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Integration of Renewable Energy Sources with Smart Grid

Kathiresh, M. / Subahani, A. Mahaboob / Kanagachidambaresan, G. R. (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage November 2021
384 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-75042-0
John Wiley & Sons

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This book starts with an overview of renewable energy technologies, smart grid technologies, energy storage systems, and covers the details of renewable energy integration with smart grid and the corresponding controls. This book provides better views on power scenario in developing countries. The requirement of the integration of smart grid along with the energy storage systems are deeply discussed to acknowledge the importance of sustainable development of smart city. The methodologies are made quite possible with the high-efficient power convertor topologies and intelligent control schemes. These control schemes are capable to provide better control with the help of machine intelligence techniques and artificial intelligence. The book also addresses the modern power convertor topologies and the corresponding control schemes for renewable energy integration with smart grid. The design and analysis of power converters that are used for grid integration of solar PV along with simulation and experimental results are illustrated. The protection aspects of the microgrid with power electronic configurations for wind energy systems are elucidated.

Preface xv

1 Renewable Energy Technologies 1
V. Chamundeswari, R. Niraimathi, M. Shanthi and A. Mahaboob Subahani

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Types of Renewable Energy 2

1.1.1 Solar Energy 3

1.1.2 Wind Energy 7

1.1.3 Fuel Cell 8

1.1.4 Biomass Energy 11

1.1.5 Hydro-Electric Energy 13

1.1.6 Geothermal Energy 14

References 17

2 Present Power Scenario in India 19
Niraimathi R., Pradeep V., Shanthi M. and Kathiresh M.

2.1 Introduction 20

2.2 Thermal Power Plant 20

2.2.1 Components of Thermal Power Plant 21

2.2.2 Major Thermal Power Plants in India 23

2.3 Gas-Based Power Generation 24

2.3.1 Basics of Gas-Based Power Generation 24

2.3.2 Major Gas-Based Power Plants in India 25

2.4 Nuclear Power Plants 26

2.4.1 India's Hold in Nuclear Power 27

2.4.2 Major Nuclear Power Plants 27

2.4.3 Currently Operational Nuclear Power Plants 28

2.4.4 Challenges of Nuclear Power Plants 28

2.5 Hydropower Generation 29

2.5.1 Pumped Storage Plants 29

2.6 Solar Power 30

2.6.1 Photovoltaic 30

2.6.2 Photovoltaic Solar Power System 30

2.6.3 Concentrated Solar Power System 31

2.6.4 Major Solar Parks in India 32

2.7 Wind Energy 32

2.8 The Inherited Structure 34

References 34

3 Introduction to Smart Grid 37
G. R. Hemanth, S. Charles Raja and P. Venkatesh

3.1 Need for Smart Grid in India 38

3.2 Present Power Scenario in India 38

3.2.1 Performance of Generation From Conventional Sources 40

3.2.2 Status of Renewable Energy Sources 40

3.3 Electric Grid 43

3.3.1 Evolving Scenario of the Electric Grid 45

3.3.1.1 Integrated Grid 46

3.3.1.2 Prosumers 46

3.3.1.3 Transmission v/s Energy Storage 47

3.3.1.4 Changing Nature of Loads 47

3.3.1.5 Electric Vehicles 48

3.3.1.6 Microgrids 48

3.4 Overview of Smart Grids 49

3.4.1 Purpose of Smart Grid 49

3.5 Smart Grid Components for Transmission System 50

3.5.1 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System 50

3.5.1.1 SCADA Overview 51

3.5.1.2 Components of SCADA 51

3.5.2 Energy Management System 52

3.5.3 Wide-Area Monitoring System 52

3.6 Smart Grid Functions Used in Distribution System 53

3.6.1 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System 53

3.6.2 Distribution Management System 54

3.6.3 Distribution Automation 54

3.6.4 Substation Automation 55

3.6.5 Advanced Metering Infrastructure 55

3.6.6 Geographical Information System 57

3.6.7 Peak Load Management 58

3.6.8 Demand Response 58

3.6.9 Power Quality Management 59

3.6.10 Outage Management System 59

3.6.11 Distribution Transformer Monitoring System 59

3.6.12 Enterprise Application Integration 59

3.6.13 Smart Street Lights 60

3.6.14 Energy Storage 60

3.6.15 Cyber Security 60

3.6.16 Analytics 60

3.7 Case Study: Techno-Economic Analysis 61

3.7.1 Peak Load Shaving and Metering Efficiency 61

3.7.2 Outage Management System 63

3.7.3 Loss Detection 64

3.7.4 Tamper Analysis 66

3.8 Case Study: Solar PV Awareness of Puducherry SG Pilot Project 69

3.9 Recent Trends in Smart Grids 70

3.9.1 Smart GRIP Architecture 70

3.9.2 Implementation of Smart Meter With Prepaid Facility 74

References 74

4 Internet of Things-Based Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for Smart Grids 77
V. Gomathy, V. Kavitha, C. Nayantara, J. Mohammed Feros Khan, Vimalarani G. and S. Sheeba Rani

4.1 Introduction 78

4.1.1 Smart Grids 78

4.1.2 Smart Meters 80

4.2 Advanced Metering Infrastructure 81

4.2.1 Smart Devices 82

4.2.2 Communication 83

4.2.3 Data Management System 85

4.2.4 Mathematical Modeling 87

4.2.5 Energy Theft Detection Techniques 89

4.3 IoT-Based Advanced Metering Infrastructure 89

4.3.1 Intrusion Detection System 90

4.4 Results 93

4.5 Discussion 94

4.6 Conclusion and Future Scope 97

References 97

5 Requirements for Integrating Renewables With Smart Grid 101
Indrajit Sarkar

5.1 Introduction 102

5.1.1 Smart Grid 102

5.1.2 Renewable Energy Resources 105

5.1.3 How Smart Grids Enable Renewables 111

5.1.4 Smart Grid and Distributed Generation 111

5.1.5 Grid Integration Terminologies 112

5.2 Challenges in Integrating Renewables Into Smart Grid 112

5.2.1 The Power Flow Control of Distributed Energy Resources 113

5.2.2 Investments on New Renewable Energy Generations 113

5.2.3 Transmission Expansion 114

5.2.4 Improved Flexibility 114

5.2.5 High Penetration of Renewables in Future 115

5.2.6 Standardizing Control of ESS 115

5.2.7 Regulations 116

5.2.8 Standards 116

5.3 Conclusion 116

References 117

6 Grid Energy Storage Technologies 119
Chandra Sekhar Nalamati

6.1 Introduction 120

6.1.1 Need of Energy Storage System 121

6.1.2 Services Provided by Energy Storage System 122

6.2 Grid Energy Storage Technologies: Classification 123

6.2.1 Pumped Hydro Storage System 123

6.2.2 Compressed Air Storage System 124

6.2.3 Flywheel Energy Storage System 125

6.2.4 Superconducting Magnet Storage System 125

6.2.5 Battery Storage System 127

6.2.6 Capacitors and Super Capacitor Storage System 129

6.2.7 Fuel Cell Energy Storage System 130

6.2.8 Thermal Storage System 131

6.3 Grid Energy Storage Technologies: Analogy 132

6.4 Applications of Energy Storage System 135

6.5 Power Conditioning of Energy Storage System 136

6.6 Conclusions 136

References 137

7 Multi-Mode Power Converter Topology for Renewable Energy Integration With Smart Grid 141
M. Sathiyanathan, S. Jaganathan and R. L. Josephine

7.1 Introduction 142

7.2 Literature Survey 144

7.3 System Architecture 145

7.3.1 Solar PV Array 146

7.3.2 Wind Energy Generator 147

7.4 Modes of Operation of Multi-Mode Power Converter 149

7.4.1 Buck Mode 150

7.4.2 Boost Mode 152

7.4.3 Bi-Directional Mode 155

7.5 Control Scheme 158

7.5.1 Mode Selection 159

7.5.2 Maximum Power Point Tracking 159

7.5.3 Reconfigurable SPWM Generation 161

7.6 Results and Discussion 163

7.7 Conclusion 167

References 168

8 Decoupled Control With Constant DC Link Voltage for PV-Fed Single-Phase Grid Connected Systems 171
C. Maria Jenisha

8.1 Introduction 171

8.2 Schematic of the Grid-Tied Solar PV System 173

8.2.1 DC Link Voltage Controller 175

8.2.2 MPPT Controller 176

8.2.3 SPWM-Based dq Controller 176

8.3 Simulation and Experimental Results of the Grid Tied Solar PV System 178

8.4 Conclusion 183

References 184

9 Wind Energy Conversion System Feeding Remote Microgrid 187
K. Arthishri and N. Kumaresan

9.1 Introduction 188

9.2 Literature Review 189

9.3 Direct Grid Connected Configurations of Three-Phase WDIG Feeding Single-Phase Grid 191

9.4 Three-Phase WDIG Feeding Single-Phase Grid With Power Converters 191

9.5 Performance of the Three-Phase Wind Generator System Feeding Power to Single-Phase Grid 193

9.5.1 Wind Turbine Characteristics 193

9.5.2 Generator Analysis 194

9.6 Power Converter Configurations 198

9.6.1 Configuration 1: WDIG With Uncontrolled Rectifier-Line Commutated Inverter 198

9.6.2 Configuration 2: WDIG With Uncontrolled Rectifier-(DC-DC)-Line Commutated Inverter 200

9.6.2.1 Closed-Loop Operation of UR-DC/DC-LCI Configuration 200

9.6.3 Configuration 3: WDIG With Uncontrolled Rectifier-Voltage Source Inverter 201

9.6.3.1 Closed-Loop Operation of UR-VSI Configuration 202

9.7 Conclusion 204

References 204

10 Microgrid Protection 209
Suman M., Srividhya S. and Padmagirisan P.

10.1 Introduction 209

10.2 Necessity of Distributed Energy Resources 210

10.3 Concept of Microgrid 210

10.4 Why the Protection With Microgrid is Different From the Conventional Distribution System Protection 211

10.4.1 Role of the Type of DER on Protection 212

10.5 Foremost Challenges in Microgrid Protection 212

10.5.1 Relay Blinding 212

10.5.2 Variations in Fault Current Level 213

10.5.3 Selectivity 214

10.5.4 False/Unnecessary Tripping 214

10.5.5 Loss of Mains (Islanding Condition) 214

10.6 Microgrid Protection 215

10.6.1 Overcurrent Protection 215

10.6.2 Distance Protection 216

10.6.2.1 Effect of Distributed Generator Inclusion in the Distribution System on Distance Relay 218

10.6.3 Differential Protection 219

10.6.3.1 Drawbacks in Differential Protection 220

10.6.4 Hybrid Tripping Relay Characteristic 220

10.6.5 Voltage-Based Methods 221

10.6.6 Adaptive Protection Methods 222

10.7 Literature Survey 223

10.8 Comparison of Various Existing Protection Schemes for Microgrids 225

10.9 Loss of Mains (Islanding) 225

10.10 Necessity to Detect the Unplanned Islanding 227

10.10.1 Health Hazards to Maintenance Personnel 227

10.10.2 Unsynchronized Reclosing 228

10.10.3 Ineffective Grounding 228

10.10.4 Inept Protection 229

10.10.5 Loss of Voltage and Frequency Control 229

10.11 Unplanned Islanding Identification Methods 229

10.11.1 Communication-Based Methods (Remote Method) 230

10.11.2 Non-Communication-Based Methods (Local Method) 230

10.11.2.1 Passive Method 230

10.11.2.2 Active Method 231

10.11.2.3 Hybrid Method 232

10.12 Comparison of Unplanned Islanding Identification Methods 234

10.13 Discussion 234

10.14 Conclusion 235

References 235

11 Microgrid Optimization and Integration of Renewable Energy Resources: Innovation, Challenges and Prospects 239
Blesslin Sheeba T., G. Jims John Wessley, Kanagaraj V., Kamatchi S., A. Radhika and Janeera D.A.

11.1 Introduction 240

11.2 Microgrids 242

11.3 Renewable Energy Sources 245

11.3.1 Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) 246

11.3.2 Distributed Storage Technologies 247

11.3.3 Combined Heat and Power 248

11.4 Integration of RES in Microgrid 248

11.5 Microgrid Optimization Schemes 250

11.5.1 Load Forecasting Schemes 251

11.5.2 Generation Unit Control 252

11.5.3 Storage Unit Control 252

11.5.4 Data Monitoring and Transmission 253

11.5.4.1 Communication Systems 254

11.5.5 Energy Management and Power Flow 256

11.6 Challenges in Implementation of Microgrids 257

11.7 Future Prospects of Microgrids 259

11.8 Conclusion 259

References 260

12 Challenges in Planning and Operation of Large-Scale Renewable Energy Resources Such as Solar and Wind 263
J. Vishnupriyan and A. Dhanasekaran

12.1 Introduction 264

12.2 Solar Grid Integration 265

12.3 Wind Energy Grid Integration 267

12.4 Challenges in the Integration of Renewable Energy Systems with Grid 267

12.4.1 Disturbances in the Grid Side 269

12.4.2 Virtual Synchronous Machine Method 271

12.4.3 Frequency Control 272

12.4.4 Solar Photovoltaic Array in Frequency Regulation 275

12.4.5 Harmonics 275

12.5 Electrical Energy Storage (EES) 276

12.6 Conclusion 277

References 278

13 Mitigating Measures to Address Challenges of Renewable Integration--Forecasting, Scheduling, Dispatch, Balancing, Monitoring, and Control 281
K. Latha Maheswari, B. Sathya and A. Maideen Abdhulkader Jeylani

13.1 Introduction 282

13.2 Microgrid 283

13.2.1 Types of Microgrid 284

13.2.1.1 DC Microgrid 284

13.2.1.2 AC Microgrid 285

13.2.1.3 Hybrid AC-DC Microgrid 286

13.3 Large-Scale Integration of Renewables: Issues and Challenges 287

13.4 A Review on Short-Term Load Forecasting Methods 288

13.4.1 Short-Term Load Forecasting Methods 290

13.4.1.1 Statistical Technique 290

13.5 Overview on Control of Microgrid 291

13.5.1 Need for Microgrid Control 291

13.5.2 Fully Centralized Control 292

13.5.3 Decentralized Control 292

13.5.4 Hierarchical Control 293

13.5.4.1 Primary Control 293

13.5.4.2 Secondary Control 295

13.5.4.3 Tertiary Control 295

13.6 Measures to Support Large-Scale Renewable Integration 296

13.6.1 Basic Idea of Preventive Control 297

13.6.1.1 Maximum Output Control Mode 297

13.6.1.2 Output Following Mode 298

References 298

14 Mitigation Measures for Power Quality Issues in Renewable Energy Integration and Impact of IoT in Grid Control 305
Hepsiba D., L.D. Vijay Anand, Granty Regina Elwin J., J.B. Shajilin and D. Ruth Anita Shirley

14.1 Introduction 306

14.2 Impact of Power Quality Issues 308

14.2.1 Power Quality in Renewable Energy 314

14.2.2 Power Quality Issues in Wind and Solar Renewable Energy 316

14.2.2.1 Wind Renewable Energy 316

14.2.2.2 Solar Renewable Energy 317

14.3 Mitigation of Power Quality Issues 317

14.3.1 UPQC 317

14.3.2 DVR 318

14.3.3 D-STATCOM 319

14.3.4 UPS 319

14.3.5 TVSS 320

14.3.6 Internet of Things in Distributed Generations Systems 320

14.4 Discussions 321

14.5 Conclusion and Future Scope 322

References 323

15 Smart Grid Implementations and Feasibilities 327
Suresh N. S., Padmavathy N. S., S. Arul Daniel and Ramakrishna Kappagantu

15.1 Introduction 328

15.1.1 Smart Grid Technologies--Literature Review 328

15.2 Need for Smart Grid 329

15.2.1 Smart Grid Description 330

15.3 Smart Grid Sensing, Measurement, Control, and Automation Technologies 331

15.3.1 Advanced Metering Infrastructure 332

15.3.2 Key Components of AMI 332

15.3.3 Smart Meter 332

15.3.4 Communication Infrastructure and Protocols for AMI 333

15.3.4.1 Data Concentrator Unit 334

15.3.5 Benefits of AMI 335

15.3.6 Peak Load Management 336

15.3.7 Distribution Management System 336

15.3.8 Distribution Automation System 337

15.4 Implementation of Smart Grid Project 339

15.4.1 Challenges and Issues of SG Implementation 339

15.4.2 Smart Grid Implementation in India: Puducherry Pilot Project 341

15.4.3 Power Quality of the Smart Grid 341

15.5 Solar PV System Implementation Barriers 342

15.6 Smart Grid and Microgrid in Other Areas 343

15.6.1 Maritime Power System 343

15.6.2 Space Electrical Grids 343

15.7 Conclusion 344

References 345

Index 347
M. Kathiresh PhD from Anna University and is a faculty member in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Anna University, India.

A. Mahaboob Subahani works in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Anna University, India.

G.R. Kanagachidambaresan PhD from PSG College of Technology, Anna University is an associate professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology.