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Microgrid Technologies

Sharmeela, C. / Sivaraman, P. / Sanjeevikumar, P. / Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage April 2021
560 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-71079-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Microgrid technology is an emerging area, and it has numerous advantages over the conventional power grid. A microgrid is defined as Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and interconnected loads with clearly defined electrical boundaries that act as a single controllable entity concerning the grid. Microgrid technology enables the connection and disconnection of the system from the grid. That is, the microgrid can operate both in grid-connected and islanded modes of operation. Microgrid technologies are an important part of the evolving landscape of energy and power systems.

Many aspects of microgrids are discussed in this volume, including, in the early chapters of the book, the various types of energy storage systems, power and energy management for microgrids, power electronics interface for AC & DC microgrids, battery management systems for microgrid applications, power system analysis for microgrids, and many others.

The middle section of the book presents the power quality problems in microgrid systems and its mitigations, gives an overview of various power quality problems and its solutions, describes the PSO algorithm based UPQC controller for power quality enhancement, describes the power quality enhancement and grid support through a solar energy conversion system, presents the fuzzy logic-based power quality assessments, and covers various power quality indices.

The final chapters in the book present the recent advancements in the microgrids, applications of Internet of Things (IoT) for microgrids, the application of artificial intelligent techniques, modeling of green energy smart meter for microgrids, communication networks for microgrids, and other aspects of microgrid technologies.

Valuable as a learning tool for beginners in this area as well as a daily reference for engineers and scientists working in the area of microgrids, this is a must-have for any library.

Foreword xxi

Acknowledgements xxiii

1 A Comprehensive Review on Energy Management in Micro-Grid System 1
Sanjay Kumar, R. K. Saket, P. Sanjeevikumar and Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Generation and Storage System in MicroGrid 6

