John Wiley & Sons Geographic Information Science for Land Resource Management Cover Geographic Information Science for Land Resource Management is a comprehensive book focusing on mana.. Product #: 978-1-119-78632-0 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 Auf Lager

Geographic Information Science for Land Resource Management

Singh, Suraj Kumar / Kanga, Shruti / Meraj, Gowhar / Farooq, Majid / Sudhanshu, Sudhanshu (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage August 2021
432 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-78632-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Geographic Information Science for Land Resource Management is a comprehensive book focusing on managing land resources using innovative techniques of spatial information sciences and satellite remote sensing. The enormous stress on the land resources over the years due to anthropogenic activities for commercialization and livelihood needs has increased manifold. The only solution to this problem lies in the stakeholders' awareness, which can only be attained through scientific means. The awareness is the basis of the sustainable development concept, which involves optimal management of natural resources, subject to the availability of reliable, accurate, and timely information from the global to local scales.

GIScience consists of satellite remote sensing (RS), Geographical Information System (GIS), and Global Positioning System (GPS) technology that is nowadays a backbone of environmental protection, natural resource management, and sustainable development and planning. Being a powerful and proficient tool for mapping, monitoring, modeling, and managing natural resources can help understand the earth's surface and its dynamics at different observational scales. Through the spatial understanding of land resources, policymakers can make prudent decisions to restore and conserve critically endangered resources, such as water bodies, lakes, rivers, air, forests, wildlife, biodiversity, etc.

This innovative new volume contains chapters from eminent researchers and experts. The primary focus of this book is to replenish the gap in the available literature on the subject by bringing the concepts, theories, and experiences of the specialists and professionals in this field jointly. The editors have worked hard to get the best literature in this field in a book form to help the students, researchers, and policymakers develop a complete understanding of the land system's vulnerabilities and solutions.

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xxiii

1 Climate Change in South Asia: Impact, Adaptation and the Role of GI Science 1
Anuj Kumar and Swami Prasad Saxena

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Climate Change 2

1.3 Climate Change Trends in South Asia 3

1.4 Climate Change Impact in South Asia 6

1.4.1 Climate Change Impact on Socio-Economy in South Asia 6

1.4.2 Climate Change Impact on Agriculture in South Asia 8

1.4.3 Impact of Climate Change in Water Resources in South Asia 8

1.4.4 Impact of Climate Change on Sea Level 10

1.4.5 Impact of Climate Change on Human Health 11

1.5 Climate Change Adaptation in South Asia and the Role of GI Science 13

1.6 Conclusion 15

References 15

2 Sustainable Land Resource Management Approach and Technological Interventions - Role of GI Science 19
Sandeep K. Pandey, Ritambhara K. Upadhyay, Chintan Pathak and Chandra Shekhar Dwivedi

2.1 Introduction 20

2.2 Land Resource Availability in India 21

2.3 Problems Associated with Land Resources 25

2.4 Important Interventions 25

2.5 Role of GI Science in Land Resource Management 27

References 29

3 GI Science for Assessing the Urban Growth and Sustainability in Agra City, India 33
Aruna Paarcha

3.1 Introduction 34

3.2 Database 36

3.3 Methodology 37

3.4 Study Area 39

3.5 Result and Discussion 40

3.5.1 Land Use and Land Cover Change of Agra City, 2001-2020 41

3.5.2 Growth in Registered Vehicles and Implications on the Sustainability 44

3.5.3 PM10 and Implications on the Sustainability 45

3.5.4 Municipal Solid Wastes and Implications on the Sustainability 47

3.5.5 Way Forward for Building Sustainable, Resilient, and Smart Agra City 48

3.6 Conclusion 49

References 49

4 The Use of GI Science in Detecting Anthropogenic Interaction in Protected Areas: A Case of the Takamanda National Park, South West Region, Cameroon 55
Takem-Mbi, B. M., Mbuh, J. M. and Lepatio-Tchieg, A. S.

4.1 Introduction 56

4.2 Context and Justification 57

4.3 Material and Data Sources 58

4.4 Results and Discussion 62

4.4.1 Agricultural Activities 62

4.4.2 Hunting 63

4.4.3 Livestock Rearing 65

4.4.4 The Exploitation of Wood in the TNP 67

4.4.5 Fishing Activities 68

4.4.6 Harvesting Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) 70

4.5 Conclusion 72

References 76

Contents vii

5 Urban Heat Island Effect Concept and Its Assessment Using Satellite-Based Remote Sensing Data 81
Zulaykha Khurshid Dijoo

