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Renewable Energy for Sustainable Growth Assessment

Kumar, Nayan / Prabhansu, Prabhansu (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage April 2022
656 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-78536-1
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RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE GROWTH ASSESSMENT

Written and edited by a team of experts in the field, this collection of papers reflects the most up-to-date and comprehensive current state of renewable energy for sustainable growth assessment and provides practical solutions for engineers and scientists.

Renewable energy resources (RERs) are gaining more attention in academia and industry as one of the preferred choices of sustainable energy conversion. Due to global energy demand, environmental impacts, economic needs and social issues, RERs are encouraged and even funded by many governments around the world. Today, researchers are facing numerous challenges as this field emerges and develops, but, at the same time, new opportunities are waiting for RERs utilization in sustainable development all over the globe.

Efficient energy conversion of solar, wind, biomass, fuel cells, and other techniques are gaining more popularity and are the future of energy. The present book cross-pollinates recent advances in the study of renewable energy for sustainable growth. Various applications of RERs, modeling and performance analysis, grid integration, soft computing, optimization, artificial intelligence (AI) as well as machine and deep learning aspects of RERs are extensively covered. Whether for the veteran engineer or scientist, the student, or a manager or other technician working in the field, this volume is a must-have for any library.

This outstanding new volume
* Assesses the current and future need for energy on a global scale and reviews the role of renewable energy
* Includes multiple chapters on biomass and bioenergy
* Also includes multiple chapters on solar energy and PVs
* Also includes chapters on fuel cells, wind power, and many other topics
* Covers the design and implementation of power electronics for energy systems
* Outlines best practices and the state of the art for renewable energy with regard to sustainability

Audience: Engineers, scientists, technicians, managers, students, and faculty working in the field of renewable energy, sustainability and power system

Preface xix

1 Biomass as Emerging Renewable: Challenges and Opportunities 1
Prabhansu and Nayan Kumar

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Bioenergy Chemical Characterization 5

1.2.1 Cellulose [C6(H2O)5]n 5

1.2.2 Hemicellulose [C5(H2O)4]n 5

1.2.3 Lignin [C10H12O3]n 5

1.2.4 Starch 5

1.2.5 Other Minor Components of Organic Matter 5

1.2.6 Inorganic Matter 6

1.3 Technologies Available for Conversion of Bioenergy 6

1.4 Progress in Scientific Study 7

1.4.1 Combustion Technology 7

1.4.2 Hybrid Systems 8

1.4.3 Circular Bio-Economy 8

1.4.4 Other Notable Developments 9

1.5 Status of Biomass Utilization in India 9

1.6 Major Issues in Biomass Energy Projects 11

1.6.1 Large Task Costs 11

1.6.2 Lower Proficiency of Advancements 11

1.6.3 Immature Innovations 11

1.6.4 Lack of Subsidizing Alternatives 11

1.6.5 Non-Transparent Exchange Markets 11

1.6.6 High Dangers/Low Compensations 12

1.6.7 Resource Value Acceleration 12

1.7 Challenges in Commercialization 12

1.7.1 Financial Dangers 12

1.7.2 Technological Dangers 12

1.7.3 Principal Specialist Hazard 13

1.7.4 Market Acknowledgement Chances 13

1.7.5 Environmental Dangers 13

1.7.6 COVID-19: The Impact on Bioenergy 13

1.8 Concluding Remarks 14

References 14

2 Assessment of Renewable Energy Technologies Based on Sustainability Indicators for Indian Scenario 25
Anuja Shaktawat and Shelly Vadhera