1.2.1 Distributed Generation of Electrical Power 6

1.2.2 Incorporation of Electric Car in Micro-Grid as a Device for Backup 7

1.2.3 Power and Heat Integration in Management System 8

1.2.4 Combination of Heat and Electrical Power System 9

1.3 System of Energy Management 10

1.3.1 Classification of MSE 10

1.3.1.1 MSE Based on Conventional Sources 10

1.3.1.2 MSE Based on SSE 10

1.3.1.3 MSE Based on DSM 11

1.3.1.4 MSE Based on Hybrid System 11

1.3.2 Steps of MSE During Problem Solving 11

1.3.2.1 Prediction of Uncertain Parameters 12

1.3.2.2 Uncertainty Modeling 12

1.3.2.3 Mathematical Formulation 12

1.3.2.4 Optimization 13

1.3.3 Micro-Grid in Islanded Mode 13

1.3.3.1 Objective Functions and Constraints of System 13

1.3.4 Micro-Grid Operation in Grid-Connected Mode 14

1.3.4.1 Objective Functions and Constraints of the Systems 14

1.4 Algorithms Used in Optimizing Energy Management System 16

1.5 Conclusion 19

References 20

2 Power and Energy Management in Microgrid 25
Jayesh J. Joglekar

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Microgrid Structure 26

2.2.1 Selection of Source for DG 27

2.2.1.1 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) 27

2.2.1.2 Mathematical Modeling of PAFC Fuel Cell 27

2.3 Power Flow Management in Microgrid 31

2.4 Generalized Unified Power Flow Controller (GUPFC) 33

2.4.1 Mathematical Modeling of GUPFC 34

2.5 Active GUPFC 38

2.5.1 Active GUPFC Control System 39

2.5.1.1 Series Converter 40

2.5.1.2 Shunt Converter 42

2.5.2 Simulation of Active GUPFC With General Test System 43

2.5.3 Simulation of Active GUPFC With IEEE 9 Bus Test System 43

2.5.3.1 Test Case: 1--Without GUPFC and Without Fuel Cell 45

2.5.3.2 Test Case: 2--Without GUPFC and With Fuel Cell 47

2.5.3.3 Test Case: 3--With GUPFC and Without Fuel Cell 48

2.5.3.4 Test Case: 4--With GUPFC and With Fuel Cell 49

2.5.3.5 Test Case: 5--With Active GUPFC 49

2.5.4 Summary 52

2.6 Appendix General Test System 53

2.6.1 IEEE 9 Bus Test System 53

References 55

3 Review of Energy Storage System for Microgrid 57
G.V. Brahmendra Kumar and K. Palanisamy

3.1 Introduction 58

3.2 Detailed View of ESS 60

3.2.1 Configuration of ESS 60

3.2.2 Structure of ESS With Other Devices 60

3.2.3 ESS Classifications 62

3.3 Types of ESS 62

3.3.1 Mechanical ESS 62

3.3.2 Flywheel ESS 63

3.3.3 CAES System 64

3.3.4 PHS System 65

3.3.5 CES Systems 66

3.3.6 Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) 67

3.3.7 Battery-Based ESS 68

3.3.8 Electrical Energy Storage (EES) System 71

3.3.8.1 Capacitors 71

3.3.8.2 Supercapacitors (SCs) 72

3.3.9 SMES 73

3.3.10 Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TESS) 74

3.3.10.1 SHS 75

3.3.10.2 Latent 75

3.3.10.3 Absorption 75

3.3.10.4 Hybrid ESS 76

3.4 Comparison of Current ESS on Large Scale 77

3.5 Importance of Storage in Modern Power Systems 77

3.5.1 Generation Balance and Fluctuation in Demand 77

3.5.2 Intermediate Penetration of Renewable Energy 77

3.5.3 Use of the Grid 80

3.5.4 Operations on the Market 80

3.5.5 Flexibility in Scheduling 80

3.5.6 Peak Shaving Support 80

3.5.7 Improve the Quality of Power 81

3.5.8 Carbon Emission Control 81

3.5.9 Improvement of Service Efficiency 81

3.5.10 Emergency Assistance and Support for Black Start 81

3.6 ESS Issues and Challenges 81

3.6.1 Selection of Materials 82

3.6.2 ESS Size and Cost 82

3.6.3 Energy Management System 83

3.6.4 Impact on the Environment 83

3.6.5 Issues of Safety 83

3.7 Conclusion 84

Acknowledgment 85

References 85

4 Single Phase Inverter Fuzzy Logic Phase Locked Loop 91
Maxwell Sibanyoni, S.P. Daniel Chowdhury and L.J. Ngoma

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 PLL Synchronization Techniques 92

4.2.1 T/4 Transport Delay PLL 95

4.2.2 Inverse Park Transform PLL 96

4.2.3 Enhanced PLL 97

4.2.4 Second Order Generalized Integrator Orthogonal Signal Generator Synchronous Reference Frame (SOGI-OSG SRF) PLL 98

4.2.5 Cascaded Generalized Integrator PLL (CGI-PLL) 99

4.2.6 Cascaded Delayed Signal Cancellation PLL 100

4.3 Fuzzy Logic Control 101

4.4 Fuzzy Logic PLL Model 103

4.4.1 Fuzzification 103

4.4.2 Inference Engine 105

4.4.3 Defuzzification 108

4.5 Simulation and Analysis of Results 110

4.5.1 Test Signal Generator 110

4.5.2 Proposed SOGI FLC PLL Performance Under Fault Conditions 113

4.5.2.1 Test Case 1 113

4.5.2.2 Test Case 2 114

4.5.2.3 Test Case 3 115

4.5.2.4 Test Case 4 115

4.5.2.5 Test Case 5 116

4.5.2.6 Test Case 6 117

4.6 Conclusion 118

Acknowledgment 118

References 119

5 Power Electronics Interfaces in Microgrid Applications 121
Indrajit Sarkar

5.1 Introduction 122

5.2 Microgrid Classification 122

5.2.1 AC Microgrid 122

5.2.2 DC Microgrids 124

5.2.3 Hybrid Microgrid 126

5.3 Role of Power Electronics in Microgrid Application 127

5.4 Power Converters 128

5.4.1 DC/DC Converters 128

5.4.2 Non-Isolated DC/DC Converters 129

5.4.2.1 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) 130

5.4.3 Isolated DC/DC Converters 135

5.4.4 AC to DC Converters 137

5.4.5 DC to AC Converters 139

5.5 Conclusion 143

References 143

6 Reconfigurable Battery Management System for Microgrid Application 145
Saravanan, S., Pandiyan, P., Chinnadurai, T., Ramji, Tiwari., Prabaharan, N., Senthil Kumar, R. and Lenin Pugalhanthi, P.

