John Wiley & Sons Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels Cover Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOLIDS AND GASEOUS BIOFUELS This.. Product #: 978-1-119-78582-8 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 Auf Lager

Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels

Volume 4: Production Technologies for Solid and Gaseous Biofuels

Singh, Lalit Kumar / Chaudhary, Gaurav (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Juli 2022
400 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-78582-8
John Wiley & Sons

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Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOLIDS AND GASEOUS BIOFUELS

This latest volume in the series, "Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels," offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage available for the production technologies for solid and gaseous biofuels.

Biofuel production is one of the most extensively studied recent fields of innovation that can provide the world an alternative energy source. Biomass-based fuel production, or renewable fuels, are becoming increasingly important as a remedy for the increasing greenhouse effect, depleting oil reserves, and rising oil prices. Therefore, research on the production of various biofuels is gaining very much importance among scientists and researchers all over the globe.

The book, Production Technologies for Solid and Gaseous Biofuels, is the fourth volume of the book series entitled "Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels." The first volume, Biofeedstocks and Their Processing, covered the aspects of biofeedstocks and their suitability as an alternative energy source. The second volume, Production Technologies for Biofuels, covered all the latest technologies in biofuels production. The third volume, Liquid Biofuel Production, focused on the latest technologies involved in the production of liquid biofuels, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, and others.

This fourth volume, Production Technologies for Solid and Gaseous Biofuels, covers all of the latest technologies in the field of solid biofuels, like biochar, briquettes from biomass, as well as gaseous biofuels like biogas, biohydrogen, and more. Various aspects of utilization of waste biomass for the production of solid and gaseous biofuels are also discussed. This book presents the state of the art in solid and gaseous biofuel production, a must have for any engineer or scientist working in this field.

Preface xv

1 Biogas, Biomethane and BioCNG: Definitions, Technologies and Solutions 1
Alessandra Lee Barbosa Firmo, Fabrícia Maria Santana Silva, Ingrid Roberta de F.S. Alves, Ericka Patrícia Lima de Brito and Leandro Cesar Santos da Silva

1.1 Definitions and Sources of Production of Biogas, Biomethane and BioCNG 2

1.2 Production Chains, Utilization and Valorization of Biogas 5

1.2.1 Anaerobic Digesters 8

1.2.1.1 Techniques for Optimization of Anaerobic Digestion 12

1.2.1.2 Biogas Recovery Plants 14

1.2.1.3 Biofertilizers - Material Valorization 15

1.2.2 Landfills: Final Disposal and Biogasvalorization 16

1.3 Uses of Biomethane: Practice Examples 20

1.4 Challenges and Opportunities 21

References 25

2 Biomethanisation: Biogas Production Technologies 33
Gabor Z. Szelenyi

2.1 Relevance 34

2.2 Oxidation without Oxygen - Anaerobic Biodegradation of the Organic Matter 35

2.3 Bifurcating Metabolic Pathways 35

2.4 Methanogenesis 37

2.5 Imitation of Nature - Improvement through Controlled Environment 40

2.6 Operational Challenges 44

2.7 Post-Treatment 47

2.8 Outlook - Fields of Further Research and Technological Development 49

2.9 Conclusion - Development Goals 55

Acknowledgments 60

References 60

3 Effect of Process Parameters on Biogas Yield: A Systematic Review 65
H.O. Omoregbee, M. O. Okwu, L.K. Tartibu, A.E. Ivbanikaro, M.U. Olanipekun and A.B. Edward

3.1 Introduction 66

3.2 Effect of Process Parameters on Biogas Yield 67

3.2.1 Temperature Effect on Biogas Yield 67

3.2.2 Effect of pH on Biogas Yield 69

3.2.3 Effect of Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) on Biogas Yield 70

3.2.4 Effect of Agitation or Stirring on Biogas Yield 71

3.3 Pre-Treatment Process 72

3.3.1 Mechanical Treatment 73

3.3.2 Microwave Irradiation 73

3.3.3 Thermal Pre-Treatment Process 73

3.3.4 Chemical Treatment 74

3.3.4.1 Acid 74

3.3.4.2 Alkali 74

3.3.5 Biological Treatment 75

3.3.6 Biochemical Methane Potential 76

3.4 Effect of Co-Digestion of Two or More Substrates 76

3.5 Effect of Total Solid ContenT (TSC) 78

3.5.1 Acidogenesis 79

3.5.2 Hydrolysis 79

3.5.3 Methanogenesis 80

3.5.4 Acetogenesis 80

3.6 Addressing AD Bottlenecks Caused by the Physicochemical Properties of Substrate 80

3.6.1 Carbon Dioxide Removal Technologies for Upgrading Biogas 81

3.7 Conclusion 83

References 84

4 Biogas for Electricity Generation in Nigeria: A Systematic Review of the Prospects, Efforts and Contemporary Challenges 91
Victor M. Mbachu, Modestus O. Okwu, Celine C. Chiabuotu and Lagouge K. Tartibu

4.1 Introduction 92

4.2 Bioenergy and Biogas Technology 93

4.3 Chronicle of Research Efforts in Biogas Technology 94

4.3.1 Assessment of Biomass Potential for Biogas and Electricity Generation 94

4.3.2 Use of Co-Digestion for Enhanced Production 95

4.3.3 Enhancement of Biogas Production Using Pre-Treatment of Feedstock 96

4.3.4 Inoculation of Substrate for Biogas Production 96

4.3.5 Optimization of Biogas Production Process Parameters 97

4.3.6 Digester Design 97

4.3.7 Upgrading and Purification of Biogas 98

4.3.8 Modeling of Biogas Production 99

4.4 Current Research and Developmental Trend in Biogas Technology 100

4.5 Conclusion 101

References 101

5 Biohydrogen Production Technologies: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Perspectives 115
Akanksha Jain, Eeshita Das, Venkata Giridhar Poosarla and Gobinath Rajagopalan

5.1 Introduction 116

5.2 Hydrogen vs. Biohydrogen 116

5.3 Biohydrogen from Light Dependent Processes 119

5.3.1 Photo-Fermentation (PF) 119

5.3.1.1 Biocatalysts Involved in PF 120

5.3.1.2 General Mechanism of Biohydrogen Production from PF 123

5.3.1.3 Current Status of PF 124

5.3.1.4 Major Factors that Influence the PF Process 124

5.3.1.5 Challenges Reported 134

5.3.2 Biophotolysis (BP) 134

5.3.2.1 General Mechanism of Hydrogen Production from Biophotolysis 136

5.3.2.2 Current Status of BP 136

5.3.2.3 Major Factors Influence BP 137

5.3.2.4 Challenges Reported 141

5.4 Biohydrogen Production from Dark Fermentation 141

5.4.1 Dark Fermentation (DF) 141

5.4.2 Biocatalysts Involved in DF 143

5.4.2.1 Formate Lyase Complex 144

5.4.3 General Mechanism and Biochemistry of Biohydrogen Production from DF 144

5.4.3.1 Clostridia 144

5.4.3.2 Non-Clostridia 146

5.4.4 Current Status 146

5.4.4.1 Feedstock 146

5.4.4.2 Process Design 148

5.4.4.3 Factors Influencing DF 150

5.4.4.4 DF by Mixed Consortia 152

5.4.4.5 Biohydrogen Production by Using Pure Culture 154

5.4.5 Challenges Reported 154

5.5 Other Methods of Biohydrogen Production 154

5.5.1 Bioelectrolysis 154

5.6 Future Perspectives of Biohydrogen Production 157

Acknowledgment 158

References 158

6 Biomass Gasification, Some Theory, and Practical Examples 169
Eduardo C. M. Loureiro, Isabella A. Garrett, Clériston Vieira Junior and Sérgio Peres

6.1 Introduction 170

6.2 Fixed-Bed Reactors 171

6.3 Fluidized-Bed Reactors 173

6.4 Biomass Characterization 175

6.5 Production of Syngas from Wood in a Downdraft Fixed Bed 176

6.5.1 Methodology 176

6.5.2 Results 183

6.6 Construction and Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Gasifier 184

6.6.1 Introduction 184

6.6.2 Methodology 185

6.6.2.1 Bed Characterization 185

6.6.2.2 Cold Flow Model - CFM 186

6.6.2.3 Experimental Vmf 187

6.6.2.4 Theoretical Vmf 189

6.6.3 Results and Discussions 190

6.6.3.1 Velocity of Minimal Fluidization - Vmf 191

6.6.3.2 Gasifier Construction 200

6.6.3.3 Gasification Experiments 201

References 204

7 Experimental Investigation on Producer Gas Generation Through Briquettes Using Agricultural Wastes 207
Senthil Ramlingam, Balamurugan Rajendiran,Thendral T. and Sudagar S.

7.1 Introduction 208

7.2 Materials for Present Work 210

7.2.1 Feedstock 210

7.2.1.1 Sesame Plant 210

7.2.1.2 Maize Cob (MC) 211

7.2.2 Binder Material 211

7.2.3 Briquette Preparation 212

7.2.4 Physical Properties of Briquette 213

7.2.4.1 Proximate Analysis 213

7.2.4.2 Bulk Density 215

7.2.5 Ultimate Analysis 215

7.2.6 Calorific Value of Feedstock 215

7.2.7 Mechanical Properties of Briquette 216

7.2.7.1 Compressive Strength 216

7.2.7.2 Shatter Index 216

7.3 Result and Discussion 216

7.3.1 Proximate Analysis 217

7.3.1.1 Ash 217

7.3.1.2 Moisture 217

7.3.1.3 Fixed Carbon 217

7.3.1.4 Volatile Matter 218

7.3.2 Ultimate Analysis 218

7.3.3 Density 219

7.3.4 Compressive Strength of Briquette 219

7.3.5 Calorific Value 220

7.3.6 Comparative Analysis of Properties 221

7.4 Generation of Producer Gas 222

7.4.1 Effect of Temperature on Producer Gas 223

7.5 Producer Gas Suitability in Engines 224

7.6 Conclusion 224

Bibliography 225

8 Biomass Gasification for Distributed Generation and Biochar Production: An Application to the Olive Oil Supply Chain 229
Roque Aguado, Antonio Escámez, David Vera, Dolores Eliche-Quesada and Luis Pérez-Villarejo

8.1 Introduction 230

8.1.1 By-Products of the Olive Oil Industry 230

8.1.2 Gasification for Distributed Generation 232

8.1.3 Gasification for Biochar Production 236

8.2 Methodology 237

8.2.1 Description of the Experimental Gasification Plant 237

8.2.2 Physicochemical Properties of the By-Products from the Olive Oil Industry 239

8.2.3 Experimental Procedure 243

8.2.4 Biochar Physicochemical Characterization 245

8.3 Results 245

8.3.1 Assembly and Installation of the Gasification Plant 245

8.3.2 Experimental Results 246

8.3.3 Biochar Characterization and Potential for the Olive Oil Industry 250

8.4 Economic Impact of Gasification in the Olive Oil Industry 252

8.5 Conclusions 256

Acknowledgements 257

References 258

9 Conversion of Agro Wastes to Solid and Gaseous Biofuels through Thermal Cracking Technique 263
Senthil Ramlingam, Sudagar Subramanian and Pranesh Ganesan

9.1 Introduction 264

9.1.2 Energy Resources 264

9.2 Biomass 266

9.3 Biomass Energy Conversion Technologies 267

9.3.1 Thermal Cracking Process 268

9.3.1.1 Gasification 268

9.3.1.2 Pyrolysis Process 268

9.4 Types of Pyrolysis Process 269

9.4.1 Conventional or Slow Pyrolysis 269

9.4.2 Fast Pyrolysis 270

9.4.3 Flash Pyrolysis 270

9.5 Mechanism Involved During Pyrolysis 270

9.5.1 Mechanism in Hemicelluloses 270

9.5.2 Mechanism in Cellulose 272

9.5.3 Mechanism in Lignin 272

9.6 Pyrolysis Products 272

9.6.1 Bio-Oil 273

9.6.2 Residue 273

9.6.3 Syngas 274

9.7 Present Investigation 274

9.7.1 Materials and Methods 275

9.7.1.1 Cashew Nut Shell 275

9.7.1.2 Sawdust 275

9.7.1.3 Sugarcane Bagasse 276

9.7.1.4 Binder 277

9.7.2 Preparation of Briquetting 278

9.7.3 Sources for Briquetting 278

9.8 Methodology 278

9.8.1 Bio-Oil Extraction Process 281

9.9 Result and Discussion 281

9.9.1 Analysis of Briquette 281

9.9.2 Thermo Gravimetric Analysis 282

9.9.3 Products of Pyrolysis Process 283

9.9.4 Fuel Properties 284

9.9.4.1 FTIR 284

9.9.4.2 Biochar and Syngas Analysis 285

9.9.4.3 Biochar 285

9.9.4.4 Syngas 286

9.10 Conclusion 286

Bibliography 287

10 Insights Into the Production of Biochar from Organic Waste 291
Jaskiran Kaur and Gaurav Chaudhary

10.1 Introduction 292

10.2 Organic Waste as Feedstocks for Biochar Production 293

10.3 Thermochemical Conversion of Organic Waste into Biochar 294

10.4 Factors Affecting Biochar Yield and Properties 295

10.4.1 Feedstock Type and Composition 295

10.4.2 Pyrolysis Temperature 296

10.5 Utilization of Biochar 310

10.5.1 As a Soil Amendment 310

10.5.2 Carbon Sequestration 310

10.5.3 Remediation of Pollutants from Soil 311

10.5.4 Water and Wastewater Treatment 311

10.6 Conclusion 312

References 313

11 Thermo-Economic Study of öNORM M7 133 Chips in a Pilot Scale Reactor 321
Alok Dhaundiya and Divine Atsu

Notation 321

11.1 Introduction 322

11.2 Material and Methods 324

11.2.1 Installation of the Experimental Unit 324

11.2.2 Physical Exergy of the System 327

11.2.3 Sinking Fund Method 329

11.3 Results and Discussion 331

11.3.1 Exergy Analysis 331

11.3.2 Valuation of Pyrolysis Unit 337

11.4 Conclusion 338

References 338

12 Production and Characterization of Briquettes Produced from Blend of Rice Husk and Water-Hyacinth 341
Modestus O. Okwu, Omonigho B. Otanocha, Olusegun D. Samuel and E. E. Akporhonor

12.1 Background of the Study 342

12.2 Review of Literature 343

12.2.1 Renewable Energy Demand 343

12.2.2 Briquette Production 344

12.2.3 Feedstock for Briquette Production 344

12.2.4 Proximate Analysis of Briquettes 345

12.3 Materials and Method 345

12.3.1 Material Processing, Measurement and Blending 345

12.3.2 Proximate Analysis of Sample Materials 346

12.3.3 Moisture Content MC (%) 347

12.3.4 Ash Content AC (%) 347

12.3.5 Volatile Matter (VM) Content 348

12.3.6 Fixed Carbon Content FC (%) 348

12.3.7 Calorific Value 348

12.4 Results and Analysis 349

12.4.1 Moisture Content 349

12.4.2 Volatile Matter Content 349

12.4.3 Ash Content 350

12.4.4 Fixed Carbon Content 350

12.5 Discussion 351

12.6 Conclusion 352

Acknowledgement 352

References 352

13 Torrefaction and Pelletization of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Energy Intensified Fuel Substitute 357
Chitra Devi Venkatachalam, Mothil Sengottian and Sathish Raam Ravichandran

13.1 Introduction - Biomass as Fuel 358

13.2 Torrefaction 359

13.2.1 Reaction Mechanism 359

13.2.2 Characterization of Torrefied Biomass 360

13.2.2.1 Moisture Content 360

13.2.2.2 Bulk Density 360

13.2.2.3 Grindability 361

13.2.2.4 High Heating Value 361

13.2.2.5 Mass Yield, Energy Yield and Enhancement Factor 362

13.2.2.6 Particle Size Distribution 363

13.2.3 Reactors for Torrefaction 364

13.2.3.1 Fixed Bed Reactor 364

13.2.3.2 Moving Bed Reactor 364

13.2.3.3 Entrained Flow Reactor 364

13.2.3.4 Fluidized Bed Reactor 364

13.2.3.5 Rotary Drum Reactor 365

13.2.3.6 Microwave Reactor 365

13.2.3.7 Hydrothermal Reactor 365

13.3. Pelletization 365

13.3.1 Pelletization of Torrefied Biomass 365

13.3.2 Types of Pelletizers 367

13.3.2.1 Flat Die Pellet Mill 367

13.3.2.2 Round Die Pellet Mill 367

13.3.3 Influence of Process Parameters during the Pelletization 368

13.3.3.1 Moisture Content 368

13.3.3.2 Pelletization Temperature 368

13.3.3.3 Particle Size 368

13.3.3.4 Press Channel Dimensions 368

13.3.3.5 Pelletization Pressure 368

13.3.3.6 Torrefaction Temperature 369

13.4 Application of Torrefaction Process 369

13.4.1 Using Torrefaction as Pre-Treatment Step for Biomass Gasification 369

13.4.2 Blending Torrefied Biomass with Coal and Co-Firing for Energy Production 369

13.4.3 Fuel for Steel Making in Blast Furnace 370

13.5 Conclusion 370

References 370

Index 375
Lalit Kumar Singh, PhD, FWRA was educated at Harcourt Butler Technological Institute in Kanpur, India and received his doctorate from the Indian Institute of Technology in Roorkee. He has more than 18 years of teaching and research experience. He researched fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to extract soluble sugars and developed a novel sequential-co-culture technique for the efficient bioconversion of sugar to bioethanol and important innovation in the field of biofuels and fermentation technology. He has more than 70 publications in international journals, conference proceedings, chapters in books and edited and authored books.

Gaurav Chaudhary, PhD, has more than seven years of experience of teaching and research in the field of bioenergy and biochemical engineering. He is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Renewable and Bio-Energy Engineering at the College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology. He received his PhD from the Indian Institute of Technology in Roorkee in the field of biofuel and bioenergy. He has published many research articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented his research work at conferences in these areas. The areas of research he is involved with currently are lignin fractionation and its valorization, bioenergy, and other value-added products.

L. K. Singh, Harcourt Butler Technical University (Formerly Harcourt Butler Technological Institute); G. Chaudhary, Institute of Engineering & Technology, Mangalayatan University