Nomenclature 25

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 RE Scenario in India 27

2.2.1 Large Hydropower 28

2.2.2 Small Hydropower 28

2.2.3 Onshore Wind Power 29

2.2.4 Solar Power 29

2.2.5 Bioenergy 29

2.3 Impact of COVID-19 on RE Sector in India 30

2.4 Sustainability Assessment of RE Technologies 30

2.4.1 RE Technologies Selection 31

2.4.2 Sustainability Indicators Selection and Their Weightage 31

2.4.3 Methodology 32

2.4.3.1 The TOPSIS Method 32

2.4.3.2 The Fuzzy-TOPSIS 34

2.5 Ranking of RE Technologies 36

2.5.1 The TOPSIS 36

2.5.2 The Fuzzy-TOPSIS 36

2.5.3 Monte Carlo Simulations-Based Probabilistic Ranking 38

2.6 Results and Discussion 42

2.7 Conclusion 43

References 43

3 A Review of Biomass Impact and Energy Conversion 49
Dhanasekaran Subashri and Pambayan Ulagan Mahalingam

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Non-Renewable Energy Resources: Crisis and Demand 50

3.3 Environmental Impacts and Control by Biomass Conversion 52

3.3.1 Biomass and Its Various Sources for Energy Conversion 52

3.3.1.1 Sugar and Starch-Based Biomass (First-Generation - 1G) 53

3.3.1.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass (Second-Generation - 2G) 53

3.3.1.3 Micro and Macroalgal Biomass (Third-Generation - 3G) 58

3.3.1.4 Genetically Engineered Biomass (Fourth-Generation) 60

3.3.1.5 Waste Biomass Resources 60

3.3.2 Biomass Conversion Process 66

3.3.2.1 Thermochemical Conversion 66

3.3.2.2 Biological Conversion 67

3.3.2.3 Advanced Technology for Biomass Conversion 68

3.3.3 Biofuel as Renewable Energy for the Future 70

3.3.3.1 Solid Fuel 70

3.3.3.2 Gaseous Fuel 71

3.3.3.3 Liquid Biofuel 71

3.4 Future Trends 72

3.5 Conclusion 72

Acknowledgment 73

References 73

4 Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems 81
Vishal Anand, Varsha Singh and Saad Mekhlief

4.1 Introduction: Need of Renewable Energy System 81

4.1.1 Financial Aspects 83

4.1.2 Environmental Aspects 83

4.1.3 Economic Feasibility 84

4.1.4 Present Scenario of Renewable Energy Sources 86

4.2 Power Electronics Technologies 87

4.2.1 AC-DC Converters 87

4.2.2 DC-AC Converters 88

4.2.3 DC-DC Converters 90

4.2.4 AC-AC Converter 91

4.3 Energy Conversion Controller Design Using Power Electronics 92

4.4 Carbon Emission Reduction Using Power Electronics 95

4.4.1 Renewable Power Generation 97

4.5 Efficient Transmission of Power 100

4.6 Issues and Challenges of Power Electronics 100

4.7 Energy Storage Utilized by Power Electronics for Power System 101

4.8 Application of Power Electronics 101

4.8.1 VSC-Based HVDC 101

4.8.2 Power Electronics in Electric Drives 102

4.8.3 Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles 103

4.8.4 Power Electronics in More Electric Effect (MEE) 105

4.8.4.1 More Electric Aircraft 105

4.8.4.2 More Electric Ships 105

4.8.5 Advanced Applications of Power Converters in Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) 106

4.9 Case Study on PV Farm and Wind Farm Using Converter Modelling 106

4.9.1 A 400KW 4 PV Farm 106

4.9.2 Wind Generation Using DFIG 109

4.10 Reliability of Renewable Energy System 110

4.10.1 Reliability of Photovolatic-Based Power System 110

4.10.2 Reliability of Wind-Turbine-Based Power System 110

4.10.3 Reliability of Power Electronics Converters in Renewable Energy System 111

4.11 Conclusion 111

References 112

5 Thermal Performance Studies of an Artificially Roughened Corrugated Aluminium Alloy (AlMn1Cu) Plate Solar Air Heater (SAH) at a Moderate Air Flow Rate 119
Dutta P. P., Goswami P.., Das A., Chutia L., Borbara M., Das V., Bania K., Rai S. and Bardalai M.

