld Process Characteristics

C.1. Weld Process Advantages and Disadvantages

C.2. Weld Process Applications

Appendix D Weld Deposition

Appendix E Shape Properties

E.1. Properties of Cross Sections

E.2. Properties of Solids

E.3. Properties of Hemispheres and Spherical Segments

E.4 Properties of Commonly Used Ellipsoidal Heads

E.5 Ellipsoidal Head Formulas

Appendix F Pipe and Tube Dimensions and Weights

F.1 Pipe Properties

F.2 Tube Properties

Appendix G Bending and Expanding of Pipes and Tubes

G.1 TEMA Requirements for U-Tube Thinning

G.2 ASME B31 Code Requirements for Tube Thickness at U-Bends

G.3 Expansion of Tubes into Tubesheet Holes

Appendix H Dimensions of Some Commonly Used Bolts and Their Required Minimum Spacing

Appendix I Shackles

I.1 Sample Loads and Dimensions for Chain Shackles

I.2 Sample Loads and Dimensions for Anchor Shackles

I.3 Load Reduction Factors for Side Loaded Shackles with Size up to 3 Inches

I.4 Load Reduction Factors for Side Loaded Shackles with Size Larger than 3 Inches

I.5 References

Appendix J Shears, Moments, and Deflections of Beams

Appendix K Commonly Used Terminology

K.1. Glossary

K.2. Acronyms and Other Letter Designations
Owen R. Greulich is active on the High Pressure Task Group of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Process Piping Code Committee and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Aerospace Pressure Vessel Committee. He previously served as Pressure and Energetic Systems Safety Manager in the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters, responsible for the safety of pressure and vacuum systems.

Maan H. Jawad is President of Global Engineering & Technology in the United States. He was previously on the Board of Directors and Director of Engineering of the Nooter Corporation. He is active on various ASME Codes and Standards committees and the author of numerous books and publications related to pressure vessels.

M. H. Jawad, Nooter Corp., Missouri