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Functional Foods

Chhikara, Navnidhi / Panghal, Anil / Chaudhary, Gaurav (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage April 2022
592 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-77556-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Functional Foods

Presenting cutting-edge information on new and emerging food engineering processes, Functional Foods, the second volume in the groundbreaking new series, "Bioprocessing in Food Science," is an essential reference on the modeling, quality, safety, and technologies associated with food processing operations today.

Functional Foods, the second volume in series, "Bioprocessing in Food Science," is an up-to-date, comprehensive volume covering the preparation, processes and health benefits of functional foods. Written and edited by a team of experts in the field, this important new volume provides readers extensive knowledge about different types of traditional and commercially available functional foods from different sources, such as milk, meat, cereals, millets and fruits and vegetables.

The main objective of this book is to disseminate knowledge about the recent technologies developed in the field of functional foods to students, researchers, and industry professionals. This will enable them to make crucial decisions regarding the adoption, implementation, economics, and constraints of the different technologies. As the demand for healthy food is increasing, manufacturers are searching for new possibilities for occupying a growing share in the rapidly changing food market.

Covering the use of conventional and non-conventional sources, prebiotics, probiotics and many other topics, with emphasis on their functionality in food systems, this volume also provides insights on the specific packaging requirements for functional foods with maximum illustrations of how to enhance shelf life and create superior quality products. The authors and editors discuss the need for regulatory frameworks, government bodies, guidelines, and their challenges within the context of the functional food market. Whether for the veteran engineer or scientist, the student, or a manager or other technician working in the field, this volume is a must-have for any library.

This outstanding new volume:
* Discusses an overview of functional foods including global regulations, legislations and packaging requirements
* Provides knowledge of functional ingredients and health benefits of functional foods from different plants, animals, and microbes sources
* Acquaints the readers about technological aspects for functional ingredients delivery
* Addresses the basic to advanced aspects of different functional foods, combining the requirements, health benefits and regulations, showcasing the development of functional food products with potential functional benefits

Audience: Process and chemical engineers, chemists, engineers in other disciplines, managers, researchers, scientists, students, and teachers working in the field of food engineering and processing

Preface xv

1 Overview of Functional Foods 1
Navnidhi Chhikara and Anil Panghal

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Functional Food History and Market 2

1.2.1 History 3

1.2.2 Definition of Functional Foods 6

1.3 Classification of Functional Foods 7

1.4 Types of Functional Foods 9

1.4.1 Dairy Based Functional Foods 9

1.4.2 Cereal Based Functional Foods 10

1.4.3 Fruits and Vegetables Based Functional Foods 11

1.4.4 Seafood, Meat and Poultry Based Functional Foods 12

1.5 Functional Foods and Health Claims 13

1.6 Conclusion 14

References 15

2 Prebiotics and Synbiotics in Functional Foods 21
Cássia P. Barros, Ramon Silva, Jonas T. Guimarães, Celso F. Balhtazar, Silvani Verruck, Tatiana C. Pimentel, Erick A. Esmerino, Mônica Q. Freitas, Maria Carmela K.H. Duarte, Márcia Cristina Silva and Adriano Gomes da Cruz

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 Prebiotics 27

2.3 Prebiotic Dairy Functional Foods 32

2.4 Synbiotics 35

2.5 Synbiotic Dairy Functional Foods 38

2.6 Conclusions 42

Acknowledgements 43

References 43

3 Cereal-Based Functional Foods 55
Semih Otles and Emine Nakilcioglu-Tas

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Structure and Chemical Composition of Cereal Grains 58