Nomenclature 119

5.1 Introduction 120

5.2 Methodology 124

5.2.1 Experimental Setup 124

5.2.2 Mathematical Modelling 125

5.3 Results and Discussion 128

5.4 Conclusions 131

Acknowledgement 132

References 132

6 An Overview of Partial Shading on PV Systems 135
Siddharth Mathur, Gautam Raina, Pulkit Jain and Sunanda Sinha

Nomenclature 135

6.1 Introduction 136

6.2 Basics of Partial Shading 139

6.2.1 Types & Occurrence of Partial Shading 142

6.2.2 Problem Associated with Partial Shading 143

6.2.3 Details About Partial Shading Mitigation Techniques 146

6.2.3.1 Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques 146

6.2.3.2 PV System Architecture 147

6.2.3.3 Converter Topologies 148

6.3 Mitigation of Partial Shading Using Array Reconfiguration Techniques 149

6.3.1 Conventional 151

6.3.2 Hybrid 155

6.3.3 Reconfigured/Modified Configurations 157

6.3.4 Puzzle-Based Configuration 157

6.3.5 Metaheuristic-Based PV Array Configurations 168

6.4 Case Study on Different Techniques of Array Reconfiguration According to its Classification - (2015-2020) 172

6.5 Future Directions 172

6.6 Discussion & Conclusion 173

References 174

7 Optical Modeling Techniques for Bifacial PV 181
Pulkit Jain, Gautam Raina, Siddharth Mathur and Sunanda Sinha

Nomenclature 181

7.1 Introduction 182

7.2 Background 183

7.2.1 Bifacial Cells and Modules 183

7.2.2 Cell Technologies 185

7.2.3 Geometric Parameters and Metrics 186

7.2.3.1 Bifaciality Factor 187

7.2.3.2 Bifacial Gain (BG) 187

7.3 Bifacial PV System and Modelling 188

7.3.1 Need for Optical Modeling of Bifacial PV 188

7.3.2 Bifacial PV Modeling Challenges 189

7.3.3 Bifacial Irradiance Models 192

7.3.3.1 Ray-Tracing Model 192

7.3.3.2 Empirical Models 195

7.3.3.3 View Factor Model 196

7.3.4 Optical Modelling of Bifacial PV 198

7.3.4.1 Frontside Irradiance 198

7.3.4.2 Rear-Side Irradiance 202

7.3.5 Comparison of Different Models/Software 205

7.4 Effect of Installation and Weather Parameters on Energy Yield 208

7.4.1 Effect of Installation Parameters 208

7.4.2 Effect of Albedo 208

7.4.3 Effect of Tilt Angle 208

7.4.4 Effect of Elevation 209

7.4.5 Effect of Weather Parameters 210

7.5 Conclusion 211

References 212

8 Intervention of Microorganisms for the Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Extract the Fermentable Sugars for Biofuel Production 217
M. Naveen Kumar, A. Gangagni Rao, Sudharshan Juntupally, Vijayalakshmi Arelli and Sameena Begum