5.1 Introduction 82

5.2 Classification of UHIs 84

5.2.1 Surface UHI 84

5.2.2 Atmospheric UHI 84

5.2.2.1 Canopy Layer UHI 84

5.2.2.2 Boundary Layer UHI 85

5.3 Chief Causes 85

5.3.1 Urbanisation 85

5.3.2 Urban Sprawl 86

5.3.3 Urban Geometry 87

5.3.4 Reduced Vegetation 87

5.3.5 Use of Engineered Materials 87

5.3.6 Changes in Energy Needs 88

5.3.7 Pavement Structure 88

5.4 Consequences of UHI Formation 88

5.5 Detection and Measurement Techniques 89

5.5.1 Thermal Remote Sensing 89

5.5.2 Small-Scale Models 89

5.5.3 Transect Studies 90

5.6 Mitigation Strategies 90

5.6.1 Enhancing Vegetative Cover 91

5.6.2 High Albedo Roofing Materials 91

5.6.3 High Albedo Pavements 91

5.6.4 Evaporative, Pourous and Water Retaining Pavements 91

5.6.5 Urban Planning 92

5.6.6 Wind, Water and Atmospheric Conditions 92

5.7 Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in Assessing UHI Effect 93

5.8 Conclusion 94

References 94

6 Remote Sensing for Snowpack Monitoring and Its Implications 99
Divyesh Varade, Surendar Manickam and Gulab Singh

6.1 Introduction 99

6.2 Snowpack Characterization 100

6.2.1 Spectral Response of Snow 101

6.2.2 Dry/Wet Snow Characterization 102

6.2.3 Physical Properties Of Snow 102

6.3 Remote Sensing of Alpine Snow 104

6.4 Techniques for the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Snow 105

6.4.1 Qualitative Studies of the Snowpack 105

6.4.2 Quantitative Retrieval of Snow Properties 107

6.4.2.1 Determination of Snowpack Properties 107

6.4.2.2 Retrieval of Snow Depth and SWE 110

6.5 Implications and Potential Applications 111

6.6 Conclusion 112

References 113

7 Spectral Ratioing: A Computational Model for Quick Information Retrieval of Earth's Surface Dynamics 119
Ekta Baranwal and Shamshad Ahmad

7.1 Introduction 120

7.2 Image Enhancement Techniques for Remotely Sensed Images and Their Categorization 123

7.2.1 Radiometric Enhancement 126

7.2.2 Spatial Enhancement 127

7.2.3 Spectral Enhancement 128

7.2.4 Additional Methods of Image Enchancement 129

7.3 Spectral Ratioing 130

7.3.1 The General Methodology for Implementing Spectral Ratios 132

7.4 Spectral Ratio for Urban Extraction and Mapping 132

7.4.1 Some Spectral Index for Urban Extraction 134

7.5 Spatiotemporal Change in Urban Pattern Through Spectral Ratio 137

7.6 Conclusion 140

References 141

8 Delineation of Surface Water in Mining Dominated Region of Angul District of Odisha State, India Using Sentinel-2A Satellite Data 147
A. K. Gorai, Rahul Raj and A. K. Ranjan

8.1 Introduction 148

8.2 Study Area 149

8.3 Materials and Method 149

8.3.1 Data 149

8.3.2 Methods 150

8.3.2.1 Satellite Data Acquisition 151

8.3.2.2 Identification of Water-Bearing Pixels 152

8.3.2.3 Change Detection Analysis 152

8.4 Results and Discussion 152

8.5 Conclusions 156

Acknowledgements 157

References 157

9 Mapping Seasonal Variability and Spatio-Temporal Trends of Water Quality Parameters in Wular Lake (Kashmir Valley) 161
Tariq Ahmad Ganaie, Javaid Ahmad Tali, Mifta ul Shafiq, Harmeet Singh and Pervez Ahmed

9.1 Introduction 162

9.2 Study Area 164

9.3 Datasets and Methodology 164

9.3.1 Datasets 164

9.4 Methodology 167

9.4.1 Inverse Distance-Weighted Interpolation (IDW) 167

9.5 Mapping Spatial Variations in Water Quality Parameters (WQP'S) Using IDW Method in Wular Lake 168

9.5.1 Seasonal and Spatial Variability of WQPS in Wular Lake 168

9.6 Results and Discussion 168

9.6.1 Water Temperature (WT) 168

9.6.2 pH 175

9.6.3 Turbidity 175

9.6.4 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 175

9.6.5 Electrical Conductivity (EC) 176

9.6.6 Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 176

9.6.7 Calcium (Ca¯2+) 177

9.6.8 Magnesium (Mg¯2+) 178

9.6.9 Total Hardness (TH) 178

9.6.10 Total Alkalinity 180

9.6.11 Nitrates (NO3¯-) 180

9.6.12 Total Phosphate 181

9.7 Temporal Variations in Water Quality Parameters of Wular Lake (1992-2015) 181

9.8 Conclusion 183

Acknowledgement 185

References 185

10 Water Quality Zoning Using GIS & Remote Sensing: A Case Study of Tehsil Matta District Swat Pakistan 191
Abid Sarwar, Uzair Ahmed, Fazli Amin Khalil, Shazia Gulzar and Nadia Qayum

10.1 Introduction 192

10.2 Martials and Methods 193

10.2.1 Study Area 193

10.2.2 Methodology 193

10.3 Results and Discussion 195

10.3.1 pH 195

10.3.2 Dissolved Oxygen 195

10.3.3 Electrical Conductivity 197

10.3.4 Salinity 197

10.3.5 Chemical Parameters 200

10.3.6 Alkalinity 200

10.3.7 Total Dissolved Solids 200

10.3.8 Chloride 201

10.3.9 Sulphate 201

10.3.10 Biological Oxygen Demand 202

10.3.11 Final Water Quality Zones Map 202

10.4 Conclusion 205

References 206

11 Assessing the Impacts of Global Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Mangrove Forests of Indian Sundarbans Using Geospatial Technology 209
Ismail Mondal, Sandeep Thakur, Phanibhusan Ghosh and Tarun Kumar De

11.1 Introduction 210

11.2 Materials and Methods 211

11.2.1 Data Methodology 211

11.2.2 Location and General Boundaries 211

11.3 Results and Discussions 213

11.3.1 Sundarban Sea Level Rise Scenario 213

11.3.2 Salinity Increase and Effect on Mangrove Forest 213

11.3.3 Mangrove Degradation of Sundarban 217

11.4 Conclusion and Restoration of the Delta 219

11.4.1 Mangrove Resilience Factors That Inform Site Selection of Sundarban 221

11.4.2 Various Factors That Would Allow for the Landward Migration 221

11.4.3 Various Issues That Highlighted Survival Over Time 222

11.4.4 Various Factors That Highlighted Strong Retrieval Potential 222

11.5 Acknowledgements 223

References 223

12 Sustainable Water Resource Management Using Watershed Morphometry-A Case Study of Giri River Catchment, Himachal Pradesh, India 229
C Prakasam, Aravinth, R., Varinder S Kanwar and B. Nagarajan

12.1 Introduction 230

12.2 Study Area 231

12.3 Datasets and Research Method 233

12.4 Results and Discussion 234

12.4.1 Morphometry of Linear Parameters 234

12.4.2 Morphometry of Relief Parameters 240

12.4.3 Morphometry of Aerial Parameters 242

12.5 Conclusion 247

References 247

13 Improving the Procedure for River Flow Measurement and Mapping: Case Study River Plitvica, Croatia 251
Bojan urin, Lucija Plantak, Nikola Kranjcic, Petra Bigor and Damira Kecek

13.1 Introduction 252

13.2 Study Area 252

13.3 Data Sets and Methodology 252

13.3.1 Data Sets 252

13.4 Methodology 255

13.5 Results and Discussion 257

13.6 Conclusion 259

Acknowledgement 260

References 260

14 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Forest Degradation in South Chotanagpur Divison of India 261
Jyotsna Roseline Ekka, Debjani Roy and Kirti Avishek

14.1 Introduction 262

14.2 Forest Cover Dynamics In Study Area 264

14.3 District-Wise Forest And Population Dynamics 265

14.4 NDVI Analysis 272

14.5 Driving Forces of Forest Cover Change 273

14.6 Conclusion 277

References 277

15 Forest Fire Risk Assessment Using GIS Science - A Case Study of South India 283
G. Godson, O. Mohammed Faizan and S. Sanjeevi

15.1 Introduction 284

15.2 Study Area 286

15.3 Datasets Used 286

15.4 Factors Responsible for Forest Fire Over the Study Area 286

15.4.1 Vegetation Type and Tree Species 286

15.4.2 Climate 287

15.4.3 Topography 287

15.4.4 Road Networks 287

15.5 Methodology 288

15.6 Parameters Incorporated in the Study 288

15.7 Weighted Overlay Analysis in ArcGIS 290

15.7.1 Selecting an Evaluation Scale 290

15.7.2 Adding the Input Raster 290

15.7.3 Setting Scale Values 290

15.7.4 Assigning Weights to Input Raster 290

15.7.5 Finally Running the Weighted Overlay Tool in ArcGIS 291

15.8 NDVI 291

15.9 Results and Discussion 293

References 297

16 GI Science for Land Use Suitability Analysis in the Himalayas - A Case Study of Himachal Pradesh, India 301
C. Prakasam, Saravanan R, Varinder S Kanwar, M.K. Sharma and Monika Sharma