6.1 Introduction 146

6.2 Individual Cell Properties 147

6.2.1 Modeling of Cell 147

6.2.1.1 Second Order Model 147

6.2.2 Simplified Non-Linear Model 148

6.3 State of Charge 149

6.4 State of Health 150

6.5 Battery Life 150

6.6 Rate Discharge Effect 151

6.7 Recovery Effect 152

6.8 Conventional Methods and its Issues 152

6.8.1 Series Connected 152

6.8.2 Parallel Connected 154

6.9 Series-Parallel Connections 154

6.10 Evolution of Battery Management System 155

6.10.1 Necessity for Reconfigurable BMS 156

6.10.2 Conventional R-BMS Methods 156

6.10.2.1 First Design 157

6.10.2.2 Series Topology 158

6.10.2.3 Self X Topology 158

6.10.2.4 Dependable Efficient Scalable Architecture Method 159

6.10.2.5 Genetic Algorithm-Based Method 160

6.10.2.6 Graph-Based Technique 161

6.10.2.7 Power Tree-Based Technique 162

6.11 Modeling of Reconfigurable-BMS 163

6.12 Real Time Design Aspects 164

6.12.1 Sensing Module Stage 165

6.12.2 Control Module Stage 165

6.12.2.1 Health Factor of Reconfiguration 166

6.12.2.2 Reconfiguration Time Delay and Transient Load Supply 166

6.12.3 Actuation Module 167

6.12.3.1 Order of Switching 167

6.12.3.2 Stress and Faults of Switches 169

6.12.3.3 Determining Number of Cells in a Module 170

6.13 Opportunities and Challenges 171

6.13.1 Modeling and Simulation 171

6.13.2 Hardware Design 171

6.13.3 Granularity 171

6.13.4 Hardware Overhead 172

6.13.5 Intelligent Algorithms 172

6.13.6 Distributed Reconfigurable Battery Systems 172

6.14 Conclusion 173

References 173

7 Load Flow Analysis for Micro Grid 177
P. Sivaraman, Dr. C. Sharmeela and Dr. S. Elango

7.1 Introduction 177

7.1.1 Islanded Mode of Operation 178

7.1.2 Grid Connected Mode of Operation 178

7.2 Load Flow Analysis for Micro Grid 179

7.3 Example 179

7.3.1 Power Source 180

7.4 Energy Storage System 180

7.5 Connected Loads 182

7.6 Reactive Power Compensation 182

7.7 Modeling and Simulation 182

7.7.1 Case 1 182

7.7.2 Case 2 184

7.7.3 Case 3 187

7.7.4 Case 4 189

7.7.5 Case 5 191

7.8 Conclusion 193

References 195

8 AC Microgrid Protection Coordination 197
Ali M. Eltamaly, Yehia Sayed Mohamed, Abou-Hashema M. El-Sayed and Amer Nasr A. Elghaffar

8.1 Introduction 197

8.2 Fault Analysis 200

8.2.1 Symmetrical Fault Analysis 201

8.2.2 Single Line to Ground Fault 202

8.2.3 Line-to-Line Fault 204

8.2.4 Double Line-to-Ground Fault 206

8.3 Protection Coordination 208

8.3.1 Overcurrent Protection 209

8.3.2 Directional Overcurrent/Earth Fault Function 211

8.3.3 Distance Protection Function 214

8.3.4 Distance Acceleration Scheme 217

8.3.5 Under/Over Voltage/Frequency Protection 219

8.4 Conclusion 221

Acknowledgment 224

References 224

9 A Numerical Approach for Estimating Emulated Inertia With Decentralized Frequency Control of Energy Storage Units for Hybrid Renewable Energy Microgrid System 227
Shubham Tiwari, Jai Govind Singh and Weerakorn Ongsakul

9.1 Introduction 228

9.2 Proposed Methodology 231

9.2.1 Response in Conventional Grids 231

9.2.2 Strategy for Digital Inertia Emulation in Hybrid Renewable Energy Microgrids 232

9.2.3 Proposed Mathematical Formulation for Estimation of Digital Inertia Constant for Static Renewable Energy Sources 235

