John Wiley & Sons Understanding Solids Cover Explore a comprehensive and illuminating introductory text to the science of solid materials from a .. Product #: 978-1-119-71650-1 Regular price: $70.93 $70.93 Auf Lager

Understanding Solids

The Science of Materials

Tilley, Richard J. D.

Cover

3. Auflage Juni 2021
624 Seiten, Softcover
Lehrbuch

ISBN: 978-1-119-71650-1
John Wiley & Sons

Jetzt kaufen

Preis: 75,90 €

Preis inkl. MwSt, zzgl. Versand

Weitere Versionen

epubmobipdf

Explore a comprehensive and illuminating introductory text to the science of solid materials from a leading voice in the field

The newly revised Third Edition of Understanding Solids: The Science of Materials delivers a complete yet concise treatment of the basic properties and chemical and physical behaviors of solid materials. Following a completely revised opening set of chapters in which the basic properties of solids--including atomic structure, chemical bonding, crystallography, and phase relationships--are discussed, the book goes on to describe new developments in the areas of batteries and fuel cells, perovskite solar cells, lighting and displays, nanoparticles, whiskers, and sheets.

The distinguished author has also added sections about organic framework structures, superionic conductors, mechanochemistry, bi-layer graphene, hologram formation and recording, and the optics of nanoparticle arrays and thermochromic materials. Each chapter includes a Further Reading section to help students accumulate additional knowledge on the topic within and new problems have been added throughout the book. Readers will also enjoy the inclusion of:
* A thorough introduction to the states of aggregation, including atoms and bonding, microstructures and phase relationships, and crystal structures and defects
* A comprehensive overview of different categories of solids, including metals, crystalline silicates, inorganic ceramics, and silicate glasses
* An exploration of reactions and transformations, including diffusion and ionic conductivity, phase transformations, and phase reactions
* A treatment of oxidation and reduction, including galvanic cells and chemical analysis

Perfect for undergraduate students in sciences, engineering, and technology, Understanding Solids: The Science of Materials will also earn a place in the libraries of anyone seeking a thoroughly up to date, one-stop reference to the science of solid materials.

Preface xix

Part I States of Aggregation 1

1 Atoms and Bonding 3

1.1 The Electron Structure of Atoms 3

1.1.1 Hydrogen 3

1.1.2 Many Electron Atoms 4

1.1.3 Orbital Shapes 6

1.1.4 Electron Spin and Electron Configuration 8

1.1.5 Atomic Energy Levels 9

1.2 Ionic Bonding 12

1.2.1 Ionic Size and Bonding 12

1.2.2 Lattice Energies 13

1.2.3 Atomistic Simulation 14

1.3 Covalent Bonding 15

1.3.1 Bond Geometry 15

1.3.2 Bond Energies 18

1.4 Metallic Bonding 21

1.4.1 Molecular Orbitals and Energy Bands 21

1.4.2 The Free Electron Gas 22

1.4.3 Energy Bands 24

1.4.4 Bands in Ionic and Covalent Solids 27

1.5 Weak Chemical Bonds 28

1.6 Computation of Material Properties 31

Further Reading 31

The Following References Expand the Material in this Chapter 31

A Dictionary of Quantum Mechanical Language and Expressions is 32

Ionic Radii are Discussed and Tabulated by 32

The Computation of Properties is Described in 32

Problems and Exercises 32

Calculations and Questions 34

2 Microstructures and Phase Relationships 37

2.1 Macrostructure, Microstructure, and Nanostructure 37

2.1.1 Crystalline Solids 37

2.1.2 Non-crystalline Solids 37

2.1.3 Partly Crystalline Solids 40

2.1.4 Nanoparticles and Nanostructures 40

2.2 The Development of Microstructures 43

2.2.1 Solidification 43

2.2.2 Processing 44

2.3 Phase Diagrams 45

2.3.1 One-Component (Unary) Systems 45

2.3.2 Two-Component (Binary) Systems 48

2.3.2.1 Simple Binary Diagrams: Nickel-Copper as an Example 48

2.3.2.2 Binary Systems Containing a Eutectic Point: Tin-Lead as an Example 49

2.3.2.3 Intermediate Phases 52

2.3.2.4 The Iron-Carbon System Close to Iron 52

2.4 Ternary Systems 54

References 57

Further Reading 58

Problems and Exercises 58

Calculations and Questions 60

3 Crystal Structures and Defects 65

3.1 Crystal Geometry 65

3.1.1 Crystal Systems 65

3.1.2 Crystal Lattices 66

3.1.3 Symmetry and Crystal Classes 68

3.2 Crystal Structures 69

3.2.1 Unit Cells and Atomic Coordinates 69

3.2.2 Crystal Structures 70

3.2.2.1 The Face-Centred Cubic (fcc, A1) Structure 70

3.2.2.2 The Body-Centred Cubic (bcc, A2) Structure 70

3.2.2.3 The Hexagonal Close-Packed (hcp, A3) Structure 70

3.2.2.4 The Diamond Structure 71

3.2.2.5 The Graphite Structure 71

3.2.2.6 The Halite (Rock Salt, Sodium Chloride) Structure 71

3.2.2.7 The Perovskite Structure 72

3.2.2.8 The Spinel Structure 72

3.2.2.9 Lattice Parameters and Vegard's Law 74

3.3 Crystal Planes and Directions 74

3.3.1 Miller Indices 74

3.3.2 Hexagonal Crystals and Miller-Bravais Indices 76

3.3.3 Directions 78

3.3.4 Interplanar Spacings 79

3.4 Crystal Density 80

3.4.1 Density Estimation 80

3.4.2 The Density of NaCl 81

3.4.3 The Density of Crystals with a Variable Composition 81

3.5 Structural Relationships 82

3.5.1 Sphere Packing 82

3.5.2 Ionic Structures in Terms of Anion Packing 84

3.5.3 Polyhedral Representations 86

3.6 Point Defects 87

3.6.1 Point Defects in Crystals of the Elements 88

3.6.2 Solid Solutions 89

3.6.3 The Schottky and Frenkel Defects 90

3.6.4 Non-stoichiometric Compounds 91

3.6.5 Point Defect Notation 93

3.7 Linear, Planar, and Volume defects 95

3.7.1 Dislocations 95

3.7.2 Planar Defects 96

3.7.3 Volume Defects: Precipitates 99

Reference 99

Further Reading 100

Crystal Structures 100

Defects 100

Problems and Exercises 100

Calculations and Questions 102

4 Solids: Overview 109

4.1 Metals 109

4.1.1 Structures 109

4.1.2 Metallic Radii 110

4.1.3 Alloy Solid Solutions 112

4.1.4 Metallic Glasses and Quasicrystals 115

4.1.5 The Principal Properties of Metals 116

4.2 Crystalline Silicates and Inorganic Ceramic Materials 118

4.2.1 Silicate Structures 119

4.2.2 Some Non-silicate Ceramics 122

4.2.3 The Preparation and Processing of Ceramics 125

4.2.4 The Principal Properties of Ceramics 126

4.3 Silicate Glasses 126

4.3.1 Bonding and Structure of Silicate Glasses 127

4.3.2 Glass Deformation 129

4.3.3 Strengthened Glass 131

4.3.4 Glass-Ceramics 132

4.4 Polymers and Organic Materials 133

4.4.1 Polymers 133

4.4.2 Polymer Formation 134

4.4.3 Microstructures of Polymers 138

4.4.4 Elastomers 143

4.4.5 Production of Polymers 145

4.4.6 Organic Framework Structures: MOFs and COFs 148

4.4.7 The Principal Properties of Polymers 151

4.5 Composite Materials 152

4.5.1 Fibre-Reinforced Materials 152

4.5.2 Cement and Concrete 154

Reference 157

Further Reading 157

Metals 157

Bulk Metallic Glasses 157

Ceramics and Glass 157

Zeolites 157

Polymers 157

Metal-organic Frameworks 158

Covalent Organic Frameworks 158

Composites 158

Problems and Exercises 158

Calculations and Questions 160

Part II Reactions and Transformations 165

5 Diffusion and Ionic Conductivity 167

5.1 Self-Diffusion and Tracer Diffusion 167

5.2 Non-steady-state and Steady-State Diffusion 169

5.3 Temperature Variation of Diffusion Coefficient 171

5.4 The Effect of Impurities 171

5.5 RandomWalk Diffusion 171

5.6 Diffusion in Solids 175

5.7 Self-Diffusion in One Dimension 176

5.8 Self-Diffusion in Crystals 178

5.9 The Arrhenius Equation and Point Defects 178

5.10 Correlation Factors for Self-Diffusion 180

5.11 Ionic Conductivity 181

5.12 The Relationship Between Ionic Conductivity and Diffusion Coefficient 183

5.13 Superionic Conductors 184

5.13.1 Disordered Cation Compounds 184

5.13.2 ß-Alumina Oxides 185

5.13.3 Stabilised Zirconia Oxides 188

5.13.4 NASICON-Related Crystals 188

References 189

Further Reading 189

Superionic Conductors: See Also References Therein 190

Problems and Exercises 190

Calculations and Questions 191

6 Phase Transformations and Reactions 195

6.1 Sintering 195

6.1.1 Sintering and Reaction 195

6.1.2 The Driving Force for Sintering 197

6.1.3 The Kinetics of Neck Growth and Grain Growth 198

6.1.4 Rapid Sintering 198

6.2 Phase Transitions 199

6.2.1 First-Order Phase Transitions 200

6.2.2 Second-Order Transitions 201

6.3 Displacive and Reconstructive Transitions 201

6.3.1 Displacive Transitions 201

6.3.2 Reconstructive Transitions 203

6.4 Order-Disorder Transitions 204

6.4.1 Positional Ordering 205

6.4.2 Orientational Ordering 205

6.5 Martensitic Transformations 206

6.5.1 The Austenite-Martensite Transition 207

6.5.2 Martensitic Transformations in Zirconia 210

6.5.3 Martensitic Transitions in Ni-Ti Alloys 211

6.5.4 Shape-Memory Alloys 212

6.6 Phase Diagrams and Microstructures 214

6.6.1 Equilibrium Solidification of Simple Binary Alloys 214

6.6.2 Non-equilibrium Solidification and Coring 214

6.6.3 Solidification in Systems Containing a Eutectic Point 216

6.6.4 Equilibrium Heat Treatment of Steel in the Fe-C Phase Diagram 218

6.7 High Temperature Oxidation of Metals 220

6.7.1 Direct Corrosion 220

6.7.2 The Rate of Oxidation 222

6.7.3 Oxide Film Microstructure 222

6.7.4 Film Growth via Diffusion 223

6.7.5 Alloys 225

6.8 Solid-State Reactions 225

6.8.1 Spinel Formation 225

6.8.2 Photoresists 227

6.8.3 Mechanochemistry 229

Further Reading 230

Sintering and 3D Printing 230

High Temperature Oxidation and Solid-State Reactions 230

For Mechanochemistry See 231

Problems and Exercises 231

Calculations and Questions 233

7 Oxidation and Reduction 239

7.1 Galvanic Cells 239

7.1.1 Cell Basics 239

7.1.2 Standard Electrode Potentials 241

7.1.3 Cell Potential, Gibbs Energy, and Concentration Dependence 243

7.2 Chemical Analysis Using Galvanic Cells 243

7.2.1 pH Meters 243

7.2.2 Ion Selective Electrodes 245

7.2.3 Oxygen Sensors 246

7.3 Batteries 247

7.3.1 Primary Batteries 248

7.3.1.1 'Dry' and Alkaline Primary Batteries 248

7.3.1.2 Lithium-Ion Primary Batteries 249

7.3.1.3 Lithium-Air Batteries 249

7.3.2 Fuel Cells 250

7.3.3 Secondary Batteries 252

7.3.3.1 The Lead-Acid Battery 252

7.3.3.2 Lithium-Ion Batteries 253

7.3.3.3 Dual-Ion Batteries 254

