John Wiley & Sons Basic Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering Cover Electrical and instrumentation engineering is changing rapidly, and it is important for the veteran .. Product #: 978-1-119-76446-5 Regular price: $167.29 $167.29 Auf Lager

Basic Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering

Sivaraman, P. / Sharmeela, C. / Nayagi, A. Thaiyal / Mahendran, R.

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1. Auflage März 2021
368 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-76446-5
John Wiley & Sons

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Electrical and instrumentation engineering is changing rapidly, and it is important for the veteran engineer in the field not only to have a valuable and reliable reference work which he or she can consult for basic concepts, but also to be up to date on any changes to basic equipment or processes that might have occurred in the field. Covering all of the basic concepts, from three-phase power supply and its various types of connection and conversion, to power equation and discussions of the protection of power system, to transformers, voltage regulation, and many other concepts, this volume is the one-stop, "go to" for all of the engineer's questions on basic electrical and instrumentation engineering.

There are chapters covering the construction and working principle of the DC machine, all varieties of motors, fundamental concepts and operating principles of measuring, and instrumentation, both from a "high end" point of view and the point of view of developing countries, emphasizing low-cost methods.

A valuable reference for engineers, scientists, chemists, and students, this volume is applicable to many different fields, across many different industries, at all levels. It is a must-have for any library.

Foreword xi

Acknowledgements xiii

1 Introduction to Electric Power Systems 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Electrical Parameters 3

1.1.1.1 Voltage 3

1.1.1.2 Current 11

1.1.1.3 Time Period and Frequency 15

1.1.1.4 Phase Angle (x) 16

1.2 Three-Phase Supply Connections 17

1.2.1 Star Connection 17

1.2.2 Delta Connection 19

1.2.3 Balanced Load 21

1.2.4 Unbalanced Load 23

1.2.5 Star - Delta Conversion 23

1.2.6 Delta to Star Conversion 24

1.3 Power 25

1.3.1 Real Power or Active Power (P) 25

1.3.2 Reactive Power (Q) 28

1.3.3 Apparent Power (S) 31

1.4 Power Factor (PF) 35

1.4.1 Classification Based on Load Characteristics 35

1.4.2 Classification Based on Harmonics Producing Loads 46

1.4.3 The Need for Power Factor Improvement 47

1.4.4 Methods of Power Factor Improvement 48

1.5 Types of Loads 49

1.5.1 Linear Loads 50

1.5.2 Non-Linear Loads 50

1.6 Three-Phase Power Measurement 50

1.7 Overview of Power Systems 56

1.7.1 Components of an Electric Power System 58

1.8 Protection of Power System 63

References 75

2 Transformers 79

2.1 Introduction 79

2.2 Transformer Magnetics 82

2.3 Construction of Transformer 85

2.4 EMF Equation of a Transformer 88

2.5 Ideal Transformer 91

2.6 Transformation Ratio (K) 95

2.7 Circuit Model or Equivalent Circuit of Transformer 96

2.8 Voltage Regulation of Transformer 100

2.9 Name Plate Rating 101

2.10 Efficiency of Transformer 102

2.11 Three-Phase Transformer 104

2.12 Components of the Transformer 113

2.13 Standards for Transformers 116

References 123

3 DC Machines 125

3.1 Introduction 125

3.1.1 DC Generators 125

3.1.2 DC Motors 125

3.1.3 Construction of DC Machines 125

3.2 Operation of DC Machines 132

3.2.1 Principle of DC Generators 132

3.2.2 Operating Principle of Motors 133

3.3 EMF Equation of DC Generator 136

3.4 Torque Equation of a DC Motor 138

3.5 Circuit Model 139

3.5.1 Generator Mode 140

3.5.2 Motor Mode 141

3.5.3 Symbolic Representation of DC Generator 141

3.6 Methods of Excitation 142

3.7 Characteristics of DC Generator 148

3.7.1 Characteristics of Separately Excited DC Generator 150

3.7.2 Load Characteristics of DC Shunt Generator 152

3.7.3 Load Characteristics of DC Series Generator 154

3.7.4 Load Characteristics of DC Compound Generator 155

3.8 Types of DC Motor 156

3.9 DC Motor Characteristics 160

3.10 Necessity for Starters 165

3.11 Speed Control of DC Motors 170

3.12 Universal Motor 179

References 183

4 AC Machines 185

4.1 Introduction 185

4.2 Three-Phase Induction Motor 185

4.2.1 Rotating Magnetic Field 186

4.2.2 Construction 186

4.2.3 Working Principle 189

4.2.4 Slip of an Induction Motor 192

4.2.5 Torque Equation 193

4.2.6 Torque-Slip Characteristics 195

4.2.7 Induction Motor as a Transformer 197

4.2.8 Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor 198

4.3 Single-Phase Induction Motor 201

4.3.1 Introduction 201

4.3.2 Working Principle 203

4.3.3 Types of Single-Phase Induction Motor 203

4.4 Starting Methods of Induction Motor 209

4.4.1 Need for Starters 209

4.4.2 Types of Starters 209

4.5 Speed Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor 215

4.6 Synchronous Motor 220

4.6.1 Construction 220

4.6.2 Features of a Synchronous Motor 220

4.6.3 Working Principle 221

4.6.4 Starting Methods of Synchronous Motor 221

4.6.5 Torque Equation of Synchronous Motor 222

4.7 Stepper Motor 223

4.8 Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor 225

4.8.1 Construction 225

4.8.2 Working Principle 226

4.9 Alternator 226

4.9.1 Construction 226

4.9.2 Working Principle 229

4.9.3 EMF Equation of an Alternator 232

4.9.4 Voltage Regulation of an Alternator 234

4.10 Standards for Electric Machines 235

References 241

5 Measurement and Instrumentation 243

5.1 Electrical and Electronic Instruments 243

5.1.1 Classification of Instruments 243

5.1.2 Basic Requirements for Measurement 250

5.1.3 Types of Indicating Instruments 259

5.1.4 AC Indicating Instruments 270

5.1.5 Electrical Instruments 275

5.2 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) 278

5.3 Digital Storage Oscilloscope 283

5.4 Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Measurements 289

5.4.1 Static Characteristics 289

5.4.2 Dynamic Characteristics 296

5.5 Measurement of Errors 297

5.5.1 Types of Errors 298

5.6 Transducer 300

5.6.1 Classification of Transducers 302

References 338

Index 341
P. Sivaraman is an engineer in Chennai, India, with over five years of experience in the power industry. He has trained more than 500 personnel on renewable energy and power quality and carried out power quality assessments for over 200 sites across India. He has published several papers in national and international conferences and three book chapters.

C. Sharmeela, PhD, is an associate professor at Anna University, Chennai, India. She has 20 years of teaching experience and taught various subjects to undergraduate and post-graduate students. She has published more than 30 research publications in peer reviewed journals, and has presented more than 50 research papers at national and international conferences. Teaching both graduates and undergraduates, she received the best paper award at IEEE POWERCON in 2004.

A.Thaiyal Nayagi teaches at the Rane Polytechnic Technical Campus and has a BE and ME from Anna University, Chennai, India. She has eight years of teaching experience with graduates, undergraduates, and post-graduates and is an expert in automation.

R. Mahendran is an electrical engineer for aviation systems in Millennium Aero Dynamics at Delhi International Airport and has a BE and ME from Anna University, Chennai, India. He has more than five years of experience in the field of power systems and has done more than 25 solar power plant designs and installations.