8.1 Introduction 217

8.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass 218

8.2.1 Types of Lignocellulosic Biomass 219

8.2.1.1 Virgin Biomass 219

8.2.1.2 Agricultural and Energy Crops 220

8.2.1.3 Waste Biomass 220

8.3 Role of Pretreatment in Biofuel Generations 220

8.3.1 Non-Biological Pretreatment 222

8.3.1.1 Physical Pretreatment 223

8.3.1.2 Chemical Pretreatment 223

8.3.1.3 Physico-Chemical (Hybrid) Pretreatment 224

8.4 Biological Pretreatment and its Significance 227

8.4.1 Role of Fungi in Pretreatment 228

8.4.1.1 Biological Mechanisms of Delignification in Fungi 228

8.4.2 Role of Prokaryotic Pretreatment 232

8.4.2.1 Bacterial Enzymes Involved in Lignin De-Polymerization 232

8.4.2.2 Types of Bacteria and their Role in Delignification 233

8.5 Combined Biological Pretreatment Case Studies and Opportunities 234

8.6 Future Prospects 236

8.6.1 Role of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 236

8.7 Conclusion 236

Acknowledgement 237

Conflicts of Interest 237

References 237

9 Biomass and Bioenergy: Resources, Conversion and Application 243
Dr. Sunita Barot

9.1 Introduction to Biomass 243

9.2 Classification of Biomass Resources 244

9.3 Biomass to Bioenergy Conversion 247

9.4 Environmental Impacts of Biomass & Bioenergy 253

9.5 Solutions to the Environmental Impacts 254

9.6 Case Study of US - Conversion of MSW to Energy 255

9.7 Bioenergy Products 256

9.8 Effects of Covid-19 on Bioenergy Sector 258

References 258

10 Renewable Energy Development in Africa: Lessons and Policy Recommendations from South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeria 263
Adedoyin Adeleke, Fabio Inzoli and Emanuela Colombo

10.1 Introduction 263

10.2 Existing Knowledge and Contributions to Literature 265

10.3 Renewable Energy Development in South Africa 269

10.3.1 Policies and Strategies 269

10.3.2 Policy Impact on Renewable Energy Development 272

10.4 Renewable Energy Development in Egypt 275

10.4.1 Policies and Strategies 275

10.4.2 Policy Impact on Renewable Energy Development 277

10.5 Renewable Energy Development in Nigeria 284

10.5.1 Policies and Strategies 285

10.5.2 Policy Impact on Renewable Energy Development 288

10.6 Conclusion and Policy Implications 291

10.6.1 Policy Implications from South Africa and Egypt 291

10.6.2 Barriers to Renewable Energy Development in Africa: The Case of Nigeria 293

10.7 Conclusion 297

References 298

11 Sustainable Development of Pine Biocarbon Derived Thermally Stable and Electrically Conducting Polymer Nanocomposite Films 305
Rehnuma Saleheen, MGH Zaidi, Sameena Mehtab and Kavita Singhal

11.1 Introduction 305

11.1.1 Biomass Resources 307

11.1.2 Biomass Utilization 308

11.1.2.1 Production of BC from Biomass 308

11.1.2.2 Production of CF 309

11.1.3 Applications of BC 310

11.1.3.1 BC as CI 310

11.1.3.2 BC for ESDs 311

11.1.3.3 BC as Filler for Polymer Composites 311

11.1.3.4 BC-Derived Sustainable OP 313

11.2 Experimental Procedures 314

11.2.1 Starting Materials 314

11.2.2 Development of Pine Cone-Derived BC and Nano Pine-Derived BC 314

11.2.3 Development of OP 314

11.2.4 Development of ECF 316

11.3 Characterization 316

11.4 Results and Discussion 316

11.4.1 Spectra of ECF 316

11.4.2 Microstructure of ECF 318

11.4.3 Thermal Stability of ECF 318

11.5 Electrical Behaviour of ECF 320

11.6 Conclusion and Future Aspects 321

Acknowledgement 322

References 322

12 Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems 327
Nandhini Gayathri M. and Kannbhiran A.

