John Wiley & Sons Carbon Nanofibers Cover This book covers the fundamentals and applications of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF). In the first section, .. Product #: 978-1-119-76881-4 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 Auf Lager

Carbon Nanofibers

Fundamentals and Applications

Sharon, Madhuri / Sharon, Maheshwar (Herausgeber)

Advances in Nanotechnology and Applications

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1. Auflage März 2021
448 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-76881-4
John Wiley & Sons

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This book covers the fundamentals and applications of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF). In the first section, the initial chapter on the fundamentals of CNF is by Professor Maheshwar Sharon, the recognized "Father of Carbon Nanotechnology in India", which powerfully provides a succinct overview of CNFs. This is followed by a chapter on biogenics that have produced unique morphologies of CNF that makes them suitable to various applications. This is followed by a chapter that mainly focuses on nanocomposites, especially those involving nanocomposites of CNF. The role of nanocatalysts and composites in promoting and enhancing the synthesis and application of CNF is then covered, followed by an important chapter on the characterization of CNF.

The second section of the book encompasses the various applications of CNF, such as its use as a possible superconductor to adsorb and store hydrogen, and as a microwave absorber. The application of CNF for environmental concerns is also detailed by assessing its usefulness in dye and heavy metal removal from polluted water. The applications that are addressed include lithium-ion battery, solar cell, antenna, cosmetics, usefulness in regenerative medicine, as well as various aspects of agrotechnology.

Foreword xix

Preface xxi

1 An Introduction to Carbon Nanofiber 1
Maheshwar Sharon

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 History of Carbon Fiber 2

1.1.2 What is a Carbon Fiber? 3

1.1.3 Structures of Carbon Fibers 5

1.1.4 Synthesis of Carbon Fibers 6

1.1.4.1 Carbon Fibers from PAN 6

1.1.5 Properties of Carbon Fibers 6

1.2 Properties of Carbon Nanofiber and How It Differs from Carbon Nanotube 7

1.2.1 History of CNF 8

1.2.2 Role of Surface States in Controlling the Properties of CNFs 9

1.3 Synthesis of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) 11

1.3.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Method 11

1.3.2 Precursors for CNF 12

1.3.3 Use of Catalyst in the Synthesis of CNF 12

1.3.4 Selection of Variable Parameters for Growth of CNF 13

1.3.5 Epitaxial Growth of Aligned CNF 14

1.3.6 Mechanism of CNF Synthesis 14

1.4 Properties of CNF and Its Composites 15

1.5 Applications of CNF 15

1.6 Health Hazards of CNF 18

1.7 Summary 19

References 19

2 Biogenic Carbon Nanofibers 21
Madhuri Sharon

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Plants as Source of Precursor for CNF Synthesis 22

