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Wetlands Conservation

Current Challenges and Future Strategies

Sharma, Sanjeev / Singh, Pardeep (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Oktober 2021
320 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-69268-3
John Wiley & Sons

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Wetlands Conservation

An up-to-date overview of approaches for addressing wetlands degradation and its effects on ecosystem services, human health, and other ecosystems

Wetlands are essential sources of biodiversity, water purification, groundwater replenishment, flood control, storm protection, sediment retention, recreation and tourism, and more. Human exploitation of natural resources over the past 200 years has caused significant wetlands degradation and loss. Although the Ramsar Convention of 1971 drafted polices for wetland conservation and responsible use, many wetland sites remain inadequately conserved or managed. Maintaining the ecological balance and equilibrium of wetlands requires a clear understanding of the vital role of wetlands, the difficulties they face, and the policies enacted for their protection.

Wetlands Conservation: Current Challenges and Future Strategies summarizes both current and emerging management strategies, trends, and policies regarding wetlands protection around the world. The authors provide accurate scientific information on wetlands while discussing the effects of climate change, global warming, modernization in agriculture, and other key topics. Designed to assist in the development of future solutions for wetlands conservation and management strategies, this important volume:
* Highlights the environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural importance of wetlands
* Identifies the factors responsible for the failure of many conservation initiatives
* Describes the natural and anthropogenic factors of wetlands degradation
* Discusses the role of community-based wetlands conservation and management
* Explores Ramsar wetlands conservation and its impacts worldwide

Wetlands Conservation: Current Challenges and Future Strategies is an invaluable resource for graduate and postgraduate students, researchers, ecologists, policymakers, conservation organizations, and others working in the field of natural resources management.

Preface xiii

List of Contributors xvii

1 Global Wetlands: Categorization, Distribution and Global Scenario 1

1.1 Wetlands Definition, Categorization and Classification Criteria 1

1.1.1 Wetlands- Categorization and Classification 3

1.1.2 Human- Made Wetlands 5

1.2 Importance of Wetland Ecosystem 5

1.3 Spatial Distribution and Potential of Global Wetlands 7

1.4 Status and Impacts on the Wetlands Ecosystem 8

1.4.1 Conservation Measures and Future Strategies 10

1.4.2 Conclusion and Recommendation 11

Acknowledgements 13

References 13

2 Ramsar Convention: History, Structure, Operations, and Relevance 17

2.1 Background 17

2.2 The Ramsar Convention 18

2.3 The Convention Text 19

2.4 Wetland Definition and Classification 19

2.5 Mission of the Convention 22

2.6 Structural Framework of the Convention 22

2.7 Operational Framework of the Convention 25

2.7.1 Convention Membership 25

2.7.2 Ramsar Regions 26

2.7.3 National Ramsar Committees 30

2.7.4 The Montreux Record 31

2.7.5 Ramsar Strategic Plan 31

2.7.6 Three Pillars of Ramsar Convention 31

2.7.7 The Convention Budget 32

2.8 External Partnerships and Synergies 33

2.9 Education and Outreach 35

2.9.1 Communication, Education, Participation, and Awareness (CEPA) 35

2.9.2 World Wetlands Day 36

2.10 Legal Status 36

2.11 Effectiveness of the Convention 37

References 38

3 Ecological Importance of Wetland Systems 40

3.1 Introduction 40

3.2 Importance of Wetlands in Flood Control 40

3.3 Role of Wetlands in Groundwater Replenishment 41

3.4 Role of Wetlands in Stabilization and Storm Protection of Shorelines 42

3.5 Role of Wetlands in Sediment and Nutrient Retention 43

3.6 Role of Wetlands in Water Purification 44

3.7 Biodiversity of Wetlands 45

3.8 Wetland Products 46

3.9 Sociocultural Values of Wetlands 46

3.10 Wetlands in Relation to Recreation and Tourism 47

3.11 Wetland and Climate Change 48

3.12 Summary 49

Acknowledgments 50

References 50

4 Ecological and Societal Importance of Wetlands: A Case Study of North Bihar (India) 55

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Geographical and District-Wise Distribution of Wetlands in North Bihar 58

4.2.1 Kabartal 60

4.2.2 Baraila Jheel 60

4.2.3 Kusheshwar Asthan 62

4.2.4 Jagatpur Wetland 62

4.2.5 Moti Jheel 63

4.2.6 Gogabeel Pakshi Vihar 64

4.3 Wetlands: Promoters of Sustainable Livelihood and Services 64

4.4 North Bihar Wetland Biodiversity: Status and Role 65

4.5 Urbanization, Pollution, and Climate Change Impacts 71

4.6 Legal Framework, Policies, and Challenges 77

4.7 Conclusion 79

Acknowledgments 80

References 80

5 Recognizing Economic Values of Wetland Ecosystem Services: A Study of Emerging Role of Monetary Evaluation of Chandubi Ecosystem and Biodiversity 87

5.1 Introduction 87

5.2 Methodology of Ecosystem Valuation 90

5.2.1 Market Prices - Revealed Willingness to Pay 90

5.2.1.1 Market Price Method 91

5.2.1.2 Productivity Method 91

5.2.1.3 Hedonic Pricing Method 92

5.2.1.4 Travel Cost Method 93

5.2.2 Circumstantial Evidence - Imputed Willingness to Pay 94

5.2.2.1 Damage Cost Avoided, Replacement Cost, and Substitute Cost Methods 94

5.2.3 Surveys - Expressed Willingness to Pay 95

5.2.3.1 Contingent Valuation Method 95

5.2.3.2 Contingent Choice Method 96

5.3 Ecosystem Services of Wetland 97

5.4 Chandubi Wetland: Introduction, Impact, and Introspection 97

5.5 Scaling up Wetland Conservation, Wise Use, and Restoration for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals 103

5.6 Wetlands' Role in Achieving SDGs 104

5.7 Conclusion 108

Acknowledgments 109

References 109

6 Ecosystem Services of Lagoon Wetlands System in India 111

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Chilika Lagoon 112

6.3 Ecosystem Services Provided by Chilika Lagoon 112

6.3.1 Provisioning Services 114

6.3.1.1 Commercial Fisheries 114

6.3.1.2 Other Flora and Fauna of Chilika Lagoon 114

6.3.1.3 Navigation 115

6.3.2 Regulating Services 115

6.3.3 Cultural Services 116

6.3.4 Supporting Services 116

6.4 Threats and Management of Chilika Lagoon 117

6.5 Pulicat Lagoon 118

6.6 Ecosystem Services Provided by Pulicat Lagoon 119

6.6.1 Provisioning Services 119

6.6.1.1 Fisheries in Pulicat 119

6.6.2 Aquatic Flora and Fauna of Pulicat 120

6.6.3 Regulatory Services Provided by Pulicat Lagoon 120

6.6.4 Historical and Cultural Importance of Pulicat Lagoon 120

6.6.5 Supporting Services Provided by Pulicat Lagoon 121

6.6.6 Threats and Management of Pulicat Lagoon 121

6.7 Conclusion 123

Acknowledgments 124

References 124

7 Sustainable Practices for Conservation of Wetland Ecosystem 129

7.1 Introduction 129

7.2 Role of Wetlands in the Ecosystem 130

7.3 Challenges to Conserve Wetlands 133

7.4 Wetland Management and Sustainable Development 134

7.5 Future Strategies for Wetland Conservation 135

7.6 Development of the Legal Framework 135

7.7 Technology Intervention with Baseline Data for Wetland Conservation 136

7.8 Development of National Action Plans 136

7.9 Promotion of Research for Conservation Setup 136

7.10 Conclusion 136

References 137

8 Assessing the Benefits, Threats and Conservation of Reservoir-Based Wetlands in the Eastern Himalayan River Basin 140

8.1 Introduction 140

8.1.1 RBWs' Significance and Ignorance 141

8.1.2 RBWs in India 142

8.1.3 The RBWs in the Eastern Himalayas 143

8.2 The RBWs in the Tista Basin 144

8.3 Benefits of Reservoirs as Wetland 145

8.3.1 Ecosystem Services Provided by the RBWs 145

8.4 Assessment of Ecosystem Services in the Tista Basin Provided by the RBWs 147

8.5 Adverse Impact of RBWs 149

8.5.1 Construction and Function of RBWs Across the World 149

8.5.2 Adverse Impact of RBWs in the Eastern Himalayas 149

8.6 Assessment of Impact on the Tista basin 150

8.7 Potential Challenges and Threats to RBW 152

8.7.1 Anthropogenic Activities 152

8.7.2 Variations in Water Level 153

8.8 Climate Change 153

8.9 Management and Conservation of RBWs 154

8.10 Conclusion 155

References 156

9 Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Causes and Consequences of Wetland Degradation 162