12.1 Introduction 327

12.2 Power Electronics on Energy Systems and its Impact 328

12.3 The Power Electronics Contribution and its Challenges in the Current Energy Scenario 330

12.4 Recent Growth in Power Semiconductor Technology 335

12.5 A New Class of Power Converters for Renewable Energy Systems: AC-Link Universal Power Converters 337

12.6 Power Converters for Wind Turbines and Power Semiconductors for Wind Power Converter 340

12.7 Recent Developments in Multilevel Inverter Based PV Systems 342

12.8 AC-DC-AC Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems 345

12.9 Multilevel Converter/Inverter Topologies and Applications 345

12.10 Multiphase Matrix Converter Topologies 349

12.11 Boost Pre-Regulators for Power Factor Correction in Single-Phase Rectifiers 350

12.12 Active Power Filter 350

12.13 Common-Mode Voltage and Bearing Currents in PWM Inverters: Causes, Effects and Prevention 351

12.14 Single-Phase Grid-Side Converters 352

12.15 Impedance Source Inverters 353

12.16 Conclusion 354

References 354

13 Fuel Cells for Alternative and Sustainable Energy Systems 363
N. V. Raghavaiah and Dr. G. Naga Srinivasulu

13.1 Introduction to Fuel Cell Systems 363

13.1.1 Brief History 363

13.2 Overview of Fuel Technology 364

13.2.1 Introduction to Fuel Cell Working 365

13.2.2 Classification of Fuel Cells 366

13.2.3 Fuel Cell Performance 368

13.2.4 Fuel Cell Power Density 371

13.3 Energy Storage Applications of Fuel Cells 371

13.4 Environmental Impact of Fuel Cell System 372

13.5 Latest Developments in Fuel Cell Technology 372

13.5.1 Electrode Design - as a Function of Catalyst 374

13.5.2 Efficient Structure Design: Fuel Cell Mass Transportation 375

13.5.3 Design of Flow Patterns 375

13.5.4 Environmental Impact of Fuel Cells 376

13.6 Future Perspective of Fuel Cell 376

13.6.1 Research and Technological Factors 376

13.6.2 Perspective View 377

13.6.3 Environmental Crisis 377

13.6.4 Fuel EVs Infrastructure 378

13.6.5 Renewables: A Window of Opportunity for Fuel Cells 378

13.6.6 Energy Storage: A Big, Challenging Issue 380

13.6.7 Future Predictions: On Fuel Cell Systems 380

13.6.8 Hydrogen Economy 383

13.7 Case Studies 384

13.7.1 Case Study-1 384

13.7.2 Case Study-2 385

13.7.3 Case Study-3 386

13.8 Summary 387

References 387

14 Fuel Cell Utilization for Energy Storage 389
Archit Rai and Sumit Pramanik

14.1 Introduction to Fuel Cells 389

14.2 Fuel Cell Mechanism 391

14.3 Efficiency of Fuel Cell 391

14.3.1 Efficiency Calculations 392

14.3.2 Co-Generation of Heat and Power 393

14.4 Types of Fuel Cells 393

14.4.1 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) 394

14.4.2 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) 394

14.4.3 Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) 398

14.4.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) 398

14.4.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 398

14.5 Hydrogen Production 399

14.5.1 Steam Methane Reforming or SMR (Natural Gas Reforming) 400

14.5.2 Coal Gasification Process 400

14.5.3 Biomass Gasification 400

14.5.4 Biomass Derived Fuel Reforming 401

14.5.5 Thermochemical Water Splitting 401

14.5.6 Electrolytic Process 401

14.5.7 Direct Solar Water Splitting Process 402

14.5.8 Biological Processes 402

14.5.9 Microbial Biomass Conversion 402

14.5.10 Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) 403

14.6 Fuel Cells Applications and Advancements 403

14.6.1 Applications 403

14.6.2 Advancements 404

14.6.3 Applications and Advancements of Fuel Cells in Automobile Sector 405

14.6 Conclusions 405

References 406

15 Miniature Hydel Energy Harvesting Unit to Power Auto Faucet and Lighting Systems for Domestic Applications 409
Farid Ullah Khan, Adil Ahmad Taj, Umar Safi Ullah Jan and Gule Saman

15.1 Introduction 409

15.2 Literature Review 412

15.3 Data Collection and Theoretical Hydraulic Power Calculations 414

15.4 Architecture and Working of Prototypes 414

15.5 Design and Simulation 416

15.6 Fabrication of Prototypes 420

15.6.1 Fabrication of Prototype-1 420

15.6.2 Fabrication of Prototype-2 422

15.6.3 Fabrication of Prototype-3 423

15.7 Experimentation of Prototypes 424

15.8 Experimentation for Auto Faucet System 428

15.9 Conclusions 432

References 432

16 Modeling, Performance Analysis, Impact Study and Operational Paradigms of Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant 435
B. Koti Reddy and Dr. Amit Kumar Singh