9.3 Results and Discussions 238

9.3.1 Test System 238

9.3.2 Simulation and Study of Case 1 241

9.3.2.1 Investigation of Scenario A 241

9.3.2.2 Investigation of Scenario B 243

9.3.2.3 Discussion for Case 1 245

9.3.3 Simulation and Study of Case 2 246

9.3.3.1 Investigation of Scenario A 246

9.3.3.2 Investigation of Scenario B 248

9.3.3.3 Discussion for Case 2 250

9.3.4 Simulation and Study for Case 3 250

9.3.4.1 Discussion for Case 3 251

9.4 Conclusion 252

References 253

10 Power Quality Issues in Microgrid and its Solutions 255
R. Zahira, D. Lakshmi and C.N. Ravi

10.1 Introduction 256

10.1.1 Benefits of Microgrid 257

10.1.2 Microgrid Architecture 257

10.1.3 Main Components of Microgrid 258

10.2 Classification of Microgrids 258

10.2.1 Other Classifications 259

10.2.2 Based on Function Demand 259

10.2.3 By AC/DC Type 259

10.3 DC Microgrid 260

10.3.1 Purpose of the DC Microgrid System 260

10.4 AC Microgrid 261

10.5 AC/DC Microgrid 262

10.6 Enhancement of Voltage Profile by the Inclusion of RES 263

10.6.1 Sample Microgrid 263

10.7 Power Quality in Microgrid 267

10.8 Power Quality Disturbances 270

10.9 International Standards for Power Quality 270

10.10 Power Quality Disturbances in Microgrid 271

10.10.1 Modeling of Microgrid 271

10.11 Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) Design 272

10.11.1 Reference Current Generation 274

10.12 Control Techniques of SAPF 276

10.13 SPWM Controller 277

10.14 Sliding Mode Controller 277

10.15 Fuzzy-PI Controller 278

10.16 GWO-PI Controller 279

10.17 Metaphysical Description of Optimization Problems With GWO 281

10.18 Conclusion 284

References 285

11 Power Quality Improvement in Microgrid System Using PSO-Based UPQC Controller 287
T. Eswara Rao, Krishna Mohan Tatikonda, S. Elango and J. Charan Kumar

11.1 Introduction 288

11.2 Microgrid System 289

11.2.1 Wind Energy System 290

11.2.1.1 Modeling of Wind Turbine System 290

11.2.2 Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm 291

11.2.3 MPPT Converter 291

11.3 Unified Power Quality Conditioner 293

11.3.1 UPQC Series Converter 293

11.3.2 UPQC Shunt APF Controller 295

11.4 Particle Swarm Optimization 297

11.4.1 Velocity Function 297

11.4.2 Analysis of PSO Technique 298

11.5 Simulation and Results 299

11.5.1 Case 1: With PI Controller 300

11.5.2 Case 2: With PSO Technique 301

11.6 Conclusion 304

References 305

12 Power Quality Enhancement and Grid Support Using Solar Energy Conversion System 309
CH. S. Balasubrahmanyam, Om Hari Gupta and Vijay K. Sood

12.1 Introduction 309

12.2 Renewable Energy and its Conversion Into Useful Form 312

12.3 Power System Harmonics and Their Cause 313

12.4 Power Factor (p.f.) and its Effects 316

12.5 Solar Energy System With Power Quality Enhancement (SEPQ) 317

12.6 Results and Discussions 320

12.6.1 Mode-1 (SEPQ as STATCOM) 320

12.6.2 Mode-2 (SEPQ as Shunt APF) 320

12.6.3 Mode-3 (SEPQ as D-STATCOM) 322

12.7 Conclusion 326

References 327

13 Power Quality Improvement of a 3-Phase-3-Wire Grid-Tied PV-Fuel Cell System by 3-Phase Active Filter Employing Sinusoidal Current Control Strategy 329
Rudranarayan Senapati, Sthita Prajna Mishra, Rajendra Narayan Senapati and Priyansha Sharma