9.1 Introduction 162

9.2 Classification of Wetlands 162

9.3 Causes of and Consequence of Wetland Degradation 164

9.3.1 Natural Causes 164

9.3.1.1 Storms Surge 165

9.3.1.2 Disintegration of Barrier Islands 165

9.3.1.3 Flooding and Salinization 165

9.3.1.4 Herbivory 166

9.3.1.5 Climate Change 166

9.3.1.6 Major Shifts in a River's Course 166

9.3.2 Anthropogenic Causes of Wetland Loss 166

9.3.2.1 Infrastructure Development 167

9.3.2.2 Land Conversion 167

9.3.2.3 Water Withdrawal 168

9.3.2.4 Eutrophication and Pollution 168

9.3.2.5 Overharvesting and Overexploitation 168

9.3.2.6 Introduction of Invasive Species 168

9.3.2.7 Others 169

9.4 Consequences of Wetland Loss 170

9.4.1 Loss of Biodiversity 170

9.4.2 Decrease in Water Level 171

9.4.3 Loss of Habitat 171

9.4.4 Climate Change 171

9.4.5 Emission of Greenhouse Gases 171

9.4.6 Erosion of River Delta 172

References 172

10 The Status of Current Knowledge, Distribution, and Conservation Challenges of Wetland Ecosystems in Kashmir Himalaya, India 175

10.1 Introduction 175

10.2 Wetlands Over North-Western Kashmir Himalaya 176

10.2.1 Current Status 176

10.2.2 Wetland Classification 178

10.2.2.1 High Altitude Wetlands (HAWs) 182

10.2.2.2 Mid-Altitude Wetlands (MAWs) 182

10.2.3 Wetland Distribution and Extent in Kashmir Himalaya 182

10.3 Wetland Functions and Values 184

10.3.1 Regulatory functions 184

10.3.1.1 Regulation of Global Climate 184

10.3.1.2 Groundwater Recharge and Discharge 184

10.3.1.3 Water Purification 185

10.3.1.4 Natural Hazard and Flood Control 185

10.3.1.5 Sediment Retention 185

10.3.2 Provisioning Functions 185

10.3.2.1 Food Resources 185

10.3.2.2 Raw Materials 186

10.3.2.3 Medicinal Resources 186

10.3.3 Cultural Functions 186

10.3.3.1 Tourism, Aesthetics, and Recreation 186

10.3.3.2 Scientific and Educational Information 186

10.3.4 Supporting Functions 187

10.3.4.1 Biodiversity Habitats 187

10.3.4.2 Nutrient Cycling 187

10.3.5 Economic Values 187

10.4 Drivers of Wetland Degradation 187

10.4.1 Land System Changes 188

10.4.2 Pollution 189

10.4.3 Floating Agriculture 190

10.4.4 Siltation 190

10.4.5 Roads and Railways 190

10.4.6 Plantations 190

10.4.7 Overexploitation 191

10.4.8 Weed Infestation 191

10.4.9 Hunting and Poaching 191

10.4.10 Land Reclamation 191

10.5 Wetland Conservation in Kashmir Himalaya 191

10.5.1 Legal Framework 192

10.5.2 Conservation Challenges 193

10.5.3 Conservation Strategies 193

10.5.4 Knowledge Gaps 193

10.6 Conclusion 195

Acknowledgments 195

References 195

11 Heavy Metal Pollution in Coastal Environment and Its Remediation Using Mangroves: An Eco-sustainable Approach 201

11.1 Introduction 201

11.2 Pollution in Mangrove Habitats: A Global Concern 202

11.3 Heavy Metal Cycling in the Mangrove Ecosystem 203

11.4 Heavy Metal Transport, Uptake, and Release 204

11.5 Bioavailability and Concentration of Heavy Metals in the Sediments 204

11.6 Factors Affecting Heavy Metals in the Sediment 205

11.7 Heavy Metal Accumulation in Mangrove Plants 210

11.8 Heavy Metal Remediation Potential of Mangroves 210

11.9 Distribution of Heavy Metals in Different Plant Tissues of Mangrove Species 214

11.10 Application of Phytoremediation to Coastal Pollution Remediation 214

11.10.1 Phytoremediation Using Constructed Wetlands (CWs) Technology 214

11.10.2 Phytoremediation Using Constructed Floating Bed 216

11.11 Eco-remediation Technologies as Sustainable Natural Treatment Systems for Waste Water Treatment 217

11.12 Conclusion and Future Prospects 217

References 218

12 Mangrove Forests: Distribution, Species Diversity, Roles, Threats and Conservation Strategies 229

12.1 Introduction 229

12.2 Mangrove Species Diversity 230

12.3 Geographical Distribution of Mangroves Across the Globe and India 237

12.4 Important Roles of Mangroves 237

12.4.1 Mangrove Forests are the Richest and Most Biodiverse Ecosystems on Earth 241

12.4.2 Aquaculture: Shrimp and Fish Cultivation 242

12.4.3 Protection from Natural Disasters: Mangroves Act as Natural Bioshields Against Natural Disasters 242

12.4.4 Medicinal Value of Mangroves 243

12.5 Threats to Mangroves 243

12.5.1 Human Settlements and Other Developmental Activities 244

12.5.2 Excessive Extraction of Wood 245

12.5.3 Conversion of Mangrove Forests for Farming and Related Activities 245

12.5.4 Conversion of Mangrove Forests for Aquaculture 245

12.5.5 Global Warming, Climate Change, and Sea Level Rise 246

12.5.6 Limits to Landward Movement 246

12.5.7 El Niño and La Niña Events 247

12.6 Strategies for the Conservation of Mangroves 247

12.6.1 Increased and Focused Research on Understanding Mangroves 247

12.6.2 Implementation of Mangrove Conservation-Related Laws, Guidelines, and Other Initiatives 247

12.6.3 Strengthening Conservation Mechanisms 251

12.6.4 Targeting Land Ownership-Related Issues 251

12.6.5 Involvement of Local Communities 251

12.7 Conclusion 252

Acknowledgments 253

References 253

13 Wetland Conservation and Restoration 272

13.1 Introduction 272

13.2 Wetlands: Role and Importance 274

13.3 Wetland Loss Leading to Ecological Imbalance 275

13.4 Wetland Management Strategies: Current Status 277

13.5 Wetland Restoration and Sustainability 280

13.5.1 4th Ramsar Strategic Plan 2016-2024 (Source: Ramsar Secretariat 2016) 280

13.6 Conclusion 281

Acknowledgments 281

References 281

Index 285
Dr Sanjeev Sharma has been teaching as an Assistant Professor in the Centre for Study of Regional Development, School of Social Science and Concurrent Faculty in the Special Centre for E-Learning at Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi-India. He is also Assistant Director, UGC-HRDC-JNU, New Delhi. Over the past one and half decades he has worked in different academic and research institute viz. Dr. H.S. Gour Central University of Sagar, IISER, Mohali, WWF-India and G. B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment (NIHE). He has done M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. (HPU, Shimla) Post Doctorate (IISER, Mohali) and PG Diploma in Environmental Law and Policy (NLU, Delhi). His research expertise in human ecology; wetlands conservation; environmental impact assessment & management; policy planning and nature conservation; science society and nature study etc. He was awarded first Dr. Saminderjeet Singh Young Geographers National Awrard for 2011 by Association of Punjab Geographers, Post Doc. Fellow from UGC & IISER, Mohali and UNESCO-IHE Fellowship. Presently he is an External Expert Member in the Himachal Pradesh State Wetlands Authority, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh. He has more than 35 international and national publications to his credit.

Dr Pardeep Singh is presently working as an Assistant Professor (Department of Environmental Science, PGDAV College, University of Delhi New Delhi India). He obtained his Masters degree from Department of Environmental Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi India and doctorate from Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi. He has published more than 65 papers in the international journals in the fields of various environmental emerging issues. He has edited more than 30 books with various international publishers like Springer, Elsevier, CRC and Wiley.

S. Sharma, Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, India; P. Singh, University of Delhi New Delhi, India