3.2.1 Wheat 58

3.2.2 Buckwheat 60

3.2.3 Oat 61

3.2.4 Barley 63

3.2.5 Flaxseed 65

3.2.6 Psyllium 66

3.2.7 Brown Rice 67

3.2.8 Other Cereals 69

3.3 Functional Foods Produced from Cereal Grains 71

3.3.1 Baked Products and Breakfast Cereals 71

3.3.2 Multigrain Functional Beverages 71

3.4 Conclusion 73

References 73

4 Millet Based Functional Food 91
Aastha Dewan, Manish Tiwari, Navnidhi Chhikara and B. S. Khatkar

4.1 Introduction 92

4.2 Classification of Millets 93

4.2.1 Major Millets 94

4.2.2 Minor Millets 97

4.3 Nutritional Importance of Major and Minor Millets 98

4.3.1 Major Millets 98

4.3.2 Minor Millets 99

4.4 Grain Structure and Chemical Composition 100

4.4.1 Sorghum and Millet Grain Structure and Appearance 100

4.4.1.1 Sorghum 100

4.4.1.2 Millets 102

4.4.2 Chemical Composition of Millets 105

4.5 Functional Compounds Present in Millets 111

4.5.1 Polyphenols 111

4.5.2 Flavonoids 113

4.5.3 Phytate 113

4.5.4 Xylo-Oligosaccharides 114

4.5.5 Carotenoid and Tocopherols 115

4.6 Millet and Sorghum Based Commercial Products 116

4.7 Millet Based Functional Food Products 132

4.7.1 Probiotics 133

4.7.2 Prebiotics 137

4.7.3 Super Foods 137

4.8 Health Benefits of Millet Based Functional Food 139

4.8.1 Diabetes 139

4.8.2 Cataractogenesis Inhibition 140

4.8.3 Wound Healing and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Production 140

4.8.4 Antioxidant Activity (AA) 141

4.8.5 Other Health Beneficial Effects 142

4.9 Future Aspects 143

4.10 Challenges 145

4.11 Conclusions 146

References 147

5 Dairy Milk Based Functional Foods 161
Cássia P. Barros, Ramon Silva, Silvani Verruck, Erick A. Esmerino, Mônica Q. Freitas, Márcia Cristina Silva and Adriano Gomes da Cruz