13.1 Introduction 330

13.2 Active Power Filter (APF) 333

13.2.1 Shunt Active Power Filter (ShPF) 334

13.2.1.1 Configuration of ShPF 334

13.2.2 Series Active Power Filter (SAF) 335

13.2.2.1 Configuration of SAF 336

13.3 Sinusoidal Current Control Strategy (SCCS) for APFs 337

13.4 Sinusoidal Current Control Strategy for ShPF 342

13.5 Sinusoidal Current Control Strategy for SAF 349

13.6 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 353

13.6.1 Operation 354

13.6.2 Anode 355

13.6.3 Electrolyte 355

13.6.4 Cathode 356

13.6.5 Comparative Analysis of Various Fuel Cells 356

13.7 Simulation Analysis 356

13.7.1 Shunt Active Power Filter 358

13.7.1.1 ShPF for a 3-phi 3-Wire (3P3W) System With Non-Linear Loading 358

13.7.1.2 For a PV-Grid System (Constant Irradiance Condition) 360

13.7.1.3 For a PV-SOFC Integrated System 364

13.7.2 Series Active Power Filter 366

13.7.2.1 SAF for a 3-phi 3-Wire (3P3W) System With Non-Linear Load Condition 366

13.7.2.2 For a PV-Grid System (Constant Irradiance Condition) 368

13.7.2.3 For a PV-SOFC Integrated System 370

13.8 Conclusion 373

References 373

14 Application of Fuzzy Logic in Power Quality Assessment of Modern Power Systems 377
V. Vignesh Kumar and C.K. Babulal

14.1 Introduction 378

14.2 Power Quality Indices 379

14.2.1 Total Harmonic Distortion 379

14.2.2 Total Demand Distortion 380

14.2.3 Power and Power Factor Indices 380

14.2.4 Transmission Efficiency Power Factor (TEPF) 381

14.2.5 Oscillation Power Factor (OSCPF) 382

14.2.6 Displacement Power Factor (DPF) 383

14.3 Fuzzy Logic Systems 383

14.4 Development of Fuzzy Based Power Quality Evaluation Modules 384

14.4.1 Stage I: Fuzzy Logic Based Total Demand Distortion 385

14.4.1.1 Performance of FTDDF Under Sinusoidal Situations 388

14.4.1.2 Performance of FTDDF Under Nonsinusoidal Situations 389

14.4.2 Stage II--Fuzzy Representative Quality Power Factor (FRQPF) 390

14.4.2.1 Performance of FRQPF Under Sinusoidal and Nonsinusoidal Situations 393

14.4.3 Stage III--Fuzzy Power Quality Index (FPQI) Module 395

14.4.3.1 Performance of FPQI Under Sinusoidal and Nonsinusoidal Situations 397

14.5 Conclusion 401

References 401

15 Applications of Internet of Things for Microgrid 405
Vikram Kulkarni, Sarat Kumar Sahoo and Rejo Mathew

15.1 Introduction 405

15.2 Internet of Things 408

15.2.1 Architecture and Design 409

15.2.2 Analysis of Data Science 410

15.3 Smart Micro Grid: An IoT Perspective 410

15.4 Literature Survey on the IoT for SMG 411

15.4.1 Advanced Metering Infrastructure Based on IoT for SMG 414

15.4.2 Sub-Systems of AMI 414

15.4.3 Every Smart Meter Based on IoT has to Provide the Following Functionalities 416

15.4.4 Communication 417

15.4.5 Cloud Computing Applications for SMG 418

15.5 Cyber Security Challenges for SMG 419

15.6 Conclusion 421

References 423

16 Application of Artificial Intelligent Techniques in Microgrid 429
S. Anbarasi, S. Ramesh, S. Sivakumar and S. Manimaran