16.1 Introduction 435

16.2 Solar Energy 436

16.2.1 Forms of Energy Resources 436

16.2.2 Solar Spectrum 437

16.2.3 Sun Tracking and Location 438

16.2.4 Solar Energy Fundamentals 439

16.2.5 Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants (SPP) 444

16.3 Modeling of PV Modules 445

16.3.1 Simulation Model 447

16.3.2 Simulation Results 448

16.4 Design of 12 MWp SPP 452

16.4.1 Selection of Site 452

16.4.2 Equipment Sizing 453

16.4.3 Cost Estimates 454

16.4.4 Shadow Analysis 454

16.4.5 Power Output Estimates 457

16.5 Field Equipment Details 457

16.6 Performance Analysis 458

16.6.1 Performance Indicators 458

16.6.2 Field Data and Analysis 459

16.6.3 Intangible Benefits Realised in Past Three Years 459

16.7 Technical Issues and New Paradigms 459

16.7.1 Technical Issues 461

16.7.2 Paradigm Shift 467

16.8 Opportunities and Future Scope 470

16.8.1 Opportunities 471

16.8.2 Latest Trends 471

16.8.3 Future Scope 471

16.9 Conclusions 473

References 473

17 A Review on Control Technologies and Islanding Issues in Microgrids 475
Anup Kumar Nanda, Babita Panda and Chinmoy Kumar Panigrahi

17.1 Introduction 475

17.2 Importance of Microgrid 476

17.3 Microgrid Types 477

17.4 Problems in Islanded Mode of Operation 478

17.5 Features of Microgrid Control System 479

17.6 Microgrid Islanding 480

17.7 Control Techniques 481

17.7.1 Primary Level 481

17.7.2 Secondary Level 482

17.7.2.1 Centralized Control Strategy 483

17.7.2.2 Decentralized Control Strategy 483

17.7.3 Tertiary Level 484

17.8 Autonomous Control Architecture 486

17.9 Optimization of Control in Microgrids 487

17.9.1 Linear Programming 487

17.9.2 Non-Linear Programming 488

17.10 Inverter Control in Microgrids 488

17.10.1 PQ Control 488

17.10.2 Voltage Source Inverter Control 489

17.10.2.1 Power Control Mode (PCM) 489

17.10.2.2 Voltage Control Mode (VCM) 489

17.11 Droop Control 489

17.11.1 V/f Control 491

17.12 Modern Prospects of Microgrid Research 492

17.12.1 Multi Microgrid Control 492

17.12.2 Energy Storage Management 492

17.12.3 Management of Loads 492

17.12.4 Hybrid Energy Mangement System 492

17.12.5 Implementation of Soft Switches 492

17.12.6 Protection and Stability Analysis 493

17.12.7 Metaheuristic Optimization Techniques 493

17.12.7.1 Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) 494

17.12.7.2 Hybrid GWO and P&O Algorithm (Hyb.) 495

17.12.7.3 Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) 495

17.12.7.4 Communication Technologies 498

17.13 Conclusion 498

References 499

18 A Review of Microgrid Protection Schemes Resilient to Weather Intermittency and DER Faults 503
Goyal R. Awagan Ebha Koley and Subhojit Ghosh

18.1 Introduction 503

18.2 Islanding Detection 506

18.2.1 Central Islanding Detection 506

18.2.2 Local Islanding Detection 507

18.2.3 Feature Extraction-Based Islanding Detection 507

18.2.4 Machine Learning-Based Islanding Detection 508

18.3 Protection Challenges Due to Weather Intermittency 508

18.3.1 Solar Irradiance Intermittency 509

18.3.2 Wind Speed Intermittency 510

18.3.3 Solar-Wind Combined Intermittency 511

18.4 Protection Challenges Due to Converter Faults 511

18.5 Protection Challenges Due to PV Array Faults 513

18.5.1 LG Fault 513

18.5.2 LL Fault 513

18.5.3 Arc Fault 513

18.5.4 Faults Due to Partial Shading 514

18.6 Conclusion 517

References 517

19 Theories of Finance for Generation Portfolio Optimization 523
Arjun C. Unni, Weerakorn Ongsakul and Nimal Madhu M.

Acronyms 523

19.1 Introduction 524

19.2 Introduction to Portfolio Optimization 526

19.3 Using Fuzzy Logic to Create Risk and Reward Index 527

19.4 Markovitz Mean-Variance Theory 530

19.5 Black-Litterman Model 531

19.6 Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) 532

19.7 Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) 532

19.8 Results and Discussion 534

19.9 Conclusion 540

References 540

20 Variable Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Wind Energy Systems 543
Vijaya Priya R., Raja Pichamuthu and M.P. Selvan

20.1 PMSG-Based WECS 543

20.1.1 Configurations of WECS 544

20.1.2 General Control Requirements of WECS 544

20.1.3 Insights from Literature Review 545

20.1.4 Objectives and Scope of the Present Research Work 546

20.1.5 Contributions of the Chapter 546

20.2 System Modelling 547

20.2.1 Wind Turbine Modelling 547

20.2.2 PMSG Modelling 548

20.2.3 Drive-Train Shaft Modelling 549

20.2.4 DC-Link Modelling 549

20.2.5 GSC Filter Design 550

20.2.6 Grid Modelling 550

20.2.7 Dynamic Operating Conditions 551

20.2.7.1 Grid Disturbances 551

20.2.7.2 Converter Non-Linearities 554

20.2.8 SRF-PLL Modelling 554

20.3 Rotor Speed and Position Estimation Based on Stator SRF-PLL 555

20.3.1 PMSG Angular Speed Reference Signal Computation 556

20.3.2 Rotor Speed and Position Estimation 556

20.3.3 Vector Control 558

20.3.4 Analytical Validations 559

20.3.4.1 Starting Characteristics 559

20.3.4.2 Wind Velocity Variation 559

20.3.4.3 Converter Non-Linearities 560

20.3.4.4 Utility Harmonics 561

20.3.4.5 Sensitivity Study 562

20.3.5 Summary 564

20.4 Active Power and Current Reference Generation Scheme 564

20.4.1 System Modeling 565

20.4.1.1 MSC Controller Design 565

20.4.1.2 GSC and Controller Design 567

20.4.2 MSC Reference Power Generation Scheme 570

20.4.3 GSC Current Oscillation Component Computation 573

20.4.4 Analytical Validation 574

20.4.4.1 Symmetrical Voltage Sag 574

20.4.4.2 Distorted Utility 575

20.4.5 Summary 577

20.5 Torsional Oscillation Damping 577

20.5.1 Dynamic Effects under MPPT and PLMs 578

20.5.1.1 Fast DC Link Voltage Control 579

20.5.1.2 Slow DC-Link Voltage Control 581

20.5.2 Proposed Active Damping Scheme for Torsional Mode Operation 583

20.5.3 Proposed Control for GSC Control 585

20.5.3.1 DPC Scheme 586

20.5.3.2 Power Oscillation Term Computation 586

20.5.4 Simulation Validation 587

20.5.4.1 Turbulent and Gust Wind Speed 587

20.5.4.2 Unsymmetrical Voltage Sag 588

20.5.5 Summary 590

20.6 Conclusions 590

Appendices and Nomenclature 591

References 592

21 Study of Radiant Cooling System with Parallel Desiccant Based Dedicated Outdoor Air System with Solar Regeneration 595
Prateek Srivastava and Gaurav Singh

21.1 Introduction 595

21.2 Dedicated Outdoor Air System 598

21.3 Desiccant 599

21.4 Radiant Cooling System with DOAS 602

21.5 Methodology 604

21.6 Building Description 605

21.7 System and Model Description 606

21.8 Result and Discussion 609

21.9 Primary Energy Consumption and Coefficient of Performance (COP) Analysis 610

21.10 Solar Energy Performance 613

21.11 Conclusions 614

References 614

Index 619
Nayan Kumar, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India. He received his PhD in electrical engineering from the National Institute of Technology Durgapur, India, in 2018. His current research interests include power electronics and its applications such as in PV systems, wind turbines, electric vehicles, reliability, harmonics and adjustable speed??drives.

Prabhansu, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Surat, Gujarat, India. He has been associated with the Renewable Energy Lab at the Institute since early 2020 and has over 11 years of experience in the field of solar energy extraction and gasification.