5.1 Introduction 161

5.2 Functional Foods and Regulation 163

5.3 Functional Dairy Foods 168

5.3.1 Probiotics 169

5.3.2 Prebiotics 174

5.4 Industrial Processing of Functional Dairy Products 181

5.4.1 Factors That Affects the Viability of Probiotics During Processing and Storage 183

5.5 Conclusions 186

Acknowledgements 187

References 187

6 Fruits and Vegetable Functional Foods 195
Nicola Gasparre and Cristina M. Rosell

6.1 Introduction 195

6.2 Fruit and Vegetable as Functional Ingredients 198

6.3 Common Functional Compounds in Fruits and Vegetables 199

6.3.1 Carbohydrates 199

6.3.2 Protein 199

6.3.3 Lipid 200

6.3.4 Vitamins 200

6.3.5 Polyphenols 201

6.3.6 Carotenoids 202

6.3.7 Glucosinolates 203

6.4 Physicochemical Treatments to Produce Fruit and Vegetable Based Ingredients 203

6.4.1 Preliminary Operations to Obtain Ingredients from Fruits and Vegetable 204

6.5 Main Technologies to Obtain Powder Ingredients from Fruits and Vegetable 206

6.5.1 Conventional Oven Drying 206

6.5.2 Vacuum Drying 207

6.5.3 Freeze-Drying 207

6.5.4 Microwave Drying 207

6.5.5 Osmotic Dehydration 208

6.5.6 Size Reduction Process 208

6.5.7 From Fruits and Vegetable to Liquid Ingredients 209

6.5.8 Spray Drying 209

6.6 Foods as Carriers of Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetable 216

6.6.1 Bakery Foods 216

6.6.2 Pasta Like-Products 217

6.6.3 Snacks 218

6.6.4 Beverages 219

6.7 Fruits and Vegetable By-Products as Functional Ingredients 220

6.8 Impact of Food Processing on the Biofunctional Properties 221

6.9 Concluding Remarks and Future Outlooks 223

Acknowledgements 224

References 224

7 Meat Based Functional Foods 235
Dr Amee Ravani and Dr Harsh P. Sharma

7.1 Introduction 235

7.2 Meat Role in the Nourishments 237

7.2.1 Meat Nutrition 238

7.2.2 Source of Protein 239

7.2.3 Vitamins and Minerals in Meat 242

7.3 Types of Meat 243

7.3.1 Red Meat 243

7.3.1.1 White Meat 244

7.3.1.2 Meat as Processed 244

7.4 Benefits of Consuming Meat 244

7.5 Concept of Functional Foods 245

7.6 Creation of Functional Foods Based on Meat 247

7.6.1 Bioactive Compounds Which are Found in Meat 248

7.6.2 Methods Designed for Producing Integrated Meat Foods 250

7.6.3 Reformulation of Products Containing Meat 252

7.6.4 Production of Shelf-Stable, Health Driven Functional Poultry Meat Finger Chips 255

7.6.5 As a Functional Element in Meat and Meat Products, Dietary Fibre 256

7.6.6 Fish Oils for Omega-3s and Lipoprotein Metabolism 262

7.6.7 Improvements in Animal Feed 266

7.6.8 Meat Reformulation 267

7.6.9 Design of Meat-Based Foods with Walnuts 269

7.7 Innovation of Technology for New Dietary Principles 272

7.8 Conclusion 273

References 275

8 Seafood Based Functional Foods 289
M. Selvamuthukumaran

8.1 Introduction 289

8.2 Fish Protein Hydrolysates 290

8.2.1 Process for Preparing Fish Protein Hydrolysates 290

8.3 Fish Oil 292

8.3.1 Oil Refining 292

8.4 Chitin 294

8.4.1 Source of Chitin 294

8.4.2 Extraction of Chitin 294

8.4.3 Extraction of Chitin Using Biological Process 295

8.5 Fish Roe 296

8.5.1 Fish Roe Protein Concentrates 297

8.6 Gelatine 298

8.7 Conclusions 298

References 298

9 Millet Based Functional Foods: Bio-Chemical and Bio-Functional Properties 303
Issoufou Amadou

9.1 Introduction 304

9.2 Recent Developments on Millet Based Functional Foods 306

9.3 Millet Nutrition Profile 307

9.3.1 Carbohydrates 309

9.3.2 Protein 309

9.3.3 Lipids 310

9.3.4 Fibers 310

9.3.5 Vitamins 311

9.3.6 Minerals 311

9.3.7 Anti-Nutritional Factors 312

9.4 Bioactivities of the Millet Based Functional Foods Compounds 312

9.5 Biomedicinal and Health Potential of Millet-Based Foods 314

9.6 Conclusion 323

References 324

10 Mushroom as a Source of Fungal Based Functional Foods 331
Mandira Kapri, Prem Prakash Srivastav and Satyawati Sharma

10.1 Introduction 331

10.2 Life Cycle of Mushroom 333

10.3 Different Types of Mushroom Cultivation Process 335

10.4 Traditional and Valorised Substrates Used for Cultivation of Mushroom Under SSF Process 337

10.5 Challenges of Mushroom Cultivation and Upcoming Strategies 337

10.6 Mycelium Physiology 338

10.7 Mushroom Mycelium Cultivation Status 339

10.8 Enhancement of Nutritional and Therapeutic Attributes Present in Mycelium and Mushroom 341

10.9 Nutraceuticals Compounds Present in Mycelium and Mushroom Along with their Therapeutic Effects 341

10.10 Food Products Developed from Mushroom Mycelium and Fruit-Bodies 366

10.11 Umami Flavour Extracted from Mushroom Mycelium and Fruit-Bodies 371

10.12 Conclusion 373

Abbreviations 373

References 374

11 Probiotics and Prebiotics as Functional Foods 391
Tolulope Joshua Ashaolu

11.1 Introduction 391

11.2 Immunity of the Gut and its Connection to Microbes 392

11.3 An Overview of Functional Foods 393

11.3.1 Probiotics 394

11.3.2 Prebiotics 401

11.4 Critical Evaluations on Probiotics and Prebiotics 408

11.5 Conclusions 409

References 410

12 Food Function and Health Benefits of Functional Foods 419
Anil Panghal, Nitin Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Anju Kumari and Navnidhi Chhikara

12.1 Introduction 420

12.2 Functional Foods Terminology and Definition 420

12.2.1 Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Synbiotics 421

12.3 Constituents in Functional Foods 423

12.3.1 Macronutrients 424

12.3.2 Micronutrients 424

12.4 Bioactive Compounds in Functional Foods 424

12.4.1 Phenolic Compounds 425

12.4.2 Flavonoids 425

12.4.3 Alkaloids 426

12.4.4 Terpenes and Terpenoids 426

12.4.5 Saponins 427

12.5 Health Benefits 427

12.5.1 Diabetes Mellitus 427

12.5.2 Cancer 430

12.5.3 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) 430

12.6 Sources of Functional Foods 430

12.6.1 Plant-Based Functional Foods 430

12.6.2 Animal-Based Functional Foods 431

12.6.3 Microbial-Derived Functional Foods 432

12.7 Effect of Processing on Functional Products 432

12.8 Present Status and Future Aspects 434

12.9 Conclusion 435

References 436

13 Double Emulsion for Controlled Delivery of Functional Food Ingredients 443
Madhulekha Rakshit and P P Srivastav

13.1 Introduction 444

13.2 Double Emulsion Formation Mechanism 446

13.3 Types of Functional Ingredient for Delivery 448

13.4 Double Emulsion Particle Specification 457

13.5 Double Emulsion Stability 458

13.5.1 Physical Stability 458

13.5.1.1 Gravitation Separation 458

13.5.1.2 Particle Aggregation 460

13.5.1.3 Flocculation and Coalescence 461

13.5.1.4 Ostwald Ripening 462

13.5.2 Chemical Stability 463

13.6 Release Characteristics 463

13.7 Gastrointestinal Properties 466

13.7.1 Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility 466

13.7.2 Variations in Delivery Properties 466

13.8 Conclusion 468

References 468

14 Use of Biopolymers for Packaging of Functional Foods 477
Bababode Adesegun Kehinde, Olakanmi Sunday Joy, Majid Ishrat, Oluwabusolami Kehinde and Tolulope Joshua Ashaolu

14.1 Introduction 478

14.2 Applications of Biopolymers in Scientific Fields 480

14.2.1 Nanoscale Processing 480

14.2.2 Biomedical Applications 480

14.2.3 Cosmetic Functions 481

14.2.4 Construction Engineering 481

14.2.5 Pharmacology 482

14.3 Food Product Processing 482

14.3.1 Water Purification 486

14.3.2 Enzymology 487

14.3.3 Food Packaging 487

14.4 Use of Biopolymers for Packaging of Functional Foods 490

14.4.1 Antioxidant Packaging of Functional Foods 491

14.4.2 Antimicrobial Packaging 496

14.5 Biopolymers Used for Processing of Functional Foods 497

14.5.1 Starch 497

14.5.2 Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) 498

14.5.3 Cellulose 498

14.5.4 Chitosan 498

14.5.5 Proteins 499

14.5.6 Carrageenan 499

14.5.7 Alginate 500

14.6 Conclusion 500

References 501

15 Global Concepts and Regulations in Functional Foods 511
Montaña Cámara, Virginia Fernández-Ruiz, Laura Domínguez Díaz, Rosa Mª Cámara Hurtado and Mª de Cortes Sánchez Mata

15.1 Introduction 511

15.2 Regulatory Framework of Functional Foods 513

15.2.1 Concept 513

15.2.2 Definition 514

15.2.3 International Overview on Functional Food Classification 518

15.2.4 Functional Ingredients of Functional Foods: Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds 522

15.2.4.1 Regulatory Framework of Functional Ingredients Added to Functional Foods 528

15.2.5 Nutrition and Health-Related Claims for Functional Foods Around the World 534

15.2.6 Claims Related to the Absence of a Specific Allergens and/or Substances that can Cause Intolerance in the Human Organism 543

15.3 Conclusions 546

Acknowledgements 546

References 547

Index 555
Navnidhi Chhikara, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Food Technology at Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, India. She has eleven years of teaching and research experience and has taught various subjects, including health foods and food safety at the graduate and postgraduate levels. She has published more than sixty research papers in scientific and technical journals, is an editor and editorial board member of multiple international journals, and has received numerous awards for her scholarship.

Anil Panghal, PhD, is an assistant scientist in the Department of Processing and Food Engineering at CCS Haryana Agricultural University. Previously, he worked with Nestle as a production manager for nine years. His areas of expertise include bioprocessing, manufacturing, food chemistry, food science, and technology, FSMS, and nutrition. He obtained his PhD in food technology, focusing on the molecular and physicochemical quality aspects of commercial wheat varieties. He has published various research papers in reputed journals and chapters for international publishers.

Gaurav Chaudhary, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Renewable and Bio-Energy Engineering at the College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University in Hisar, India. He received PhD from the Indian Institute of Technology in Roorkee, India in the field of biofuel and bioenergy. He has more than seven years of experience in teaching and research in the fields of bioenergy and biochemical engineering and has published many research articles in scientific and technical journals.

G. Chaudhary, Institute of Engineering & Technology, Mangalayatan University