16.1 Introduction 430

16.2 Main Problems Faced in Microgrid 431

16.3 Application of AI Techniques in Microgrid 431

16.3.1 Power Quality Issues and Control 432

16.3.1.1 Preamble of Power Quality Problem 432

16.3.1.2 Issues with Control and Operation of MicroGrid Systems 433

16.3.1.3 AI Techniques for Improving Power Quality Issues 434

16.3.2 Energy Storage System With Economic Power Dispatch 438

16.3.2.1 Energy Storage System in Microgrid 438

16.3.2.2 Need for Intelligent Approaches in Energy Storage System 440

16.3.2.3 Intelligent Methodologies for ESS Integrated in Microgrid 441

16.3.3 Energy Management System 444

16.3.3.1 Description of Energy Management System 444

16.3.3.2 EMS and Distributed Energy Resources 445

16.3.3.3 Intelligent Energy Management for a Microgrid 446

16.4 Conclusion 448

References 449

17 Mathematical Modeling for Green Energy Smart Meter for Microgrids 451
Moloko Joseph Sebake and Meera K. Joseph

17.1 Introduction 451

17.1.1 Smart Meter 452

17.1.2 Green Energy 453

17.1.3 Microgrid 453

17.1.4 MPPT Solar Charge Controller 454

17.2 Related Work 454

17.3 Proposed Technical Architecture 456

17.3.1 Green Energy Smart Meter Architecture 456

17.3.2 Solar Panel 456

17.3.3 MPPT Controller 456

17.3.4 Battery 457

17.3.5 Solid-State Switch 457

17.3.6 Electrical Load 457

17.3.7 Solar Voltage Sensor 457

17.3.8 Batter Voltage Sensor 458

17.3.9 Current Sensor 458

17.3.10 Microcontroller 458

17.3.11 Wi-Fi Module 458

17.3.12 GSM/3G/LTE Module 459

17.3.13 LCD Display 459

17.4 Proposed Mathematical Model 459

17.5 Results 462

Conclusion 468

References 469

18 Microgrid Communication 471
R. Sandhya and C. Sharmeela

18.1 Introduction 471

18.2 Reasons for Microgrids 473

18.3 Microgrid Control 474

18.4 Control Including Communication 474

18.5 Control with No Communication 475

18.6 Requirements 478

18.7 Reliability 478

18.8 Microgrid Communication 479

18.9 Microgrid Communication Networks 481

18.9.1 Wi-Fi 481

18.9.2 WiMAX-Based Network 482

18.9.3 Wired and Wireless-Based Integrated Network 482

18.9.4 Smart Grids 482

18.10 Key Aspects of Communication Networks in Smart Grids 483

18.11 Customer Premises Network (CPN) 483

18.12 Architectures and Technologies Utilized in Communication Networks Within the Transmission Grid 485

References 487

19 Placement of Energy Exchange Centers and Bidding Strategies for Smartgrid Environment 491
Balaji, S. and Ayush, T.

19.1 Introduction 491

19.1.1 Overview 491

19.1.2 Energy Exchange Centers 492

19.1.3 Energy Markets 493

19.2 Local Energy Centers and Optimal Placement 495

19.2.1 Problem Formulation (Clustering of Local Energy Market) 496

19.2.2 Clustering Algorithm 496

19.2.3 Test Cases 497

19.2.4 Results and Discussions 498

19.2.5 Conclusions for Simulations Based on Modified K Means Clustering for Optimal Location of EEC 501

19.3 Local Energy Markets and Bidding Strategies 503

19.3.1 Prosumer Centric Retail Electricity Market 504

19.3.2 System Modeling 505

19.3.2.1 Prosumer Centric Framework 505

19.3.2.2 Electricity Prosumers 505

19.3.2.3 Modeling of Utility Companies 507

19.3.2.4 Modeling of Distribution System Operator (DSO) 507

19.3.2.5 Supply Function Equilibrium 507

19.3.2.6 Constraints 508

19.3.3 Solution Methodology 509

19.3.3.1 Game Theory Approach 509

19.3.3.2 Relaxation Algorithm 511

19.3.3.3 Bi-Level Algorithm 511

19.3.3.4 Simulation Results 512

19.3.3.5 Nikaido-Isoda Formulation 513

19.3.4 Case Study 513

19.3.4.1 Plots 514

19.3.4.2 Anti-Dumping 514

19.3.4.3 Macro-Control 514

19.3.4.4 Sensitivity Analysis 514

Conclusion 517

References 518

Index 521
C. Sharmeela, PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of EEE, CEG campus, Anna University, Chennai, India. She has 20 years of teaching experience at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels and has done a number of research projects and consultancy work in renewable energy, power quality and design of power quality compensators for various industries. She is currently working on future books for the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.

P. Sivaraman has an M.E. in power systems engineering from Anna University, Chennai and is an assistant engineering manager at a leading engineering firm in India He has more than six years of experience in the field of power system studies and related areas and is an expert in many power systems simulation software programs. He is also currently working on other projects to be published under the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.

P. Sanjeevikumar, PhD, is a faculty member with the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Esbjerg, Denmark. He is a fellow in multiple professional societies and associations and is an editor and contributor for multiple science and technical journals in this field. Like his co-editors, he is also currently working on other projects for Wiley-Scrivener.

Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen currently works at the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University and is Head of the Esbjerg Energy Section. Through his research, he helped establish the Center for Bioenergy and Green Engineering in 2009 and serves as the head of the research group. He has vast experience in the field of bio-refineries and biogas production and has served as the technical advisory for many industries in this field.