John Wiley & Sons Self-Healing Smart Materials Cover This comprehensive book describes the design, synthesis, mechanisms, characterization, fundamental p.. Product #: 978-1-119-71015-8 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 Auf Lager

Self-Healing Smart Materials

Inamuddin / Ahamed, Mohd Imran / Boddula, Rajender / Altalhi, Tariq A. (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage August 2021
560 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-71015-8
John Wiley & Sons

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This comprehensive book describes the design, synthesis, mechanisms, characterization, fundamental properties, functions and development of self-healing smart materials and their composites with their allied applications. It covers cementitious concrete composites, bleeding composites, elastomers, tires, membranes, and composites in energy storage, coatings, shape-memory, aerospace and robotic applications. The 21 chapters are written by researchers from a variety of disciplines and backgrounds.

Preface xv

1 Self-Healing Polymer Coatings 1
Facundo I. Altuna and Cristina E. Hoppe

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Extrinsic Self-Healing Polymer Coatings 5

1.3 Intrinsic Self-Healing Polymer Coatings 13

1.4 Remote Activation of Self-Healing 21

1.5 Perspectives and Challenges 26

References 27

2 Smart Phenolics for Self-Healing and Shape Memory Applications 39
Baris Kiskan and Yusuf Yagci

2.1 Introduction 40

2.2 Self-Healable Polybenzoxazines 42

2.3 Benzoxazine Resins for Shape Memory Applications 51

2.4 Conclusion 57

References 58

3 Self-Healable Elastomers 65
Mariajose Cova Sánchez, Daniela Belén García, Mariano Martin Escobar and Marcela Mansilla

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Self-Healing in Elastomers 67

3.2.1 Self-Healing Mechanism 68

3.2.1.1 Heat Stimulated Self-Healing 68

3.2.1.2 Light Stimulated Self-Healing 68

3.2.1.3 Mechanochemical Self-Healing 68

3.2.1.4 Encapsulation 69

3.2.2 Characterization of Healing Process 70

3.3 Particular Cases in Different Elastomers 71

3.3.1 Natural Rubber (NR) 71

3.3.2 Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) 76

3.3.3 Polybutadiene Rubber 79

3.3.4 Bromobutyl Rubber 81

3.3.5 Silicones 84

3.3.6 Polyurethanes 89

References 92

4 Self-Healable Tires 99
Norazlianie Sazali, Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed and Zul Adlan Mohd Hir

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 Self-Healable Rubber 102

4.3 Promising Strategy for Self-Healing Rubber-Based Material 103

4.4 Conclusion 113

References 113

5 Self-Healing Bacterial Cementitious Composites 123
R. Preetham, R. Hari Krishna, M.N. Chandraprabha and R. Sivaramakrishna

5.1 Introduction 124

5.2 Biomineralization for Self-Healing 130

5.2.1 Bacteria as Self-Healing Agent 130

5.2.2 Bacterial Metabolic Pathway in Self-Healing 131

5.2.2.1 Urea Hydrolysis by Ureolytic Bacteria 132

5.2.2.2 Hydrolysis of CO2 by Carbonic Anhydrase Producing Bacteria 133

5.2.2.3 Hydrolysis of Organic Acids 134

5.2.2.4 Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction 134

5.2.2.5 Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction 135

5.2.2.6 Ammonification 135

5.3 Strategies to Enhance the Performance of Bacterial Self-Healing 139

5.4 Evaluation of Factors Affecting Bacterial Self-Healing 141

5.4.1 Nutrient Suitability for Optimal Bacterial Growth 142

5.4.2 Viability and Activity of Encapsulated Spores 143

5.4.3 Evaluation of Encapsulation Material 143

5.4.4 Crack Healing Efficiency 144

5.4.5 Effects of Capsule Material and Bacteria

on Concrete Properties 146

5.5 Conclusion, Future Prospective & Challenges 146

References 147

6 Self-Healable Solar Cells: Recent Insights and Challenges 153
Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Sonia Bahrani, Seeram Ramakrishna, Chin Wei Lai and Wei-Hung Chiang