16.1 Introduction 302

16.2 Study Area 304

16.3 Materials and Methods 304

16.4 Results and Discussion 309

16.5 Conclusion 313

Acknowledgment 313

References 314

17 Using Remote Sensing Data and Geospatial Techniques for Watershed Delineation and Morphometric Analysis of Beas Upper Catchment, India 319
Monika, Yogender Kumar, Sagar S. Salunkhe, Mehtab Singh and H.Govil

17.1 Introduction 320

17.2 Study Area 320

17.3 Methodology 322

17.4 Result and Discussion 325

17.4.1 Watershed Delineation and Boundary Comparison 325

17.4.2 Slope Comparison 326

17.4.3 Aspect Comparison 327

17.4.4 Morphometric Parameters 328

17.4.4.1 Linear Aspect 328

17.4.4.2 Stream Number (Nu) 328

17.4.4.3 Stream Order (U) 328

17.4.4.4 Aerial Aspects 330

17.4.4.5 Relief Aspects 331

17.5 Conclusions 333

Acknowledgement 334

References 334

18 Sub-Watershed Prioritization for Soil and Water Conservation - A Case Study of Lower Wardha River, Maharashtra, India, Using GI Science 337
B.S. Manjare and Vineesha Singh

18.1 Introduction 338

18.2 Study Area 340

18.3 Data and Method 340

18.3.1 Data Set 340

18.3.2 Methodology 341

18.4 Morphometry of Lower Wardha 342

18.5 Results and Discussion 342

18.5.1 Slope Analysis 345

18.5.2 Prioritization of Sub-Watersheds 349

18.5.2.1 Based on Morphometric Analysis 349

18.5.2.2 Prioritization Methodology 350

18.6 Conclusions 351

References 354

19 Understanding Hydrologic Response Using Basin Morphometry in Pohru Watershed, NW Himalaya 359
Abaas Ahmad Mir, Pervez Ahmed and Umair Ali

19.1 Introduction 360

19.2 Study Area 361

19.2.1 Geology and Geomorphology 361

19.3 Materials and Method 364

19.4 Results and Discussion 364

19.4.1 Drainage System 364

19.4.2 Morphometric Analysis 365

19.5 Conclusion 368

References 368

20 Sintacs Method for Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability: A Case of Ahmedabad, India 373
Mona Khakhar, Jayesh P. Ruparelia and Anjana Vyas

20.1 Introduction 374

20.2 Background 375

20.3 Study Area 377

20.4 Data Sets and Methodology 378

20.4.1 Data Sets 378

20.4.2 Methodology 379

20.5 Results and Discussion 382

20.5.1 Depth to Water Table 382

20.5.2 Effective Infiltration/Net Recharge 384

20.5.3 Aquifer Media 384

20.5.4 Soil Media 385

20.5.5 Topographic Slope 386

20.5.6 Vadose Zone 386

20.5.7 Hydraulic Conductivity 386

20.5.8 Derivation of Vulnerability Index 386

20.5.9 Appropriate Method for the Study Area 388

20.5.10 Temporal Changes in Intrinsic Vulnerability 389

20.5.11 State of Contaminants and Land Use 390

20.5.12 Land Use and Groundwater Vulnerability 396

20.6 Conclusion 401

References 401

Index 407
Suraj Kumar Singh, PhD, is an associate professor and coordinator at the Centre for Sustainable Development, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India. He has published various research papers in national and international journals and participated in and organized international conferences, workshops, symposiums, and webinars. He is presently on the reviewer panel for several research journals and supervises several PhD students on their dissertations.

Shruti Kanga, PhD, is an associate professor and coordinator at the Centre for Climate change and Water Research, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India. She has authored more than 60 publications in various peer-reviewed national and international journals with more than 400 citations. She is presently on the reviewer panel for several research journals and supervises several PhD students on their dissertations.

Gowhar Meraj, M Phil, M Sc, is a young scientist fellow in the Department of Science and Technology in India's Department of Ecology. He has also worked as a consultant with World Bank Group, New Delhi, for its South Asia Water Initiative Program. He has more than nine years of research and teaching experience and is on the reviewer panel for several research journals.

Majid Farooq, M Tech, M Sc, is a scientist-D at the Department of Ecology, Environment and Remote Sensing, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, India. He has more than 15 years of experience in research, teaching, and consultancy related to remote sensing and GIS, such as climate change vulnerability assessments, flood modeling, ecosystem assessment, and watershed management.

Sudhanshu, PhD, is a veteran researcher in the field of applied geology and geosciences. He has more than 30 years of research and academic experience and is currently the chief mentor of Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur. He is on the reviewer panel for several research journals and supervises several PhD students on their dissertations.