2.2.1 Plant Parts 26

2.2.1.1 Fibrous Plant Material Used for Synthesizing CNF 26

2.2.1.2 Characterization of CNF Obtained by Pyrolysis of Plant Seeds 29

2.2.2 Plant Metabolites 34

2.2.2.1 Characterization of CNF Obtained by Pyrolysis of Plant Metabolites 36

2.3 CNF Derived from Parts of Different Plants and Their Applications 37

2.3.1 Hydrogen Storage in CNF 37

2.3.2 Removal of Heavy Metals by CNF 38

2.3.3 Microwave Absorption Capacity of CNF 39

2.3.4 CNF as Electrocatalysts for Microbial Energy Harvesting 40

2.3.5 CNF as Regenerative Medicine 40

2.3.6 CNF as Deodorizer 41

2.3.7 CNF Composites for Strong and Lightweight Material 41

2.3.8 Biogenic CNF as Supercapacitor 42

2.3.9 Plant-Derived CNM for Use in Coatings 43

2.4 Comparative Structure of Chemically and Biogenically Synthesized CNF 43

2.4.1 CNF Synthesized from Chemical Precursors 43

2.4.2 CNF Synthesized from Plant Parts or Plant Metabolites as Precursors 44

2.5 Concluding Remarks 45

References 45

3 Role of Nanocatalysts in Synthesis of Carbon Nanofiber 49
Suman Tripathi

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Nanocatalysts 50

3.2.1 Concept of Nanocatalysis 51

3.2.2 Metallic Nanoparticles (NP) as Catalyst 52

3.2.3 Types of Nanometals as Catalyst 53

3.2.3.1 Nanometal Colloids as Catalysts 54

3.2.3.2 Nanoclusters as Catalysts 54

3.2.3.3 Nanoparticles as Catalysts 54

3.2.3.4 Nanopowder as Catalysts 54

3.3 Methods for the Preparation of Nanoparticles 54

3.3.1 Hydrothermal Method of Metal Nanoparticles 55

3.3.2 Microwave-Irradiated Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles 55

3.3.3 Dendrimer-Assisted Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles 55

3.3.4 Reverse Micelle Method of Metal Nanoparticles 56

3.3.5 Co-Precipitation Method of Metal Nanoparticles 57

3.3.6 Biogenic Synthesis (Green Synthesis) Method of Metal Nanoparticles 58

3.4 Role of Nanocatalyst in the Production of CNF 60

3.5 Different Types of CNF 61

3.6 Synthesis of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) Using Nanocatalysts 64

3.6.1 Laser Ablation Method 65

3.6.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 65

3.6.3 Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS) or Combustion Synthesis (CS) 67

3.6.4 Floating Catalyst Method 68

3.6.5 Electrospinning Method 68

3.6.5.1 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 70

3.6.5.2 Pitch 70

3.6.5.3 Cellulose 70

3.7 Summary 71

References 71

4 Carbon Nanofiber and Polymer Conjugate 75
Anuradha Pandey Dubey

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 What is a Composite? 76

4.3 Polymers Used for Conjugating CNF 79

4.3.1 Starch 79

4.3.2 Cellulose 81

4.3.3 Collagen 81

4.3.4 Chitosan 82

4.3.5 Gelatin 83

4.3.6 Fibrin 83

4.3.7 Alginate 84

4.3.8 Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) 84

4.3.9 Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) 84

4.3.10 Poly Caprolactone (PCL) 85

4.3.11 Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) 85

4.3.12 Poly Glycerol Sebacate (PGS) 86

4.4 Approaches Involved in Synthesizing Polymer/CNF Nanocomposites 86

4.5 Various CNF Composites 87

4.5.1 CNF/Epoxy Composites 88

4.5.2 CNF/Phenolic Resin Composites 89

4.5.3 CNF/Polyaniline (PANI) Composites 89

4.5.4 CNF/Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Nanocomposite 90

4.5.5 CNF/Biopolymers Nanocomposites 90

4.5.6 CNT/CNF-Epoxy Nanocomposites 91

4.6 Possible Futuristic Applications of CNF/Polymer Composites 91

4.6.1 Sensors 92

4.6.2 Batteries 93

4.6.3 Food Packaging 94

4.7 Summary 95

References 95

5 Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber 99
Sundeep Deulkar

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Microscopic Characterization Techniques 99

5.2.1 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 100

5.2.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) 103

5.2.3 Electron Microscopy for Morphology and Surface Characterization 104

5.2.3.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 104

5.2.3.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) 108

5.3 Spectroscopic Characterization 112

5.3.1 Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Carbon Nanofibers 113

5.4 Spectroscopic Analysis of CNF by XRD 117

5.5 Measurement of Mechanical Properties of CNF 122

5.5.1 Tensile Strength Testing/Tension Testing 122

5.5.2 Young's Modulus 123

5.6 Optical Property Analysis of CNF 127

5.6.1 Ellipsometric Method for CNF and MCNF 128

5.6.2 UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometric Method for ACNF Analysis 129

5.6.3 Measuring Optical Band Gap 131

5.7 Thermal Properties and Thermal Effect Analysis 132

5.7.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 132

5.7.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 134

5.7.3 Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) 135

5.7.4 Thermal Conductivity 135

5.8 Specific Surface Area (SSA) Determination of CNF 139

5.8.1 Methylene Blue (MB) Test 140

5.8.2 Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Specific Surface Areas 142

5.9 Characterization of Electrical Properties 145

5.9.1 Two-Probe and Four-Probe Methods for Resistivity Measurement 148

5.9.2 Four-Probe Methods for Resistivity Measurement 149

5.9.3 Tunneling Atomic Force Microscopy (TUNA) Analysis 150

5.9.4 Hall Effect Measurement 152

References 154

6 Carbon Nanofiber - A Potential Superconductor 159
Harish K. Dubey

6.1 Introduction 159

6.2 Superconductors 161

6.2.1 Theory of Superconductors 161

6.2.2 Measurement Technique of Superconductivity 163

6.2.3 Types of Superconductors 163

6.3 History of Existing Superconductors 165

6.4 Superconductivity in Organic Materials 168

6.5 Can Carbon Nanofiber Also Be a Possible Superconductor? 169

6.6 Summary 173

References 173

7 Carbon Nanofiber for Hydrogen Storage 175
Bholanath Mukherjee

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 Hydrogen - Its Advantages and Disadvantages as Source of Energy 176

7.2.1 Advantages 177

7.2.2 Disadvantages 177

7.3 Methods of Hydrogen Storage 178

7.3.1 Storage of Liquid Hydrogen 178

7.3.2 Storage of Gaseous Hydrogen 178

7.3.2.1 In Metal Hydride Storage Tanks 178

7.3.2.2 Storage of Compressed Hydrogen in High-Pressure Tank 179

7.3.2.3 Hydrogen Storage in Glass Microspheres 179

7.3.2.4 Storage in Array of Glass Micro Tubules/Capillaries 180

7.3.2.5 Storage of Hydrogen in Chemicals 180

7.3.2.6 Storage of Hydrogen in Metal Amidoboranes 180

7.3.2.7 Storage of Hydrogen in Metal Organic Framework System 181

7.4 Different Forms of Carbon and Nanocarbon for Storage of Hydrogen 181

7.4.1 Activated Carbon 182

7.4.2 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) 184

7.4.3 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) 187

7.4.4 Metal-Doped Carbon Nanotubes 188

7.4.5 Graphene and the Like 189

7.5 Carbon Fibers for Storage of Hydrogen 191

7.6 Pyrolyzed Natural Fibers from Plant/Animals to Store Hydrogen 192

7.6.1 Carbonization/Pyrolysis 192

7.7 Summary 201

References 201

8 Carbon Nanofiber for Microwave Absorption 211
Dattatray E. Kshirsagar

8.1 The Need to Develop a Microwave Absorber 211

8.2 Types of Microwave Absorbers 212

8.2.1 Resonant Absorber 213

8.2.2 Broadband Absorbers 215

8.2.3 Magnetic Absorbers 217

8.2.4 Dielectric Absorber 218

8.2.5 Metal Absorber 220

8.3 Considerations for Nano Absorbers 221

8.3.1 Nanoferrite Absorber 222

8.3.1.1 Limitations of Ferrites 222

8.4 The Radars 223

8.4.1 Detection and Ranging 223

8.4.2 Multi-Band 3D Radar 223

8.4.3 Quantum Radar 224

8.4.4 LIDAR (Light Imaging Detection & Ranging) 225

8.5 Role of CNF in Microwave Absorption 226

8.6 Need for Fabricating a CNF and Polymer Composite 228

8.7 Summary 230

References 232

9 Carbon Nanofiber for Removal of Dye from Aqueous Medium 235
Sanjukta Bhowmik

9.1 Introduction 235

9.2 Morphology of Biogenic and Chemically Synthesized CNFs from Different Precursors 236

9.2.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition Method (CVD) 237

9.2.2 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) 240

9.2.3 Electrospinning of Polymer Fibers 241

9.3 Novel Dye Removal Properties of CNF 243

9.4 Absorption of Different Dyes 245

9.5 Summary 248

References 249

10 Carbon Nanofiber to Remove Heavy Metals from Aqueous Medium 251
Jayashri Shukla

10.1 Introduction 251

10.1.1 What Are Heavy Metals? 251

10.1.2 List of Heavy Metals 252

10.1.3 Sources of Heavy Metals 252

10.2 Are Heavy Metals Essential for Living Beings? 253

10.2.1 Damaging Effect of Heavy Metals on Biosystem 253

10.2.1.1 Arsenic 254

10.2.1.2 Cadmium 254

10.2.1.3 Chromium 255

10.2.1.4 Lead 256

10.2.1.5 Mercury 256

10.2.2 Heavy Metal and Soil Toxicity 257

10.2.3 Heavy Metal and Plant Toxicity 258

10.2.4 Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals on Aquatic Environment 258

10.3 Methods Used for Removal of Heavy Metals 258

10.3.1 Adsorption 259

10.3.1.1 Adsorption on New Adsorbents 259

10.3.1.2 Adsorption on Modified Natural Materials 259

10.3.1.3 Adsorption on Industrial By-Products 260

10.3.1.4 Adsorption on Modified Agricultural and Biological Wastes (Biosorption) 263

10.3.1.5 Adsorption on Modified Biopolymers and Hydrogels 263

10.3.2 Membrane Separation/Filtration 265

10.3.3 Electrodialysis and Photocatalysis 269

10.3.4 Chemical Oxidation and Advanced Oxidation 269

10.3.5 Chemical Precipitation 269

10.3.6 Chemical Coagulation 270

10.3.7 Chemical Stabilization 271

10.3.8 Ion Exchange 271

10.3.9 Waste LCD Panel Glass 271

10.3.10 Electrolytic Recovery or Electrowinning 272

10.3.11 Electrodialysis 272

10.3.12 Photocatalysis 272

10.4 Evaluation of Heavy Metals Removal Processes 274

10.5 Role of CNF in Removing Heavy Metals 275

10.5.1 Suitability of Chemically Synthesized CNF for Heavy Metal Removal 277

10.5.2 Suitability of Biogenic CNF 277

10.6 CNF to Remove Heavy Metals 279

10.7 Summary 284

References 284

11 Carbon Nanofiber as Electrode in Li-Ion Battery 291
Manisha Khemani

11.1 Introduction 291

11.1.1 Why Lithium? 292

11.2 Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries 294

11.2.1 Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Battery 294

11.2.2 Lithium Cobalt Oxide Battery 294

11.2.3 Lithium Manganese Oxide Battery 294

11.2.4 Lithium-Titanate Battery 295

11.2.5 Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery 295

11.3 Theory of Generation of Power in Lithium Battery 295

11.3.1 Positive Electrode or Cathode 295

11.3.2 Negative Electrode Anode 296

11.3.3 Electrolyte 296

11.4 Role of Carbon, Lithium and Cobalt in Li-Battery 297

11.4.1 Advantages of LIB 300

11.4.2 Disadvantages of LIB 302

11.5 Role of CNF in Lithium Battery and Possibility of Increasing Its Efficiency 303

11.6 Recent Advances in Lithium Battery Utilizing Carbon Nanomaterial and CNF 305

11.6.1 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 306

11.6.2 Walnut Shell 306

11.6.3 FeOx-CNT/CNF Composite 306

11.6.4 Carbon Nanobeads (CNB) from Camphor 306

11.6.5 Tea Leaves 307

11.6.6 Various Carbon Materials 308

11.7 Summary 309

References 309

12 Carbon Nanofiber and Photovoltaic Solar Cell 313
Kailash Jagdeo and Maheshwar Sharon

12.1 Introduction 313

12.2 Formation of a Semiconducting Material 314

12.2.1 Introduction to P-N Junction 316

12.3 Semiconductors for Solar Cell 320

12.4 Attempts Made in Making Carbon-Based Solar Cell 320

12.5 Is CNF a Suitable Material for Solar Cell? 321

12.6 Summary 327

References 327

13 Application of Carbon Nanofiber in Antenna 331
Mahesh Partapure

13.1 Introduction 331

13.2 Radiation Types and Characteristics of Antenna 333

13.2.1 Radiation Density 334

13.2.2 Radiation Pattern 334

13.2.3 Directivity 335

13.2.4 Gain 335

13.2.5 Effective Area 336

13.2.6 Input Impedance 336

13.2.7 Impedance Matching 336

13.2.8 Return Loss and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) 336

13.3 Carbon Nanomaterial 337

13.4 Application of Carbon Nanofibers in Antenna 338

13.5 Summary 339

References 340

14 Carbon Nanofiber in Cosmetics 341
Archana Singh

14.1 Introduction 341

14.2 What is a Nanocosmetic 342

14.3 Cosmetics with Nanoparticles in Today's Market 342

14.4 Nanoparticles Used in Cosmetics 344

14.4.1 Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) 344

14.4.2 Zinc Oxide (ZnO) 346

14.4.3 Gold Nanoparticles 348

14.4.4 Silver Nanoparticles 349

14.4.5 Selenium Nanoparticles 350

14.5 Nano-Compositions Used for Loading and Delivery of Nanoparticle 351

14.5.1 Nanoliposomes 352

14.5.2 Solid Liquid Nanoparticles (SLN) 353

14.5.3 Cubosomes 354

14.5.4 Dendrimers 355

14.5.5 Nanocrystals 356

14.6 Cosmetics Containing Carbon Nanomaterials 357

14.6.1 Nanoforms of Carbon for Cosmetics Used in Ancient India that Still Prevail Today: Herbal Kajal/Kohl 357

14.6.2 Carbon-Based Cosmetics 358

14.6.3 Contemporary Cosmetics Using Carbon 358

14.7 Can Activated Carbon, Carbon Black and Carbon Nanotubes Be Replaced with CNF for Use in Cosmetics? 359

14.8 Summary 361

References 362

15 Carbon Nanofiber in Regenerative Medicine 365
Pramod Desai

15.1 Introduction 365

15.1.1 Tissue Engineering - Concept in a Nutshell 365

15.1.2 Why Carbon Nanotubes Are Versatile Scaffolds 367

15.2 Cell Tracking and Labeling 368

15.2.1 Optical Labeling 368

15.2.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agent 369

15.2.3 Radio Labeling 370

15.3 Sensing Cellular Behavior 371

15.4 Augmenting Cellular Behavior 372

15.5 Carbon Nanotubes as Structural Support for Tissue Engineering 374

15.6 Cytotoxicity of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) 375

15.7 Biocompatibility of Carbon Nanofibers 377

15.7.1 CNTs with Neuronal Cells 378

15.7.2 CNTs with Osteoblast Cell 379

15.7.3 CNTs with Antibody Interactions 380

15.7.4 Ion Channel Interactions with CNTs 380

15.8 Dispersion of Carbon Nanofibers 380

15.8.1 Sonication 380

15.8.2 Stabilization with Surfactant 381

15.8.3 Covalent Functionalization 381

15.9 Summary 381

References 382

16 Carbon Nanofibers and Agro-Technology 389
Manisha Sharan and Madhuri Sharon

16.1 Introduction 389

16.1.1 The Importance of Nanoscale 390

16.1.2 Carbon Nanomaterials 390

16.2 Carbon Nanofibers 391

16.3 Carbon Nanofiber and Agriculture 391

16.3.1 CNF for Plant Growth and Crop Yield 393

16.3.1.1 Seed Germination 394

16.3.1.2 CNF as Fertilizer 395

16.3.1.3 CNF as Plant Growth Stimulator 396

16.3.2 CNF for Plant Protection 396

16.3.2.1 CNF as Antimicrobial and Antifungal for Surface Coating 396

16.3.2.2 CNF as Support for Pesticides, Herbicides and Insecticides 398

16.3.3 CNF for Soil Improvement 398

16.3.4 CNF for Controlled Environment Agriculture 398

16.3.5 CNF for Precision Farming 399

16.3.5.1 CNF and Nanosensors for Diagnostics in Agriculture 400

16.4 Summary 401

References 401

Index 407
Madhuri Sharon, (Retd. Director at Reliance Industries), PhD from Leicester University UK, postdoctoral research from Bolton Institute of Technology U.K., is currently the Director of NSN Research Centre for Nanotechnology & Bionanotechnology and Managing Director of Monad Nanotech as well as Adjunct-Professor University of Mumbai & Professor-Emeritus JJT University, India. She has published more than 130 papers, 4 books and 11 patents. Her research focuses on the synthesis, biosynthesis and application of various nanomaterials (graphene oxide, carbon dots, carbon nanomaterials and nanometals) in drug-delivery.

Maheshwar Sharon, (Retd. Professor IIT Bombay) PhD from Leicester University, U.K, and postdoctoral research from Bolton Institute of Technology, U.K., is Director of NSN Research Centre for Nanotechnology & Bionanotechnology and Technical Director of Monad Nanotech as well as Adjunct-Professor at the University of Mumbai, India. His specializations are electrochemistry (photoelectrochemistry & battery), solid state chemistry (diffusion & electrical properties), superconductivity, carbon (fullerenes, nanocarbon, low band gap semiconductor, etc.) and energy: photovoltaic wet & dry solar cells. For his contribution to carbon he was awarded the 'Bangur Award'. He has five patents, five books and 173 publications to his credit.