6.1 Introduction 154

6.2 Functional Mechanism of Protection Approaches 155

6.2.1 Self-Healable Polymeric Structure 155

6.2.2 Shape Memory Polymeric Structure 156

6.2.3 Self-Cleanable Polymeric Platforms 157

6.3 Advanced Self-Healable Polymeric Materials 159

6.3.1 Self-Healable Polymers 159

6.3.2 Self-Healable Hydrogels 165

6.4 Shape Memory Materials 168

6.5 Self-Healable Solar Cells 169

6.6 Conclusions 175

References 175

7 Self-Healable Core-Shell Nanofibers 181
Sonia Bahrani, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Chin Wei Lai and Wei-Hung Chiang

7.1 Introduction 182

7.2 Self-Healing Polymers in Fabrication of Core-Shell Nanofibers 183

7.3 Strategies for Core-Shell Nanofibers Fabrication 184

7.3.1 Capsule-Based Self-Healing 185

7.3.2 Vascular-Based Self-Healing 187

7.4 Methods of Fabrication of Self-Healing Core-Shell Nanofibers 188

7.4.1 Co-Electrospinning 188

7.4.2 Emulsion Electrospinning 190

7.4.3 Solution-Blown 194

7.5 Self-Healing in Laminated Composite 194

7.6 Beneficial Self-Repairing Systems on Basis of Core-Shell Nanofibers 196

7.7 Conclusion 197

References 197

8 Intrinsic Self-Healing Materials 203
Angelita Cristiane Saul and João Henrique Zimnoch dos Santos

8.1 Introduction 203

8.2 Inverse Reactions and Chain Recombination 205

8.3 Reversible (Covalent) Bonds 205

8.3.1 Cycloadditions 206

8.3.2 Reversible Acylhydrazones 211

8.3.3 Disulfides 216

8.3.4 Alkoxyamines (Radicals) 218

8.3.5 Transesterification 222

8.4 Supramolecular Interactions 223

8.4.1 Hydrogen Bonds 224

8.4.2 pi-pi Interaction 225

8.4.3 Ionomers (Ballistic Stimulus) 226

8.4.4 Metallopolymers 227

8.5 Conclusion 229

References 229

9 Self-Healable Catalysis 237
Bilge Coskuner Filiz

9.1 Introduction 237

9.2 Self-Healable Catalysis Applications 239

9.2.1 Oxygen Evolution Catalysts 239

9.2.2 Specific Catalysis Applications of Self-Healing Property 243

9.3 Conclusion 244

References 244

10 Self-Healing Materials in Corrosion Protection 247
Eiman Alibakhshi, Bahram Ramezanzadeh and Mohammad Mahdavian

10.1 Introduction 248

10.2 Self-Healing Definition 249

10.3 Inhibition of the Corroded Regions Thanks to the Presence of Corrosion Inhibitive Pigments/Inhibitors 251

10.4 The Imprisonment and Physical Release of the Inhibitor 256

10.4.1 Ion-Exchange Based Materials 257

10.4.2 Porous-Structure and Metal Oxide Materials 268

10.4.3 Conductive Polymers 269

10.4.4 Fibril Materials 270

10.4.5 Lamellar-Structure Materials 271

10.4.6 Other Containers 274

10.5 Healing Using Polymerizable Agents 275

10.6 Conclusion and Outlook 276

References 278

11 Self-Healable Conductive Materials 297
M. Ramesh, L. Rajeshkumar, D. Balaji, V. Bhuvaneswari and S. Sivalingam

11.1 Introduction 298

11.2 Self-Healing Materials 298

11.2.1 Elastomers 298

11.2.2 Reversible Materials 303

11.3 Self-Healing Conductive Materials 304

11.3.1 Polymers 304

11.3.2 Capsules 306

11.3.3 Liquids 308

11.3.4 Composites 309

11.3.5 Coating 311

11.4 Conclusion 313

References 313

12 Self-Healable Artificial Skin 321
Younus Raza Beg, Gokul Ram Nishad and Priyanka Singh

12.1 Introduction 321

12.2 Preparation and Properties of Artificial Skin 322

12.3 Applications of Electronic Skin 335

12.4 Conclusion 341

References 342

13 Self-Healing Smart Composites 345
Sithara Gopinath, Suresh Mathew and P. Radhakrishnan Nair

13.1 Introduction 345

13.2 Self-Healing Mechanisms and its Classifications 346

13.2.1 Intrinsic Self-Repairing Materials 348

13.2.2 Extrinsic Self-Repairing Materials 350

13.3 Self-Healing of Thermoplastic Materials 352

13.4 Self-Healing of Thermosetting Materials 354

13.5 Conclusions and Future Study 355

References 356

14 Stimuli-Responsive Self-Healable Materials 361
G. Jerald Maria Antony, S. Raja and S.T. Aruna

14.1 Self-Healing Materials 362

14.2 Synthesis of S-H Materials 364

14.3 Types of S-H Materials 365

14.4 Need for Stimuli-Responsive Shape Memory (S-RSM) Materials 367

14.5 Stimuli-Responsive or Nonautonomous S-H Materials 368

14.5.1 Light Stimuli-Responsive S-H Materials 369

14.5.2 Thermal Stimuli-Responsive S-H Materials 370

14.5.3 Chemical Stimuli-Responsive S-H Materials 371

14.5.4 Electric/Magnetic Stimuli-Responsive S-H Materials 372

14.5.5 Multi-Stimuli Responsive S-H Material 373

14.6 Commercialization and Challenges 374

14.7 Conclusions 375

References 375

15 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healable Materials 379
M. Ramesh, L. Rajeshkumar and R. Saravanakumar

15.1 Introduction 380

15.2 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healing Based on Gel 380

15.3 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healing Based on Crystals 386

15.4 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healing Based on Composites 389

15.5 Mechanically-Induced Self-Healing for Corrosion 394

15.5.1 Capsule-Based Self-Healing Approaches for Corrosion Protection 394

15.5.2 Fiber-Based Self-Healing Approaches for Corrosion Protection 398

15.6 Conclusion 399

References 400

16 Self-Healing Materials in Robotics 405
Sunny Kumar

16.1 Introduction 405

16.2 Chemistry of Self-Healing (S-H) Materials 406

16.3 Working of Self-Healing (S-H) Material 407

16.4 Application of Self-Healing Robots 407

16.4.1 Self-Healing Electronics for Soft Robotics 407

16.4.2 Self-Healing Electrostatic Actuators 408

16.4.3 Self-Healing Skin for Robotics 408

16.5 Approaches to Self-Healing 408

16.6 Material Application and Damage Resilience Mechanism 410

16.7 Conclusion 410

References 412

17 Self-Healing Materials in Aerospace Applications 415
M. Harikrishna Kumar, C. Moganapriya, A. Moha Kumar, R. Rajasekar and V. K. Gobinath

17.1 Introduction 415

17.2 Classification of Self-Healing Materials 417

17.2.1 Intrinsic Mechanism 417

17.2.2 Extrinsic Mechanism 418

17.2.2.1 Microencapsulation 418

17.2.2.2 Microvascular Network 419

17.3 Self-Healing Materials in Aerospace Applications 420

17.3.1 Fiber Reinforced Polymers 421

17.3.2 Modified Epoxy 425

17.3.3 Ceramic Matrix Composites 428

17.4 Conclusion 431

References 432

18 Bio-Inspired Self-Healable Materials 435
Archita Sharma and Shailendra Kumar Arya

18.1 Introduction 436

18.1.1 Self-Healable Materials and Coatings 439

18.1.1.1 The Process of Self-Healing Through the Exploitation of Micro-Capsule and Micro-Vascular Method 439

18.1.1.2 Self-Healing Process Through Reversible Covalent Bond Formation 442

18.1.1.3 Self-Healable Systems on the Basis of Supramolecular Self-Assembly 444

18.1.2 Mechanism of Self-Healing Materials 445

18.2 Repairing and Healing the Damage 448

18.3 A Systematic Biomimetic Approach 448

18.4 Self-Healable Materials: Case Studies 449

18.4.1 Regrowth of Limbs 449

18.4.2 The Mechanism of Bone Healing 451

18.4.3 Cutaneous Wound Healing 452

18.5 Applications of Bio-Inspired Self-Healable Materials--Examples 453

18.5.1 Bio-Inspired Ionic Skin for Pressure Sensing 453

18.5.2 Self-Healable Synthetic Vascular Materials Concerning Internal Damage 456

18.5.3 Biobased Self-Healable Color Hydrogel 458

18.5.4 Bio-Inspired Support for Repairing Damaged Articular Cartilage 461

18.6 Conclusions and Outlook 464

References 465

19 Self-Healable Batteries 475
Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Maryam Zarei, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Wei-Hung Chiang, Chin Wei Lai and Sonia Bahrani

