John Wiley & Sons Biosorption for Wastewater Contaminants Cover Pollution due to various anthropogenic activities continues to increase. In terms of water pollutant.. Product #: 978-1-119-73759-9 Regular price: $170.09 $170.09 Auf Lager

Biosorption for Wastewater Contaminants

Selvasembian, Rangabhashiyam / Singh, Pardeep (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage November 2021
320 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-73759-9
John Wiley & Sons

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Pollution due to various anthropogenic activities continues to increase. In terms of water pollutants, organic and inorganic pollutants are the most problematic. Although several measures have been proposed and implemented to prevent or reduce contamination, their increased concentration in water bodies has created serious concerns. Over the years, the problem has been aggravated by industrialization, urbanization and the exploitation of natural resources. The direct discharge of wastewater contaminants and their geographical mobilization have caused an increase in concentration in ground, surface, fluvial and residual waters. Extensive information about detection and disposal methods is needed in order to develop technological solutions for a ­variety of environments, both urban and rural.

This book provides up-to-date information on wastewater contaminants, aimed at researchers, engineers and technologists working in this field. Conventional physicochemical techniques used to remove contaminants from wastewater include ion exchange, precipitation, degradation, coagulation, coating, membrane processes and adsorption. However, these applications have technological and economic limitations, and involve the release of large amounts of chemical reagents and by-products that are themselves difficult to remove. Biosorption - the use of organically generated material as an adsorbent - is attracting new research and scholarship. Thermally-treated calcined biomaterials may be treated to remove heavy metals from wastewater. To ensure the elimination of these contaminants, existing solutions must be integrated with intelligent biosorption functions.

Biosorption for Wastewater Contaminants will find an appreciative audience among academics and postgraduates working in the fields of environmental biotechnology, environmental engineering, wastewater treatment technology and environmental chemistry.

List of Contributors xii

Preface xvi

Foreword xvii

1 Industrial Wastewater Contaminants and Their Hazardous Impacts 1
Camila Pesci Pereira, João Pedro Neves Goldenstein, and João Paulo Bassin

Introduction 2

Toxic Heavy Metals 3

Dyes 5

Oil and Grease 8

Biocides 10

Organic Compounds 12

Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) 15

Conclusion 17

2 Biosorption and Different Native Sources for Preparation of Biosorbents 23
A.B. Sathya, R. Sivashankar, J. Kanimozhi, R. Devika, and R. Balaji

Introduction 23

Biosorption and Its Mechanism 24

Biosorbents 24

Types of Biosorbents 25

Microbial Biomass as Biosorbents 26

Bacterial Biomass 26

Algae as Biosorbents 27

Fungi as Biosorbents 30

Yeasts as Biosorbents 30

Biosorbents Derived from Plant and Animal Waste 31

Biocomposites 33

Alteration of Biosorbents 33

Desorption and Regeneration 34

Cost Evaluation 34

Conclusion 35

3 Biosorption for Eliminating Inorganic Contaminants (IOCs) from Wastewater 42
Rahul Sharma, Pinki Rani Agrawal, Ravi Kumar, Ittishree, and Gaurav Gupta

Introduction: Water Pollution by Inorganic Contaminants (IOCs) 42

Permissible Limits and Sources of IOCs in Water Sources 45

Standard Permissible Limits of Some IOCs in Water 45

Sources of IOCs in Water Systems 46

Natural Sources 46

Anthropogenic Sources 46

IOCs in Water: Environmental and Health Hazards 47

Elimination of IOCs from Wastewater: Recent Strategies and Remediation Techniques 49

Oxidation/Precipitation 50

Ion Exchange 50

Electrokinetics (EK) 50

Membrane Filtration / Reverse Osmosis 50

Sorption Methods 51

Biosorption Methods for Eliminating IOCs

from Wastewater 51

Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 54

4 Biosorption for Eliminating Organic Contaminants from Wastewater 63
Pinki Rani Agrawal, Rahul Sharma, and Abhishek Agrawal

Introduction 63

Types of Organic Pollutants and Their Effects on Human Health 64

Organic Dyes 64

Pharmaceutical Waste 66

Agricultural Waste 67

Remediation Methods for Eliminating Organic Contaminants from Wastewater 67

Biosorption as a Remediation Method for Organic Pollutants 67

Mechanism of Biosorption for Adsorption of Organic Pollutants 70

Conclusion and Future Prospects 72

5 Recent Approaches in the Preparation of Various Biosorbents 79
Rajarathinam Nithya and Arunachalam Thirunavukkarasu

Introduction 79

Biosorbents 81

Physical Treatment of Biosorbents 82

Sterilization 82

Comminution 82

Cryodessication 83

Microwave Drying 83

Chemical Treatment of Biosorbents 83

Acid Treatment 83

Alkali Treatment 84

Pyrolysis 84

Solid-Liquid Extraction 85

Immobilization 85

Chemical and Genetic Modifications 86

Challenges in the Utilization of Biosorbents 86

Conclusion 92

6 Characterization of the Biosorption Process 102
R. Sivashankar, A.B. Sathya, J. Kanimozhi, and B. Deepanraj

Introduction 102

Biosorption 103

Characterization Methods 104

Titration Technique 104

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 105

Scanning Electron Microscopy with an Energy Dispersive X-ray

Analytical System 107

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Analysis 109

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis 110

Brunauer-Emmett-Teller Analyzer 111

Thermal Stability Analyzer 113

Conclusion 114

7 Isotherm and Kinetic Modeling Analysis of Water Decontamination through Biosorption 117
Subramanyam Busetty, Ramprasad Chandrasekaran, and Srihari Vedartham

Adsorption Equilibrium Analysis 117

Basics of Adsorption Equilibrium 117

Models of Adsorption Equilibrium 117

Two-Parameter Model 121

Langmuir Isotherm Model (Langmuir, 1918) 121

Freundlich Isotherm Model 122

Three-Parameter Models 124

Four-Parameter Models 126

Five-Parameter Model 126

Adsorption Kinetics 126

Pseudo-First-Order Kinetics 135

Pseudo-Second-Order Kinetics 136

The Elovich Equation 136

Avrami Kinetic Equation 137

Sorption Diffusion Models 137

Calculating the External Mass Transfer Coefficient 138

Intra-Particle Diffusion Control 139

Power Function Equation 140

Bangham's Equation 140

Boyd Model 141

8 Dynamic Biosorption for Removal of Wastewater Contaminants 147
Arunachalam Thirunavukkarasu and Rajarathinam Nithya

Introduction 147

Fundamentals of Biosorption 148

Biosorbates 148

Metals 148

Organic Compounds 148

Biosorbents 149

Factors Affecting Biosorption 149

Operational Modes of Biosorption 150

Batch Biosorption 151

Dynamic Biosorption 152

Models of Dynamic Biosorption 154

Challenges in Dynamic Biosorption 159

Conclusion 161

9 Applications of Electrospun Membranes Immobilized with Biosorbents for the Removal of Contaminants 167
Noel Jacob Kaleekkal, Maheswari Purushothaman, and G Nandu

Introduction 167

Biosorption and Nanofibers 168

Electrospinning 169

Factors Influencing Electrospun Fibers 170

Advantage of Electrospinning 170

Electrospun Biosorbent Membranes 172

Immobilized Membranes for Heavy Metal Removal 173

Immobilized Membranes for Dye Removal 176

Immobilized Membranes for Removal of Organic Contaminants 176

Conclusion 178

10 Biosorption of Precious Metals from Wastewater 185
Amit Kumar Tiwari, Jay Mant Jha, and Dan Bahadur Pal

Introduction 185

Outline of Treatment Methods 188

Biosorbents 188

Biosorbents of Gold 188

Biosorbents of Silver 189

Biosorbents of PGMs (Palladium and Platinum) 190

Factors Affecting Biosorption 191

pH of the mixture 191

Operational Temperatures 191

Dosage of Biomass 192

Ionic Potency 192

Initial Concentration of the Solute 193

Rate and Period of Agitation 193

Biosorption Equilibrium Models 193

Desorption and Recovery 194

Continuous Biosorption 194

Utilization of Industrial Discharge/Wastes for Biosorption 195

Conclusions 195

11 Biosorption as a Strategy for the Recovery of Rare Earth Elements 201
João Pedro Neves Goldeinstein and João Paulo Bassin

Rare Earth Elements (REEs) 201

Methods to Recover Rare Earth Elements 204

Solvent Extraction 204

Ion Exchange 205

Adsorption 205

Chemical Precipitation 206

Biosorption 206

Biosorption Approach for Recovering Rare Earth Elements 208

Final Considerations 211

12 Deployment of Used Biosorbents in Environmental Remediation: Prospects and Challenges 213
Shashikant Shivaji Vhatkar, Guru Charan Sahu, and Ramesh Oraon

Introduction 213

Mechanism Studies 214

Adsorption 214

Ion-Exchange Resin 214

Complexation 215

Microprecipitation 215

Pyrometallurgical Processes 215

Hydrometallurgical Processes 216

Biosorption 216

Bioaccumulation and Principles 216

Biotransformation 218

Bioleaching 218

Recovery of Metals through Used Biosorbents 218

Recovery of a Single Metal with Used Biosorbents 218

Vanadium (V) 219

Chromium (Cr) 219

Nickel (Ni) 220

Copper (Cu) 220

Zinc (Zn) 221

Zirconium (Zr) 221

Ruthenium (Ru) 221

Palladium (Pd) 222

Cadmium (Cd) 222

Lanthanum (La) 223

Neodymium (Nd) 223

Rhenium (Re) 224

Platinum (Pt) 224

Gold (Au) 224

Lead (Pb) 225

Advances in Multi-Metal Recovery with Used Biosorbents 225

Adsorption Kinetics 229

Current Challenges 230

Conclusion 231

Summary 232

13 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Media Using Eco-Friendly and Cost-Effective Biological Methods 246
Veer Singh, Nidhi Singh, Priyanka Yadav, and Vishal Mishra

Introduction 246

Sources of Hexavalent Chromium 247

Toxicity of Hexavalent Chromium 247

Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions 248

Biosorption 250

Bioaccumulation 252

Biological Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium 255

Adsorption Kinetic Studies 259

Pseudo-First-Order Kinetics 259

Pseudo-Second-Order Kinetics 259

Adsorption Isotherm Studies 260

Langmuir Isotherm 260

Freundlich Isotherm 260

Temkin Isotherm 260

D-R Isotherm 261

Thermodynamics Studies 261

Conclusion 262

Acknowledgments 262

14 Biosorption of Arsenic from Wastewater 269
Bidhan Chandra Ruidas and Dan Bahadur Pal

Introduction 269

Sources of Arsenic in Groundwater Pollution 270

Effect of Arsenic on the Environment and Human Health 270

Methods for Removing Arsenic from Wastewater 271

Oxidation 271

Coagulation and Flocculation 271

Adsorption 272

Membrane Filtration 272

Biosorption 272

Principles of Biosorption 273

Biosorption Sites 273

Biosorption Mechanisms 274

Complexation 274

Chelation 274

Ion Exchange 274

Precipitation 275

Biosorption Isotherms 275

Biosorption Kinetics Model Analysis 276

Biosorption of Arsenic from Wastewater 277

Summary 278

Acknowledgments 278

Index 000
About the Editors
Dr Rangabhashiyam Selvasembian is an Assistant Professor in the School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr Pardeep Singh is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Environmental Science, PGDAV College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.

R. Selvasembian, SASTRA Deemed University, India; P. Singh, University of Delhi, India