7.4 Corrosion 255

7.4.1 The Reaction of Metals withWater and Aqueous Acids 256

7.4.2 Dissimilar Metal Corrosion 257

7.4.3 Single Metal Electrochemical Corrosion 259

7.5 Electrolysis 260

7.5.1 Electrolytic Cells 260

7.5.2 Electroplating 261

7.5.3 The Amount of Product Produced During Electrolysis 262

7.5.4 The Electrolytic Preparation of Titanium by the FFC Cambridge Process 263

7.6 Pourbaix Diagrams 264

7.6.1 Passivation, Corrosion, and Leaching 264

7.6.2 The Stability Field ofWater 265

7.6.3 Pourbaix Diagrams for a Metal Showing Two Valence States 265

7.6.4 Pourbaix Diagram Displaying Tendency for Corrosion 268

Reference 268

Further Reading 269

For a General Introduction to Electrochemistry See 269

Structure-property Relations and Defects in Electrode and Electrolyte Solids is

Described in 269

Batteries 269

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 269

Corrosion 270

Electroplating 270

Problems and Exercises 270

Calculations and Questions 271

Part III Physical Properties 275

8 Mechanical Properties of Solids 277

8.1 Strength and Hardness 277

8.1.1 Strength 277

8.1.2 Stress and Strain 278

8.1.3 Toughness and Stiffness 280

8.1.4 Superelasticity 282

8.1.5 Hardness 283

8.2 Elastic Moduli 285

8.2.1 Young's Modulus (The Modulus of Elasticity) (E or Y) 286

8.2.2 Poisson's Ratio (nu) 288

8.2.3 The Longitudinal or Axial Modulus (L or M) 289

8.2.4 The Shear Modulus (G or mu), Bulk Modulus (K or B), and Lamé Modulus (lambda) 289

8.2.5 Relationships Between the Elastic Moduli 290

8.2.6 UltrasonicWaves in Elastic Solids 290

8.3 Deformation and Fracture 291

8.3.1 Brittle Fracture 291

8.3.2 Plastic Deformation of Metals 294

8.3.3 Brittle and Ductile Materials 297

8.3.4 Plastic Deformation of Polymers 299

8.3.5 Fracture Following Plastic Deformation 299

8.3.6 Strengthening 301

8.3.7 Computation of Deformation and Fracture 303

8.4 Time-Dependent Properties 304

8.4.1 Fatigue 304

8.4.2 Creep 305

8.5 Nanoscale Properties 309

8.5.1 Solid Lubricants 309

8.5.2 Auxetic Materials 310

8.5.3 Thin Films and Nanowires 312

8.6 Composite Materials 315

8.6.1 Elastic Modulus of Fibre Reinforced Composites 315

8.6.2 Elastic Modulus of a Two-Phase System 316

Further Reading 318

Ductility and Fracture 318

Mechanical Properties of Biological Materials 318

Hall-Petch Effect 318

Computation of Properties 318

Finite Element Methods 319

Nanoscale Methods 319

Composites 319

Problems and Exercises 319

Calculations and Questions 321

9 Insulating Solids 327

9.1 Dielectrics 327

9.1.1 Relative Permittivity and Polarisation 327

9.1.2 Polarisability 330

9.1.3 The Relative Permittivity of Crystals 332

9.2 Piezoelectrics, Pyroelectrics, and Ferroelectrics 334

9.2.1 The Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects 334

9.2.2 Crystal Symmetry and the Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects 335

9.2.3 Piezoelectric Mechanisms 337

9.2.4 Quartz Oscillators 338

9.2.5 Piezoelectric Polymers and Biomolecular Materials 339

9.3 Ferroelectrics 342

9.3.1 Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Crystals 343

9.3.2 Hysteresis and Domain Growth in Ferroelectric Crystals 345

9.3.3 The Temperature Dependence of Ferroelectricity and Antiferroelectricity 347

9.3.4 Ferroelectricity Due to Hydrogen Bonds 347

9.3.5 Ferroelectricity Due to Polar Groups 349

9.3.6 Ferroelectricity Due to Medium-Sized Transition-Metal Cations 350

9.3.7 Modification of Properties 352

9.3.8 Relaxor Ferroelectrics 354

9.3.9 Ferroelectric Nanoparticles, Thin Films, and Superlattices 354

9.3.10 Flexoelectricity in Ferroelectrics 356

Reference 358

Flexoelectric Effect 358

Further Reading 358

General 358

Introductory Crystallography with Respect to the Dielectric Properties 358

The Dielectric, Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Perovskite Structures are

Detailed in 358

Biomolecular Materials are Described in 358

Nanoparticle, Thin Films and Superlattices 358

Problems and Exercises 359

Calculations and Questions 360

10 Magnetic Solids 365

10.1 Magnetic Materials 365

10.1.1 Characterisation of Magnetic Materials 365

10.1.2 Magnetic Dipoles and Magnetic Flux 366

10.1.3 Atomic Magnetism 368

10.1.4 Overview of Magnetic Materials 369

10.2 Paramagnetic Materials 372

10.2.1 The Magnetic Moment of Paramagnetic Atoms and Ions 372

10.2.2 High and Low Spin: Crystal Field Effects 373

10.2.3 Temperature Dependence of Paramagnetic Susceptibility 376

10.2.4 Pauli Paramagnetism 378

10.3 Ferromagnetic Materials 379

10.3.1 Ferromagnetism 379

10.3.2 Exchange Energy 380

10.3.3 Domains 382

10.3.4 Hysteresis 384

10.3.5 Hard and Soft Magnetic Materials 385

10.4 Antiferromagnetic Materials and Superexchange 386

10.5 Ferrimagnetic Materials 387

10.5.1 Cubic Spinel Ferrites 387

10.5.2 Garnet Structure Ferrites 388

10.5.3 Hexagonal Ferrites 389

10.5.4 Double Exchange 390

10.6 Nanostructures 391

10.6.1 Small Particles and Data Recording 391

10.6.2 Superparamagnetism and Thin Films 391

10.6.3 Perovskite Superlattices 392

10.6.4 Photoinduced Magnetism 393

10.7 Magnetic Defects 395

10.7.1 Magnetic Defects in Semiconductors 395

10.7.2 Charge and Spin States in Cobaltites and Manganites 396

Further Reading 399

General 399

Magnetic States 399

A Starting Point for the Detection of Magnetic Fields by Animals 400

Density Functional Theory Calculations of Magnetic Properties is Outlined by 400

Magnetic Superlattices 400

A Starting Point for Studies on Photomagnetism 400

Problems and Exercises 400

Calculations and Questions 402

11 Electronic Conductivity in Solids 405

11.1 Metals 405

11.1.1 Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators 405

11.1.2 Electronic Conductivity 407

11.1.3 Resistivity 410

11.2 Semiconductors 411

11.2.1 Intrinsic Semiconductors 411

11.2.2 Band Gap Measurement 412

11.2.3 Extrinsic Semiconductors 413

11.2.4 Carrier Concentrations in Extrinsic Semiconductors 415

11.2.5 Characterisation 416

11.2.6 The p-n Junction Diode 419

11.3 Metal-Insulator Transitions 422

11.3.1 Metals and Insulators 422

11.3.2 Electron-Electron Repulsion 423

11.3.3 Modification of Insulators 425

11.3.4 Transparent Conducting Oxides 426

11.4 Conducting Polymers 427

11.5 Superconductivity 431

11.5.1 Superconductors 431

11.5.2 The Effect of Magnetic Fields and Current 432

11.5.3 The BCS Theory of Superconductivity 434

11.5.4 Josephson Junctions 435

11.5.5 Cuprate High Temperature Superconductors 437

11.5.5.1 Lanthanum Cuprate, La2CuO4 437

11.5.5.2 Neodymium Cuprate, Nd2CuO4 438

11.5.5.3 Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide, YBa2Cu3O7 439

11.5.5.4 Perovskite-Related Structures and Series 440

11.5.6 Bi-layer Graphene 444

11.6 Nanostructures and Quantum Confinement of Electrons 445

Further Reading 447

The Band Theory Definition of a Semiconductor is Due to A.H. Wilson 447

Conductivity of (Mainly) Inorganic Solids Due to Defects is Covered In 447

The Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2 447

Polymers 447

Superconductivity 447

The Following Articles in Scientific American Give a Good Overview of the Early Years

of High Temperature Superconductivity 448

Graphene Bilayers 448

Quantum Hall Effect 448

Problems and Exercises 448

Calculations and Questions 450

12 Optical Aspects of Solids 455

12.1 Light 455

12.1.1 LightWaves 455

12.1.2 Photons 457

12.1.3 Colour and Appearance 459

12.2 Sources of Light 460

12.2.1 Incandescence 460

12.2.2 Luminescence 461

12.2.3 Fluorescent Lamps 463

12.2.4 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 464

12.2.5 Organic Light Emitting Devices/Diodes (OLEDs) 467

12.2.6 Solid-State Lasers 469

12.2.6.1 The Ruby Laser: Three-Level Lasers 471

12.2.6.2 The Neodymium (Nd3+) Solid State Laser: Four-Level Lasers 473

12.2.6.3 Semiconductor Lasers 474

12.3 Refraction 474

12.3.1 The Refractive Index 474

12.3.2 Refractive Index and Structure 477

12.4 Reflection 477

12.4.1 Reflection from a Surface 477

12.4.2 Reflection from a Transparent Thin Film 478

12.4.3 Low-Reflectivity (Antireflection) and High-Reflectivity Coatings 482

12.4.4 Multiple Thin Films and Dielectric Mirrors 483

12.5 Scattering and Attenuation 483

12.5.1 Scattering 483

12.5.2 Attenuation 485

12.6 Diffraction 486

12.6.1 Diffraction by an Aperture 486

12.6.2 Diffraction Gratings 487

12.6.3 Diffraction from Crystal-like Structures 488

12.6.4 Holograms 490

12.6.4.1 Hologram Formation 490

12.6.4.2 Hologram Recording Media 492

12.7 Fibre Optics 493

12.7.1 Attenuation in Glass Fibres 493

12.7.2 Dispersion and Optical Fibre Design 494

12.7.3 Optical Amplification 496

12.8 Energy Conversion 496

12.8.1 Photoconductivity and Photovoltaic Solar Cells 496

12.8.2 Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells 497

12.8.3 Perovskite Solar Cells 499

12.9 Nanostructures 501

12.9.1 The Optical Properties of QuantumWells 502

12.9.2 The Optical Properties of Nanoparticles 502

12.9.3 Nanoparticle Arrays 504

Further Reading 506

General 506

Much of the Material in this Chapter is Covered in Greater Detail in 506

The Properties of Light with Respect to Colour are Found in 506

The Engineering Aspects of Optical Fibres are Described by 506

Perovskite Solar Cells are Described in 506

For Nanostructures and Surfaces See the Following Review Articles and References

Therein 506

Problems and Exercises 507

Calculations and Questions 509

13 Thermal Properties of Solids 515

13.1 Heat Capacity 515

13.1.1 The Heat Capacity of a Solid 515

13.1.2 Theories of Heat Capacity 515

13.1.3 Heat Capacity at Phase Transitions 517

13.2 Thermal Conductivity 518

13.2.1 Heat Transfer 518

13.2.2 Thermal Conductivity and Microstructure 520

13.3 Expansion and Contraction 522

13.3.1 Thermal Expansion 522

13.3.2 Thermal Expansion and Interatomic Potentials 523

13.3.3 Thermal Contraction 524

13.3.4 Zero Thermal Contraction Materials 526

13.4 Thermoelectric Effects 527

13.4.1 Thermoelectric Coefficients 527

13.4.2 Thermoelectric Effects and Charge Carriers 529

13.4.3 The Seebeck Coefficient of Solids Containing Point Defect Populations 530

13.4.4 Thermocouples, Power Generation, and Refrigeration 531

13.5 The Magnetocaloric Effect 533

13.5.1 The Magnetocaloric Effect and Adiabatic Cooling 533

13.5.2 The Giant Magnetocaloric Effect 534

13.6 Thermochromic Effects 535

13.6.1 Liquid Crystal Display Thermometers 535

13.6.2 Vanadium Dioxide 537

References 537

Further Reading 538

General 538

An Interactive Demonstration of the Debye Formula for the Heat Capacity of

Solids Is 538

Thermal Conductivity 538

Negative and Zero Thermal Expansion 538

The Magnetocaloric Effect in Alloys 538

Thermoelectric Materials 538

Problems and Exercises 539

Calculations and Questions 540

Part IV Nuclear Properties of Solids 543

14 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions 545

14.1 Radioactivity 545

14.1.1 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Elements 545

14.1.2 Isotopes and Nuclides 546

14.1.3 Nuclear Equations 546

14.1.4 Radioactive Series 547

14.1.4.1 The Uranium Series 547

14.1.4.2 The Thorium Series 548

14.1.4.3 The Actinium Series 548

14.1.4.4 The Neptunium/Plutonium Series 550

14.1.5 Nuclear Stability 550

14.2 Artificial Radioactive Atoms 551

14.2.1 Heavy Elements 551

14.2.2 Artificial Radioactivity in Light Elements 553

14.3 Nuclear Decay 554

14.3.1 The Rate of Nuclear Decay 554

14.3.2 Radioactive Dating 555

14.4 Nuclear Energy 557

14.4.1 The Binding Energy of Nuclides 557

14.4.2 Nuclear Fission 558

14.4.3 Thermal Reactors for Power Generation 560

14.4.4 Fuel for Space Exploration 561

14.4.5 Fast Breeder Reactors 561

14.4.6 Fusion and Solar Cycles 562

14.5 NuclearWaste 563

14.5.1 Nuclear Accidents 563

14.5.2 The Storage of NuclearWaste 564

Further Reading 565

The Search for New Heavy Elements 565

Radioactive Dating 565

Nuclear Reactors 566

NuclearWaste 566

Problems and Exercises 566

Calculations and Questions 568

Appendix A 571

Appendix B Energy Levels and Terms of Many-Electron Atoms 573

B.1 Derivation of Atomic Terms 573

B.2 The Ground State Term of an Atom 574

B.3 Energy Levels of Many Electron Atoms 575 Index 577