19.1 Introduction 476

19.2 Development of Self-Healing Materials 478

19.3 Self-Healing Batteries 481

19.3.1 Self-Healable Electrodes 481

19.3.2 Self-Healable Electrolytes 483

19.4 Conclusions 487

References 488

20 Self-Healing in Bleeding Composites 495
Lutfur Rahman, Ata Ullah, Muhammad Bilal Yazdani, Muhammad Irfan, Waheed S. Khan and Asma Rehman

20.1 Introduction 496

20.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Self-Healing Materials and Their Repairing Approaches 498

20.3 Strategies of Self-Healing in Engineered Materials 499

20.3.1 Materials With Bioinspired Self-Healing Mechanism 499

20.3.2 Self-Healing in Composite Materials Based on Biomimetic Approaches 502

20.3.3 Vascular Networks 502

20.4 Healing Agents, Comparison With Biological Phenomenon and Bleeding Mechanism in Self-Healing Composite Materials 503

20.4.1 Compartmentalization, Recovery After Yield and Reinforce Repair 506

20.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Repairing Bleeding Composite Materials 507

20.6 Conclusion 508

References 508

21 Self-Healing Polymers 511
Muhammad Akram, Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Mohd Imran Ahamed, Adrish Sohail, Iram Ghaffar, Olugbenga Samuel Michael, Hina Anwar, Musa Abidemi Muhibi, Juliana Bunmi Adetunji, Umme Laila and Mathew Olaniyan

21.1 Introduction 512

21.2 General Overview on Self-Healing Materials 513

21.3 Design of Self-Healing 515

21.3.1 Modes of Action of Self-Healing 515

21.3.2 Rearrangement of Surface Dynamics 516

21.3.3 Bringing the Surfaces Together 516

21.3.4 Wetness 516

21.3.5 Diffusion 516

21.4 Application of Self-Healing Materials 517

21.4.1 Properties of Self-Healing 518

21.4.2 Advancement in Self-Healing 518

21.4.3 Classification of Self-Healing 519

21.4.4 Healing Mechanism Types of Healing 519

21.4.4.1 Crack Filling Healing Process 519

21.4.4.2 Diffusion 521

21.4.4.3 Bond Reformation 521

21.4.4.4 Application 521

21.5 Specific Examples of Self-Healing Polymer 522

21.5.1 Intrinsic Self-Healing 522

21.5.2 Extrinsic Self-Healing 522

21.5.3 One Capsule System 522

21.5.4 Self-Healing Based on Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization 522

21.5.5 Solvent-Induced Self-Healing 523

21.5.6 Dual-Capsule Systems 523

21.5.6.1 Polydimethylsiloxane Condensation 524

21.5.6.2 Platinum-Catalyzed Hydrosilylation 524

21.5.6.3 Adaptive Resistant Effect 524

21.6 Conclusion and Recommendations 525

References 525

Index 531
Inamuddin PhD is an assistant professor at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and is also an assistant professor in the Department of Applied Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has extensive research experience in multidisciplinary fields of analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, electrochemistry, renewable energy and environmental science. He has published about 150 research articles in various international scientific journals, 18 book chapters, and edited 60 books with multiple well-known publishers.

Mohd Imran Ahamed PhD is in the Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has published several research and review articles in SCI journals. His research focuses on ion-exchange chromatography, wastewater treatment and analysis, actuators and electrospinning.

Rajender Boddula PhD is currently working for the Chinese Academy of Sciences President's International Fellowship Initiative (CAS-PIFI) at the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing). His academic honors include multiple fellowships and scholarships, and he has published many scientific articles in international peer-reviewed journals, edited books with numerous publishers and has authored 20 book chapters.

Tariq Altalhi PhD is Head of the Department of Chemistry and Vice Dean of Science College at Taif University, Saudi Arabia. He received his PhD from the University of Adelaide, Australia in 2014. His research interests include developing advanced chemistry-based solutions for solid and liquid municipal waste management, converting plastic bags to carbon nanotubes, and fly ash to efficient adsorbent material.

Inamuddin, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; M. I. Ahamed, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; R. Boddula, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing)